Ch7Motivation Concepts<br />Editer:陳亭竹<br />
Motivation<br />Definition<br />	- the processes that account for an individual’s intensity, direction, and persistence of...
Early Theories of Motivation<br />Hierarchy of Needs Theory<br />	- within every human being, there exists a hierarchy of ...
Early Theories of Motivation<br />
Early Theories of Motivation<br />Theory X and Theory Y<br />- two distinct views of human beings: basically negative, lab...
Early Theories of Motivation<br />Two-factor Theory<br />- individual’s relationship to work is basic and that toward work...
Early Theories of Motivation<br />
Early Theories of Motivation<br />McClelland’s Theory of Needs<br />	- focuses on three needs:<br />(1) Need for achieveme...
Contemporary Theories of Motivation<br />Self-Determination Theory<br />- people prefer to feel they have control their ac...
Contemporary Theories of Motivation<br />	- much research focused on Cognitive Evaluation Theory, which hypothesizes that ...
Contemporary Theories of Motivation<br />Goal-Setting Theory<br />	-  “ do your best “ vs. goal-setting<br />- intentions ...
	- implementing goal-setting: MBO<br />Contemporary Theories of Motivation<br />
Contemporary Theories of Motivation<br />Self-Efficacy Theory<br />- an individual’s belief that he/she is capable of perf...
Contemporary Theories of Motivation<br />Reinforcement Theory<br />- reinforcement conditions behavior.<br />- people lear...
Contemporary Theories of Motivation<br />- social-learning theory: behavior is a function of consequences.<br />(1) attent...
Contemporary Theories of Motivation<br />Equity Theory/Organizational Justice<br />	- individuals compare their job inputs...
Contemporary Theories of Motivation<br />
Contemporary Theories of Motivation<br />	- meaning of equity/fairness<br />
Contemporary Theories of Motivation<br />Expectancy Theory<br />- strength of a tendency to act in a certain way depends o...
Integrating Contemporary Theoried of Motivation<br />
Global Implicaitons<br />Most current motivation theories were developed in the U.S. by and about U.S. adults.<br />Cross-...
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Ch7 motivation concepts

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Ch7 motivation concepts

  1. 1. Ch7Motivation Concepts<br />Editer:陳亭竹<br />
  2. 2. Motivation<br />Definition<br /> - the processes that account for an individual’s intensity, direction, and persistence of effort toward attaining a goal.<br />
  3. 3. Early Theories of Motivation<br />Hierarchy of Needs Theory<br /> - within every human being, there exists a hierarchy of five needs.<br />(1) physiological<br /> (2) safety<br /> (3) social<br />(4) esteem<br />(5) self-actualization<br />
  4. 4. Early Theories of Motivation<br />
  5. 5. Early Theories of Motivation<br />Theory X and Theory Y<br />- two distinct views of human beings: basically negative, labeled Theory X and basically positive, labeled Theory Y.<br />- managers tend to mold their behavior toward employees according to these assumptions.<br />
  6. 6. Early Theories of Motivation<br />Two-factor Theory<br />- individual’s relationship to work is basic and that toward work can very well determine success of failure.<br />- two factors: Motivator / Hygiene factor<br />(1) satisfaction vs. no satisfaction <br />(2) no dissatisfaction vs. dissatisfaction<br />
  7. 7. Early Theories of Motivation<br />
  8. 8. Early Theories of Motivation<br />McClelland’s Theory of Needs<br /> - focuses on three needs:<br />(1) Need for achievement (nAch)<br />(2) Need for power (nPow)<br />(3) Need for affiliation (nAff)<br />- has had the best research support, but has less practical effect than others.<br />
  9. 9. Contemporary Theories of Motivation<br />Self-Determination Theory<br />- people prefer to feel they have control their actions, so anything that makes a previously enjoyed task feel more like an obligation than a freely chosen activity will undermine motivation.<br />
  10. 10. Contemporary Theories of Motivation<br /> - much research focused on Cognitive Evaluation Theory, which hypothesizes that extrinsic rewards will reduce intrinsic interest in task.<br /> - a recent outgrowth: self-concordance<br />- people who pursue work goals for intrinsic reasons are more satisfied with their jobs.<br />
  11. 11. Contemporary Theories of Motivation<br />Goal-Setting Theory<br /> - “ do your best “ vs. goal-setting<br />- intentions to work toward a goal are a major source of work motivation.<br /> - factors influence the goals: feedback, goal commitment, task characteristics and national culture.<br />
  12. 12. - implementing goal-setting: MBO<br />Contemporary Theories of Motivation<br />
  13. 13. Contemporary Theories of Motivation<br />Self-Efficacy Theory<br />- an individual’s belief that he/she is capable of performing task.<br />- four ways self-efficacy can be increased<br />(1) enactive mastery<br />(2) vicarious modeling<br />(3) verbal persuasion<br />(4) arousal<br />
  14. 14. Contemporary Theories of Motivation<br />Reinforcement Theory<br />- reinforcement conditions behavior.<br />- people learn to behave to get something they want or to avoid something they don’t want.<br />- behaviorism: people learn to associate stimulus and response, but their conscious awareness of this association is irrelevant.<br />
  15. 15. Contemporary Theories of Motivation<br />- social-learning theory: behavior is a function of consequences.<br />(1) attentional processes<br />(2) retention processes<br />(3) motor reproduction processes<br />(4) reinforcement processes<br />
  16. 16. Contemporary Theories of Motivation<br />Equity Theory/Organizational Justice<br /> - individuals compare their job inputs and outputs with those of others and then respond to eliminate any inequities.<br />- four referent comparisons: self-inside/ outside, other inside/outside.<br />
  17. 17. Contemporary Theories of Motivation<br />
  18. 18. Contemporary Theories of Motivation<br /> - meaning of equity/fairness<br />
  19. 19. Contemporary Theories of Motivation<br />Expectancy Theory<br />- strength of a tendency to act in a certain way depends on the strength of our expectancy of a given outcome and its attractiveness.<br />
  20. 20. Integrating Contemporary Theoried of Motivation<br />
  21. 21. Global Implicaitons<br />Most current motivation theories were developed in the U.S. by and about U.S. adults.<br />Cross-cultural transferability.<br />Cross-cultural consistencies: <br />(1) the desire for interesting work<br />(2) job-preference outcomes<br />(3) equitable distribution of rewards<br />
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