Two Major Categories of Plant Tissues<br />1. Meristematic Tissue<br /> A. Apical Meristems<br /> B. Lateral Meristems<br />2. Permanent Tissue<br /> A. Dermal (Surface Tissue)<br /> B. Fundamental Tissue (Ground Tissue)<br /> C. Vascular Tissue<br />
MERISTEMATIC TISSUE<br />Composed of immature cells and are regions of active cell division. <br />Tend to be small, have thin walls and rich in cytoplasm.<br />Found in the growing tips of the roots and stem.<br />A. Apical Meristems<br /><ul><li>Responsible for increase in length of the plant body.
Found on root tips and apical buds</li></ul>B. Lateral Meristems<br /><ul><li>Responsible for increase in girth or diameter
Ex: Cambium present in woody plants and produce the cork</li></li></ul><li>PERMANENT TISSUE<br />A. Dermal (Surface Tissue)<br /><ul><li>Forms the protective outer covering of the plant body</li></ul>A.1. Epidermis<br /><ul><li>Produce cutin to protect plants against loss of water
Produce root hairs for absorption of water and minerals</li></ul>A.2. Periderm<br /><ul><li>Replaces the epidermis
Constitutes the corky outer bark of old trees. </li></li></ul><li>PERMANENT TISSUE<br />B. Fundamental (Ground Tissue)<br /><ul><li>Used in the production and storage of food and in the support of plant.</li></ul>B.1. Parenchyma<br /><ul><li>Parenchyma on leaves function for photosynthesis
Mechanical strength by maintaining turgidity and also store waste products.</li></ul>B.2. Collenchyma<br /><ul><li>Support of stems and adapt themselves to the rapid elongation of leaves.</li></ul>B.3. Sclerenchyma<br /><ul><li>Provides elasticity, flexibility, and rigidity to the plant body forming support.</li></li></ul><li>PERMANENT TISSUE<br />C. Vascular Tissue<br /> C.1. Xylem <br /><ul><li>Primarily functions for the transport of water and dissolved substances upward in the plant body.</li></ul> C.2. Phloem<br /><ul><li>Primary functions in the transport of organic materials such as carbohydrates and amino acids.</li></li></ul><li>ANIMAL TISSUES<br />
Animal Tissues<br />Developed from the primary germ layers of the embryo: <br />Ectoderm<br />Mesoderm<br />Endoderm<br />There are 4 types of tissues:<br />Epithelial tissue<br />Connective tissue<br />Muscular tissue<br />Nervous tissue<br />
I. EPITHELIAL TISSUE<br />Made up of continuous sheets of densely packed cells, with little space or intercellular material between them.<br />A basement membrane is usually present. <br />Functions:<br />1. Forms the covering or lining of all free body surfaces, both internal and external to protect cells from mechanical injury and water loss. <br />2. Some has special functions of absorption, secretion, excretion, sensation and respiration.<br />
Classification of Epithelial Tissuebased on Shape and Arrangement of Cells <br />
Simple squamous –found in the lens of the eye and inner ear<br />Stratified squamous – forms the external layer of the skin and lines the mouth and pharynx.<br />Cuboidal – mostly found lining small ducts and tubules of the kidney and the glands<br />Simple columnar – found in the trachea, bronchi, digestive tract and secrete fluids and absorb digestive food.<br />
II. CONNECTIVE TISSUE<br />Functions: <br />Serves as binding substance<br />Provides framework<br />Has essential role in transport, protection and repair.<br />Classification of Connective Tissue<br />Connective Tissue Proper <br />Cartilage<br />Bone<br />Blood (Vascular Tissue)<br />
A. Connective Tissue Proper<br />Very variable but intercellular matrix always contains numerous fibers.<br />2 Types of Connective Tissue Proper<br />1. Loose Connective Tissue<br />Made up of highly elastic fibers with few scattered thin collagen fibers. <br />This tissue fills the space between organs and serves as packing materials surrounding the elements of other tissues<br />This binds muscle cells together and binds skin to underlying tissues<br />Ex. Adipose tissue, areolar tissue<br />
A. Connective Tissue Proper<br />2. Dense Connective Tissue<br />Made up of thick collagen fibers and dark, compressed cells between the fiber bundles. <br />Functions: (1) for flexibility and support, (2) shock absorption and (3) reduction of friction.<br />Ex. Tendon, ligament, urinary tract and collagen<br />
Elastic cartilage – yellow color, greater flexibility and elasticity and found in the external ear, Eustachian tube and epiglottis<br />Fibro cartilage – resembles a tendon but not covered by perichondrium<br />B. Cartilage<br />Made up of cartilage cells known as chondrocytes found in cavities called lacunae <br />Scattered irregularly in matrix that appears transparent and homogenous but composed of dense collagen fibers and elastic fibers embedded in a rubbery ground substance.<br />Produced by chondroblast in the process called chondrification.<br />Provides smooth surfaces and maintain the shape of the area.<br />Types of Cartilage<br />Hyaline cartilage –nose, larynx, trachea, bronchi, ends of ribs and surfaces of bones.<br />
C. Bone (Osseous tissue)<br />Has hard, relatively rigid matrix which contains numerous collagen fibers and a surprising amount of water, impregnated with mineral salts such as calcium carbonate and calcium phosphate.<br />Bone is a living tissue with cells called osteocyte and masked collagenous fibers embedded in a matrix containing ostein. <br />Covered with fibrous membrane –periosteum<br />Lines the bone marrow cavity- endosteum<br />Functions: (1) support; (2) protection; (3) assisting for movement and (4) storage of minerals<br />
Classification of Bone According to Shape<br />Long Bone <br />Composed of middle portion, the diaphysis or shaft, within which is a cavity, and the epiphysis or ends of the bone. <br />Flat Bone<br />Lacks a bone marrow cavity. <br />Irregular Bone<br />Neither long nor flat and also lacks marrow cavity <br />Example:<br />Humerus and Femur bone<br />Example:<br />Cranial Bone and Scapula bone<br />Example:<br />Metacarpal and Metatarsal bone<br />
Osteon or Haversian System-basic unit of bone<br />Lamellae <br />Series of concentric rings or circles of matrix around a large central Haversian canal<br />Lacunae<br />Small spaces in between the lamellae which contain the osteocytes<br />Osteocyte<br />Bone cell<br />Canaliculi<br />Minute channels that linked lacunae together which provide routes by which nutrients can reach the osteocytes and the removed waste materials<br />Haversian Canals<br />Central tubes which contain blood vessels and nerves. <br />
C. Bone<br />Contains bone marrow (Yellow and red marrow)<br />Yellow marrow<br />consists of fat cells, blood vessels, and a minimal framework of reticular cells and fibres. <br />Red marrow<br />consists of numerous blood cells of all kinds, as well as the substances from which these cells are formed<br />The functions of red marrow are (1) the formation of red blood cells (erythrocytes), blood platelets, granulocytes, and to a lesser extent monocytes and lymphocytes, and (2) the destruction of old (c.120 days), worn-out erythrocytes. <br />
D. Blood (Vascular Tissue)<br />Consists of cells, matrix and fibers<br />3 Components of Blood<br />1. Erythrocyte (RBC)<br />small, concave, disc-shaped cells that lack nuclei during maturation in mammals<br />Formed in the bone marrow<br />They arise from normally nucleated, rapidly dividing connective tissue cells of the bone marrow<br />Contains hemoglobin<br />
D. VASCULAR TISSUE<br />2. Leukocyte (WBC)<br />Bigger than erythrocyte and have large, often irregularly shaped nuclei<br />Defenses against disease and infection<br />Act as phagocytes, engulfing and destroying bacteria and remnants of damaged tissue cells<br />Produce powerful enzyme<br />Lymphocytes –specialized cells that play a central role in immune reactions by producing antibodies.<br />
D. VASCULAR TISSUE<br />3. Platelets (Thrombocyte)<br />Small, non-nucleated, colorless, round or oval biconcave corpuscle produced by a giant cell called megakaryocyte found in the bone marrow. <br />Functions for blood clotting<br />4. Plasma<br />Liquid component of blood.<br />5. Hemoglobin<br />The protein constituent of blood<br />
III. MUSCLE TISSUE<br />Function: responsible for movement in higher animals, heat production and maintenance of posture. <br />Types of Muscle Tissue <br />a. Striated or Voluntary Muscle (Skeletal Muscle)<br />Has cross-striations (A-I bands) and can be controlled at will<br />Consists of myofibrils which contains actomyosin.<br />Sarcomere-the functional/structural unit of muscle contraction<br />b. Smooth or Involuntary Muscle (Visceral Muscle)<br />Spindle-shaped cells which are thickened at the middle but tapered towards ends. Without striation and responsible for involuntary movements of internal organs<br />c. Cardiac Muscle<br />Striated and branched muscle fibers <br />Found exclusively in the heart (myocardium) and is involuntary in movement. <br />
IV. NERVOUS TISSUE<br />Highly specialized for the conduction of nerve impulses.<br />Division of Nervous Tissue<br />a. Nervous Tissue Proper<br />Has specialized conducting cell called neuron, linked together to form pathways.<br />b. Interstitial Tissue (Neuroglia)<br />Supports the neuron<br />
NEURON<br />1. Cell body (soma/cyton)<br /><ul><li>Enclosed by a membrane, with nucleus, cytoplasm and cellular organelles.
Produces proteins and energy required for the function of the neuron. </li></ul>2. Dendrites<br /><ul><li>Numerous extensions that is short and branched
Covered by myelin sheath</li></ul>4. Terminal Branches/ Synaptic Terminals<br /><ul><li>Attached to receptors of the body </li></li></ul><li>Types of Neurons<br />1. Motor Neurons/Efferent<br /><ul><li>Accept nerve impulses from the CNS
Transmit them to muscles or glands</li></ul>2. Sensory Neurons/Afferent<br /><ul><li>Accept impulses from sensory receptors
Transmit them to the CNS</li></ul>3. Interneurons/Association<br /><ul><li>Convey nerve impulses between various parts of the CNS</li>
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