Ob ch5


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Ob ch5

  1. 1. Ch5 Personality and values<br />
  2. 2. Personality<br />What is personality<br />The sum total of ways in which an individual reacts to and interacts with others<br />Measuring personality<br />Self-report surveys -> problems : fake, accuracy<br />Observer ratings surveys <br />
  3. 3. Personality determinants<br />Heredity vs. environment<br />Identical twins researches<br />Genetics accounts for 50% of the personality similarities between twins<br />Personality changes<br />Ex. Dependability tend to increase over time<br />More changeable in adolescence and more stable among adults.<br />
  4. 4. Personality determinants<br />Personality traits<br />Enduring characteristics that describe an individual’s behavior<br />Ex. Lazy, loyal<br />More frequently occurs, more consistent overtime -> more important in describing the individual<br />
  5. 5. The Myers-Briggs Type Indicator(MBTI)<br />100-question personality test that ask people how they usually feel or act in particular situations.<br />Extraverted(E) vs. Introverted(I)<br /> Sensing(S) vs. Intuitive(N)<br /> Thinking(T) vs. Feeling(F)<br /> Judging(J) vs. Perceiving(P)<br />->16 personality types<br />Validity-most of the evidence suggested not<br />Valuable tool for increasing self-awareness<br />
  6. 6. The Big Five Personality Model<br />Big Five factors: Extroversion<br /> Agreeableness<br /> Conscientiousness<br /> Emotional stability<br /> Openness to experience<br />How do the Big Five traits predict behavior at work?<br />Higher conscientious  higher levels of job knowledge  higher job performance<br />Conscientious is more important than other traits(to Business success)<br />
  7. 7. Exhibit 5-2<br />
  8. 8. Other Personality Traits Relevant to OB<br />Core self-evaluation<br />Positive core self-evaluation related to job satisfaction and better job performance<br />Machiavellianism<br />The degree to which an individual is pragmatic, maintains emotional distance, and believes that ends can justify means<br />High-Mach outcomes are moderated by situational factors<br />
  9. 9. High Machs flourish when:<br />Interact face to face with others rather than indirectly<br />Situation has a minimal number of rules and regulations, allowing latitude for improvisation<br />Emotional involvement with details irrelevant to winning<br />High Machs make good employees depends on the type of job<br />
  10. 10. Other Personality Traits Relevant to OB<br />Narcissism<br />While they thought they were better leaders than their colleagues, their supervisors actually rated them as worse.<br />Self-monitoring<br />High in self-monitoring show considerable adaptability in adjusting their behavior to external situational factors<br />Risk taking<br />People differ in their willingness to rake chances, a affects how much time and information managers need to take a decision<br />
  11. 11. Other Personality Traits Relevant to OB<br />Type A personality<br />Aggressive involvement in a chronic, incessant struggle to achieve more and more in less and less time and, if necessary , against the opposing efforts of other things or other people.<br />Proactive personality<br />People who identify opportunities, show initiative take action, and persevere until meaningful change occurs.<br />
  12. 12. Values<br />Basic convictions that a specific mode of conduct or end-state of existence is personally or socially preferable to an opposite or converse ones.<br />Contain judgment element, have both content and intensity attributes.<br />Value system-based on a ranking of an individual’s values in terms of their intensity.<br />
  13. 13. Values <br />The importance of values <br />influence attitudes and behavior<br />Terminal vs. instrumental values<br />Rokeach Value survey<br />2 sets, each contain 18 individual value items<br />Terminal values<br />Instrumental values<br />RVS values vary among groups -> can create serious conflicts while groups content<br />
  14. 14. Values <br />Generational values<br />Contemporary work cohorts<br />
  15. 15. Linking an individual’s personality and values to the workplace<br />Person-job fittheory<br />Vocational Preference Inventory questionnaire<br />
  16. 16. The theory argues that satisfaction is highest and turnover lowest when personality and occupation are in agreement<br />There do appear to be intrinsic differences in personality among individuals<br />Different types of jobs<br />People in jobs congruent with their personality -> more satisfied and less likely to voluntarily resign<br />
  17. 17. Linking an individual’s personality and values to the workplace<br />Person-organization fit<br />People are attracted to and selected by organizations that match their values, and they leave organizations that are compatible with their personalities<br />Fit better with the organization’s culture -> higher employee satisfaction and reduced turnover<br />
  18. 18. Global Implications<br />Personality<br />Big Five model appear in almost all cross-cultural studies<br />Differences tend to be in the emphasis on dimensions and whether countries are predominantly individualistic or collectivistic<br />
  19. 19. Global Implications<br />Values<br />Hofstede’s framework for assessing cultures<br />Power distance<br />Individualism vs. Collectivism<br />Masculinity vs. Femininity<br />Uncertainty avoidance<br />Long-term vs. Short-term orientation<br />External validity ? -> data representation and cultural differences<br />
  20. 20. The GLOBE Framework for Assessing Cultures<br />An ongoing cross-cultural investigation of leadership and national culture<br />Identified 9 dimensions on which national cultures differ<br />Ex. humane orientation, performance orientation<br />
  21. 21. Summary and Implications for Managers<br />Personality<br />Personality and job performance were not meaningfully related across traits or situations<br />Values<br />Employee’s performance and satisfaction are likely to be higher if their values fit well with the organization<br />