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Ch7 motivation concepts

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  • 1. Ch7Motivation Concepts
    Editer:陳亭竹
  • 2. Motivation
    Definition
    - the processes that account for an individual’s intensity, direction, and persistence of effort toward attaining a goal.
  • 3. Early Theories of Motivation
    Hierarchy of Needs Theory
    - within every human being, there exists a hierarchy of five needs.
    (1) physiological
    (2) safety
    (3) social
    (4) esteem
    (5) self-actualization
  • 4. Early Theories of Motivation
  • 5. Early Theories of Motivation
    Theory X and Theory Y
    - two distinct views of human beings: basically negative, labeled Theory X and basically positive, labeled Theory Y.
    - managers tend to mold their behavior toward employees according to these assumptions.
  • 6. Early Theories of Motivation
    Two-factor Theory
    - individual’s relationship to work is basic and that toward work can very well determine success of failure.
    - two factors: Motivator / Hygiene factor
    (1) satisfaction vs. no satisfaction
    (2) no dissatisfaction vs. dissatisfaction
  • 7. Early Theories of Motivation
  • 8. Early Theories of Motivation
    McClelland’s Theory of Needs
    - focuses on three needs:
    (1) Need for achievement (nAch)
    (2) Need for power (nPow)
    (3) Need for affiliation (nAff)
    - has had the best research support, but has less practical effect than others.
  • 9. Contemporary Theories of Motivation
    Self-Determination Theory
    - people prefer to feel they have control their actions, so anything that makes a previously enjoyed task feel more like an obligation than a freely chosen activity will undermine motivation.
  • 10. Contemporary Theories of Motivation
    - much research focused on Cognitive Evaluation Theory, which hypothesizes that extrinsic rewards will reduce intrinsic interest in task.
    - a recent outgrowth: self-concordance
    - people who pursue work goals for intrinsic reasons are more satisfied with their jobs.
  • 11. Contemporary Theories of Motivation
    Goal-Setting Theory
    - “ do your best “ vs. goal-setting
    - intentions to work toward a goal are a major source of work motivation.
    - factors influence the goals: feedback, goal commitment, task characteristics and national culture.
  • 12. - implementing goal-setting: MBO
    Contemporary Theories of Motivation
  • 13. Contemporary Theories of Motivation
    Self-Efficacy Theory
    - an individual’s belief that he/she is capable of performing task.
    - four ways self-efficacy can be increased
    (1) enactive mastery
    (2) vicarious modeling
    (3) verbal persuasion
    (4) arousal
  • 14. Contemporary Theories of Motivation
    Reinforcement Theory
    - reinforcement conditions behavior.
    - people learn to behave to get something they want or to avoid something they don’t want.
    - behaviorism: people learn to associate stimulus and response, but their conscious awareness of this association is irrelevant.
  • 15. Contemporary Theories of Motivation
    - social-learning theory: behavior is a function of consequences.
    (1) attentional processes
    (2) retention processes
    (3) motor reproduction processes
    (4) reinforcement processes
  • 16. Contemporary Theories of Motivation
    Equity Theory/Organizational Justice
    - individuals compare their job inputs and outputs with those of others and then respond to eliminate any inequities.
    - four referent comparisons: self-inside/ outside, other inside/outside.
  • 17. Contemporary Theories of Motivation
  • 18. Contemporary Theories of Motivation
    - meaning of equity/fairness
  • 19. Contemporary Theories of Motivation
    Expectancy Theory
    - strength of a tendency to act in a certain way depends on the strength of our expectancy of a given outcome and its attractiveness.
  • 20. Integrating Contemporary Theoried of Motivation
  • 21. Global Implicaitons
    Most current motivation theories were developed in the U.S. by and about U.S. adults.
    Cross-cultural transferability.
    Cross-cultural consistencies:
    (1) the desire for interesting work
    (2) job-preference outcomes
    (3) equitable distribution of rewards