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DIGESTIVE SYSTEM
 

DIGESTIVE SYSTEM

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    DIGESTIVE SYSTEM DIGESTIVE SYSTEM Presentation Transcript

    • HUMAN DIGESTIVE SYSTEM Celeste Roderno-Desingaño
    • -System with complex tubes of considerable length -Also called the alimentary tract -This group of organs that break down food into smaller particles or molecules -This breakdown makes it possible for the smaller digestive particles to pass through the intestinal wall into the bloodstream - Particles are then distributed to nourish all parts of the body Digestive System
    • Parts of the Digestive System
    • 1. Oral Cavity - this is where food is mixed with the saliva secreted by several sets of salivary glands - Saliva dissolves and softens food and acts as a lubricant, facilitating swallowing and passage through the next portions of the digestive tract. Parts of the Digestive System
    • Teeth - This is where food is broken into smaller pieces by both biting and chewing. Tongue - manipulates the food during chewing and forms it into a mass called bolus , in preparation for swallowing. -Pushes the bolus through a cavity called the pharynx and into esophagus. Parts of the Digestive System
    • 2. Esophagus - a long tube running through the throat and thorax and connecting to stomach in the upper portion of the abdominal cavity. Peristalsis – contraction movement of esophagus muscle Sphincter – special ring of muscle found on the junction between esophagus and stomach, which when contracted closes the entrance to the stomach. Parts of the Digestive System
    • Peristalsis in the Esophagus
    • 3. Stomach - This is a large muscular sac, which functions as a storage organ, making discontinuous feeding possible. Rugae – folds of the stomach that increases its surface area. - churns the food, mixing it with the gastric juice Gastric Juice – contains enzymes that break down protein Chyme -soupy mixture that leaves the stomach and passes through the pyloric sphincter into the small intestines. Parts of the Digestive System
      • 4. Small Intestine
      • This is where final digestion and absorption takes place
      • Measures 23 ft long in an adult
      • Duodenum – first section of the small intestines attached to the stomach
      • Jejunum – middle portion of the intestine
      • I leum – very long coiled section lying lower in the abdominal cavity
      • Villi – Finger-like projections in the inner wall of the small intestine that increases absorptive surface area.
    • 5. Large Intestines - also known as colon - Reabsorbs much of the water used in the digestive process and excretes certain salts, such as those of calcium and iron. Caecum – this is a small and functionally unimportant for human Appendix – finger-like process found at the tip of the caecum Feces – undigested food excreted into the colon and eliminated from the body. Rectum – Last portion of the large intestines that functions as a storage chamber for the feces until defecation Parts of the Digestive System
      • 6. Anus
      • - opening for the elimination of feces.
      Parts of the Digestive System
      • Liver
        • Largest gland in the body
        • Aids in chemical digestion by producing bile.
        • Occupies much of the space in the upper portion of the abdomen
      • Gall bladder
        • A small organ found on the surface of the liver which stores the bile.
      Chemical Digestion
      • Pancreas
        • Large glandular organ lying just below the stomach
        • Secretes different enzymes and pour these into the small intestines via the common bile duct
      Chemical Digestion
      • Enzymes secreted by Pancreas
      • Lipase – enzyme that digest fats or splits fat into soluble glycerol and fatty acids
      • Pancreatic amylase – acts like salivary amylase, splitting starch into a double sugar maltose
      • Trypsin and chymotrypsin – breaks proteins toamino acids.
      Chemical Digestion
      • Intestinal Glands
        • Completes the digestion of food.
        • 1. Peptidase – peptides to amino acids
        • 2. Sucrase – sucrose to glucose
        • 3. Maltase – Maltose to glucose and fructose
        • 4. Lactase – lactose to galactose and glucose
      Chemical Digestion
    • Digestive Flow ORAL CAVITY ESOPHAGUS STOMACH SMALL INTESTINE LARGE INTESTINE RECTUM ANUS