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Ch6 perceptiona and individual decision making

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  • 1. CH6 Perception & Individual Decision Making Editor :吳亞軒
  • 2. Agenda
    • What Is Perception
    • Person Perception
    • The Link Between Perception & Individual Decision Making
    • Decision Making in Organizations
    • Influences on Decision Making
    • What About Ethics in Decision Making ?
    • Global Implications
    • Summary and Implications for Managers
  • 3. What Is Perception ?
    • Definition
    • A process by which individuals organize and interpret their sensory impressions in order to give meaning to their environment.
    • Factors That Influence Perception
    • (1) perceiver
    • (2) target What do you see ?
    • (3) situation
  • 4. Factors That Influence Perception
  • 5. Person Perception : Making Judgment About Others (a)
    • Attribution Theory
    • (1)internally/externally
    • (2)three factors :
    • distinctiveness/consensus/consistency
    • (3)fundamental attribution error
    • (4)self-serving bias
  • 6. Attribution Theory
  • 7. Person Perception : Making Judgment About Others (b)
    • Common Shortcuts in Judging Others
    • (1) selective perception
    • (2) halo effect
    • (3) contrast effect
    • (4) stereotyping What is this ?
  • 8. Person Perception : Making Judgment About Others (c)
    • Specific Applications of Shortcuts in Organization
    • (1) Employment Interview
    • (2) Performance Expectations
    • (3) Performance Evaluation
  • 9. The Link Between Perception & Individual Decision Making
    • Decision
    • Problem
    • The way of making decision
    • The quality of making decision
  • 10. Decision Making in Organizations(a)
    • The Rational Model, Bounded Rationality, and Intuition
    • (1)Rational Decision Making
    • (2)Bounded Rationality
    • (3)Intuition
    Define the problem Identify the decision criteria Allocate weights to the criteria Develop the alternatives Evaluate the alternatives Select the best alternatives
  • 11. Decision Making in Organizations(b)
    • Common Biases and Errors in Decision Making
    • (1) Overconfidence Bias
    • (2) Anchoring Bias
    • (3) Confirmation Bias
    • (4) Availability Bias
    • (5) Escalation of Commitment
    • (6) Randomness Error
    • (7) Risk Aversion
    • (8) Hindsight Bias
  • 12. Influences on Decision Making : Individual Differences and Organizational Constraints
    • Individual Differences
    • (1) personality
    • (2) Gender
    • (3) Mental Ability
    • Organizational Constraints
    • (1) Performance Evaluation
    • (2) Reward Systems
    • (3) Formal Regulations
    • (4) System-Imposed Time Constraints
  • 13. What About Ethics in Decision Making ?
    • Three Ethical Decision Criteria
    • (1)utilitarianism
    • (2)right
    • whistle-blowers
    • (3)justice
    • Improving Creativity in Decision Making
    • (1) Creative Potential
    • (2) There- Component Model of Creativity
    • expertise
    • creative-thinking skills
    • intrinsic task motivation
  • 14.  
  • 15. Global Implications
    • Attributions
    • The evidence on cultural differences in perception is mixed, but most suggest there are differences across cultures in the attributions people make.
    • Decision Making
    • The rational model makes no acknowledgment of cultural differences, nor does the bulk of OB research literature on decision making.
    • Ethics
    • There are no global ethical standards, as contrasts between Asia and the West illustrate.
  • 16. Summary and Implications for Managers
    • Perception
    • Individual Decision Making
    • 1. analyze the situation
    • 2. be aware of biases
    • 3.combine rational analysis with intuition
    • 4. try to enhance creativity
  • 17. CH6 Perception & Individual Decision Making Editor :吳亞軒