Database Programming


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PHP provides access to a great number of different database systems, many of which are relational in nature and can be interrogated using Structured Query Language (SQL).

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  • SQL supports a number of data types, which provide a greater degree of flexibility than PHP in how the data is stored and representedchar string will always have a fixed length, regardless of how many characters it contains (the string is usually padded with spaces to the column’s length). In both cases, however, a string column must be given a length (usually between 1 and 255 characters, al-though some database systems do not follow this rule), which means that any string coming from PHP, where it can have an arbitrary length, can be truncated, usually without even a warning, thus resulting in the loss of data.Most database systems also define an arbitrary-length character data type (usually called text) that most closely resembles PHP’s strings. However, this data type usually comes with a number of strings attached (such as a maximum allowed length and severe limitations on search and indexing capabilities). Therefore, you will still be forced to use char and (more likely) varchar, with all of their limitations.
  • The formal definition of database schema is a set of formulas (sentences) called integrity constraints imposed on a database. These integrity constraints ensure compatibility between parts of the schema. All constraints are expressible in the same language. ~
  • Indices can be created (as was the example with the primary key above) while you are creating a table; alternatively, you can create them separately at a later point in time
  • Foreign-key relationships are created either when a table is created, or at a later date with an altering statement. For example, suppose we wanted to add a table that contains a list of all of the chapter titles for every bookThis code creates a one-to-many relationship between the parent table book and the child table book_chapter based on the isbn field. Once this table is created, you can only add a row to it if the ISBN you specify exists in book.
  • The act of deleting an object from a schema—be it a table, an index, or even the schema itself—is called dropping. It is performed by a variant of the DROP statementA good database system that supports referential integrity will not allow you to drop a table if doing so would break the consistency of your data. Thus, deleting the book table cannot take place until book_chapter is dropped first.The same technique can be used to drop an entire schema
  • The first form of the INSERT statement is used when you want to provide values for every column in your table—in this case, the column values must be specified in the same order in which they appear in the table declaration.In its second form, the INSERT statement consists of three main parts. The first part tells the database engine into which table to insert the data. The second part indicates the columns for which we’re providing a value; finally, the third part contains the actual data to insert.
  • DELETE FROM book;This simple statement will remove all records from the book table, leaving behind an empty table.
  • To retrieve data from any SQL database engine, you must use a SELECT statement; SELECT statements range from very simple to incredibly complex, depending on your needsSELECT * FROM bookWHERE author = ’Ray Bradbury’ OR author = ’George Orwell’;SELECT * FROM bookWHERE author = ’Ray Bradbury’ AND publisher LIKE ’%Del Ray’;The first example statement contains an OR clause and, thus, broadens the results to return all books by each author, while the second statement further restricts the results with an AND clause to all books by the author that were also published by a specific publisher. Note, here, the use of the LIKE operator, which provides a case-insensitive match and allows the use of the % wild character to indicate an arbi-trary number of characters. Thus, the expression AND publisher LIKE ’%Del Ray’ will match any publisher that ends in the string del ray, regardless of case.
  • Joins combine data from multiple tables to create a single recordset.There are two basic types of joins: inner joins and outer joins. In both cases, joins create a link between two tables based on a common set of columns (keys).An inner join returns rows from both tables only if keys from both tables can be found that satisfies the join conditions.
  • Outer joins return all records from one table, while restricting the other table to matching records, which means that some of the columns in the results will contain NULL values.Left joins are a type of outer join in which every record in the left table that matches the WHERE clause (if there is one) will be returned regardless of a match made in the ON clause of the right table.
  • Right joins are analogous to left joins—only reversed: instead of returning all results from the “left” side, the right join returns all results from the “right” side, restricting results from the “left” side to matches of the ON clause.Here, the table on the left is still the author table, and the right table is still the book table, but, this time, the results returned will include all records from the book table and only those from the author table that match the ON clause where book.author_id =
  • To connect to a database, PDO requires at least a Data Source Name, or DSN, format-ted according to the driver used. Detailed DSN formatting documentation exists on the PHP Web site for each driver. Additionally, if your database requires a username or password, PDO will need these to access the database.
  • This is not only a best practice, but it is very useful in debugging. Note that the default error mode for PDO is PDO::ERRMODE_SILENT, which means that it will not emit any warnings or error messages. For the examples the error mode is set to PDO::ERRMODE_EXECEPTION. This causes PDO to throw a PDOExecption when an error occurs. This exception can be caught and displayed for debugging purposes.
  • To retrieve a result set from a database using PDO, use the PDO::query() method.To escape a value included in a query (e.g. from $_GET, $_POST, $_COOKIE, etc.) use the PDO::quote() method. PDO will ensure that the string is quoted properly for the database used.The method PDO::query() returns a PDOStatement object.
  • By default, the fetch mode for a PDOStatement is PDO::FETCH_BOTH, which means that it will return an array containing both associative and numeric indexes. It is possible to change the PDOStatement object to return, for example, an object instead of an array so that each column in the result set may be accessed as properties of an object instead of array indices.
  • To execute an INSERT, UPDATE, or DELETE statement against a database, PDO provides the PDO::exec() method. The PDO::exec() method executes an SQL statement and returns the number of rows affected.
  • Database Programming

    1. 1. DATABASE PROGRAMMING Henry Osborne
    2. 2. DATABASE A comprehensive collection of related data organized for convenient access, generally in a computer
    3. 3. RELATIONAL DATABASE A relational database is a collection of data items organized as a set of formally-described tables from which data can be accessed or reassembled in many different ways without having to reorganize the database tables. The relational database was invented by E. F. Codd at IBM in 1970.
    4. 4. INDICES • Make it possible to organize the data in a table according to one or more columns. • One of the cardinal elements of relational databases • Can usually be created on one or more columns of a table • Can also be declared as unique • Primary keys are a special type of unique index that is used to determine the “natural” method of uniquely identifying a row in a table
    5. 5. RELATIONSHIPS • One-to-one: at most, one row in the child table can correspond to each row in the parent table • One-to-many: an arbitrary number of rows in the child table can correspond to any one row in the parent table • Many-to-many: an arbitrary number of rows in the child table can correspond to an arbitrary number of rows in the parent table
    6. 6. DATA TYPES int or integer smallint real float char varchar Signed integer number, 32 bits in length. Signed integer number, 16 bits in length. Signed floating-point number, 32 bits in length. Signed floating-point number, 64 bits in length. Fixed-length character string. Variable-length character string.
    8. 8. CREATE TABLES CREATE TABLE <tablename> ( <col1name> <col1type> [<col1attributes>], [... <colnname> <colntype> [<colnattributes>]] );
    9. 9. CREATE TABLES CREATE TABLE book ( id INT NOT NULL PRIMARY KEY, isbn VARCHAR(13), title VARCHAR(255), author VARCHAR(255), publisher VARCHAR(255) );
    10. 10. CREATING INDICES AND RELATIONSHIPS CREATE INDEX <indexname> ON <tablename> (<column1>[, ..., <columnn>]); CREATE INDEX book_isbn ON book (isbn);
    11. 11. CREATING INDICES AND RELATIONSHIPS CREATE TABLE book_chapter ( isbn VARCHAR(13) REFERENCES book (id), chapter_number INT NOT NULL, chapter_title VARCHAR(255) );
    12. 12. DROPPING OBJECTS DROP TABLE book_chapter; DROP SCHEMA my_book_database;
    13. 13. ADDING/MANIPULATING DATA INSERT INTO <tablename> VALUES (<field1value>[, ..., <fieldnvalue>]); OR INSERT INTO <tablename> (<field1>[, ..., <fieldn>]) VALUES (<field1value>[, ..., <fieldnvalue>]);
    14. 14. ADDING/MANIPULATING DATA INSERT INTO book (isbn, title, author) VALUES (’0812550706’, ’Ender’s Game’, ’Orson Scott Card’);
    15. 15. ADDING/MANIPULATING DATA To update records, you can use the UPDATE statement. UPDATE book SET publisher = ’Tor Science Fiction’, author = ’Orson S. Card’ WHERE isbn = ’0812550706’;
    16. 16. REMOVE DATA DELETE FROM book; DELETE FROM book WHERE isbn = ’0812550706’;
    17. 17. RETRIEVE DATA SELECT * FROM book; SELECT * FROM book WHERE author = ’Ray Bradbury’; SELECT * FROM book WHERE author = ’Ray Bradbury’ OR author = ’George Orwell’; SELECT * FROM book WHERE author = ’Ray Bradbury’ AND publisher LIKE ’%Del Ray’;
    18. 18. SQL JOINS SELECT * FROM book INNER JOIN book_chapter ON book.isbn = book_chapter.isbn;
    19. 19. OUTER JOINS SELECT book.title, author.last_name FROM author LEFT JOIN book ON book.author_id =;
    20. 20. OUTER JOINS SELECT book.title, author.last_name FROM author RIGHT JOIN book ON book.author_id =;
    21. 21. PHP DATA OBJECTS (PDO) • The standard distribution of PHP 5.1 and greater includes PDO and the drivers for SQLite by default • There are many other database drivers for PDO, including: • Microsoft SQL Server • Firebird • MySQL • Oracle • PostgreSQL, and • ODBC
    22. 22. PHP DATA OBJECTS (PDO) • Once installed, the process for using each driver is, for the most part, the same because PDO provides a unified data access layer to each of these database engines. • There is no longer a need for separate mysql_query() or pg_query() functions. • PDO provides a single object-oriented interface to these databases.
    23. 23. DATABASE CONNECTION $dsn = ’mysql:host=localhost;dbname=library’; $dbh = new PDO($dsn, ’dbuser’, ’dbpass’);
    24. 24. ERROR HANDLING try { $dsn = ’mysql:host=localhost;dbname=library’; $dbh = new PDO($dsn, ’dbuser’, ’dbpass’); $dbh->setAttribute(PDO::ATTR_EMULATE_PREPARES, TRUE); $dbh->setAttribute(PDO::ATTR_ERRMODE, PDO::ERRMODE_EXCEPTION); // All other database calls go here } catch (PDOException $e) { echo ’Failed: ’ . $e->getMessage(); }
    25. 25. DATABASE QUERY WITH PDO $author = ’’; if (ctype_alpha($_GET[’author’])){ $author = $_GET[’author’]; } // Escape the value of $author with quote() $sql = ’SELECT author.*, book.* FROM author LEFT JOIN book ON = book.author_id WHERE author.last_name = ’ . $dbh->quote($author); // Execute the statement and echo the results $results = $dbh->query($sql); foreach ($results as $row) { echo "{$row[’title’]}, {$row[’last_name’]}n"; }
    26. 26. DATABASE QUERY WITH PDO $results = $dbh->query($sql); $results->setFetchMode(PDO::FETCH_OBJ); foreach ($results as $row) { echo "{$row->title}, {$row->last_name}n"; }
    27. 27. DATABASE QUERY WITH PDO $sql = "INSERT INTO book (isbn, title, author_id, publisher_id) VALUES (’0395974682’, ’The Lord of the Rings’, 1, 3)"; $affected = $dbh->exec($sql); echo "Records affected: {$affected}";