Motivation Definition - the processes that account for an individual’s intensity, direction, and persistence of effort toward attaining a goal.
Early Theories of Motivation Hierarchy of Needs Theory - within every human being, there exists a hierarchy of five needs. (1) physiological (2) safety (3) social (4) esteem (5) self-actualization
Early Theories of Motivation
Early Theories of Motivation Theory X and Theory Y - two distinct views of human beings: basically negative, labeled Theory X and basically positive, labeled Theory Y. - managers tend to mold their behavior toward employees according to these assumptions.
Early Theories of Motivation Two-factor Theory - individual’s relationship to work is basic and that toward work can very well determine success of failure. - two factors: Motivator / Hygiene factor (1) satisfaction vs. no satisfaction (2) no dissatisfaction vs. dissatisfaction
Early Theories of Motivation
Early Theories of Motivation McClelland’s Theory of Needs - focuses on three needs: (1) Need for achievement (nAch) (2) Need for power (nPow) (3) Need for affiliation (nAff) - has had the best research support, but has less practical effect than others.
Contemporary Theories of Motivation Self-Determination Theory - people prefer to feel they have control their actions, so anything that makes a previously enjoyed task feel more like an obligation than a freely chosen activity will undermine motivation.
Contemporary Theories of Motivation - much research focused on Cognitive Evaluation Theory, which hypothesizes that extrinsic rewards will reduce intrinsic interest in task. - a recent outgrowth: self-concordance - people who pursue work goals for intrinsic reasons are more satisfied with their jobs.
Contemporary Theories of Motivation Goal-Setting Theory - “ do your best “ vs. goal-setting - intentions to work toward a goal are a major source of work motivation. - factors influence the goals: feedback, goal commitment, task characteristics and national culture.
- implementing goal-setting: MBO Contemporary Theories of Motivation
Contemporary Theories of Motivation Self-Efficacy Theory - an individual’s belief that he/she is capable of performing task. - four ways self-efficacy can be increased (1) enactive mastery (2) vicarious modeling (3) verbal persuasion (4) arousal
Contemporary Theories of Motivation Reinforcement Theory - reinforcement conditions behavior. - people learn to behave to get something they want or to avoid something they don’t want. - behaviorism: people learn to associate stimulus and response, but their conscious awareness of this association is irrelevant.
Contemporary Theories of Motivation - social-learning theory: behavior is a function of consequences. (1) attentional processes (2) retention processes (3) motor reproduction processes (4) reinforcement processes
Contemporary Theories of Motivation Equity Theory/Organizational Justice - individuals compare their job inputs and outputs with those of others and then respond to eliminate any inequities. - four referent comparisons: self-inside/ outside, other inside/outside.
Contemporary Theories of Motivation
Contemporary Theories of Motivation - meaning of equity/fairness
Contemporary Theories of Motivation Expectancy Theory - strength of a tendency to act in a certain way depends on the strength of our expectancy of a given outcome and its attractiveness.
Integrating Contemporary Theoried of Motivation
Global Implicaitons Most current motivation theories were developed in the U.S. by and about U.S. adults. Cross-cultural transferability. Cross-cultural consistencies: (1) the desire for interesting work (2) job-preference outcomes (3) equitable distribution of rewards