0
1
1
Ciudades y Cambios Climáticos: Que se
debe proponer en la COP 20 em Lima?
2
1
Ciudades y Cambios Climáticos:
1) Adaptación y Resiliencia
2) Mitigación y Reducción de Emisiones
AVOID – SHIFT – IMPR...
Environment
Infrastructure
Public space
Nodes
Information
People
housing
industry
offices
shopping
economy
leisure
health
...
Copenhagen
Londres
Oslo
Fonte: C40
Mitigación: Las ciudades
están haciendo
Las ciudades están haciendo
Bogotá
Fonte: C40 e SPTRANS
Bogota Sao Paulo
Fonte: C40
Taxis Elétricos: Bogotá Sao Paulo
Buses Elétricos: Rio de Janeiro Copenhague
Ciudades e Cambio Climático
• 42 ciudades da C40 divulgaran
resultados sobre riscos
climáticos, emisores de GEE en
plataforma consistente e
comparable...
C40 CDP Report 2013
48
73
110
42 45 53
0
50
100
150
2011 2012 2013
NumberofCities
Reporting
Responding Cities
C40 Cities
2013
Climate Action
in Megacities
CAM 2.0.
Como Curitiba y Bogotá,
35 ciudades (66%) da Rede C40
están hacienda BRT, siend...
As ciudades lideran acciones 2011 2013
8068
climate actions
Transit
Residential
waste
Landfills
Building
regulation
Water ...
C40 está IMPACTANDO
A blog about energy
and the
environment.
Go to Blog »
World Bank to Help Cities Control Climate Change
By ALEXEI BARRIONUE...
A importancia de las Ciudades: Ejemplo C40
8%
da população
21%
do PIB global $$$$$
5%
da emissão
global GEE
CO2e
CO2e
CO2e...
As ciudades controlan y deciden sobre
63%
66%
60%
57%
60%
Transporte Publico
Residuos Solidos
Aterros
Regulamientos
Agua
P...
 Integración de políticas públicas;
 TOD (Desarrollos orientados al transporte)
 TDM (restricciones transporte privado)...
DENSIDADES
Match density and transit capacity
USO MIX
Guangzhou, China
19
Oportunidade de desarrolho urbano
20
CONNECTAR
Create dense networks of streets and paths
Malmo, Sweden
New York, USA
ANDAR
Develop neighborhoods that promote walking
PEDALAR
Prioritize cycle networks Hangzhou, China: 43% of trips by bike
TRANSPORT PUBLICO
Support high quality transit
Ahmadabad, India
Paisagismo e Arquitetura Bonita no corredor
Guayaquil,
Bogota
Guangzhou
Delhi
Carriles Exclusivos
Vantagens:
 Permite pre-pagamento – Velocidad.
“desembarcado”
 Aumenta significativamente la capacidade del sistema;
 P...
Estaciones con portas automáticas
Embarque rápido
Quito, Ecuador Curitiba, Brasil
Embarque mesmo nivel, rampa mecânica (flip-down)
Beijing, China
Cidade do México
Bogotá
Goiania
Embarque mismo nivel, mismo sin rampa
Sao Paulo
Los Angeles
“degraus”
Estación de trolebús Quito
Harmonía del Centro
Las estaciones tubo de Curitiba
Fonte: URBS
IMAGEM SISTEMA
35
Estaciones con imágenes fuertes; Identidad del sistema.
Fácil Visualización;
Informaciones Quito
Melbourne
Las Vegas
Instalaciones de conforto
Usuarios clientes
Custo-BeneficioVentiladores
Cores na pista
Separação física
Fiscalização
Pontos de Ônibus
elegantes, bonitos
Granada - Espanha
Rouen, França
Visibilid...
 Mapa acessível e de fácil
compreensão
 Horários e conhecimento das linhas
 Tecnologias web – Internet ou celular
Infor...
21 km/h 17 km/h 21 km/h 17 km/h
SANTO AMARO-NOVE DE JULHO-CENTRO (14.8 km)
0h06 0h09 22 16
de AV. JORN. ROBERTO MARINHO at...
Sao Paulo
Hasta 2013, solo uno BRT y 113kms de BRT abiertos
2013: 88% viajes contra 22% metro y 11% surface rail.
41
Expre...
42
Sept/ 2013
Mas de 200kms de
carriles exclusivos.
Total: 100+220 km
Total: 400km (2014)
43
2014/ 2015
Mas de 150kms de
nuevos BRTs.
• Nueva concesión;
• Buses Nocturnos;
• Tickets mensuales;
• 70% de la compañí...
Reconversión del centro y
centros comerciales
Bogota
Ônibus modernos (Novas
tecnologias)
Diesel limpo
Trolebus elétrico
Híbrido-elétrico
Célula a combustível - Hidrogênio Etanol
1. Costos de Inversión
(previsión de los costos reales).
2. Costos de operación (subvenciones)
3. Capacidad e material rod...
Custo de investimento e material rodante
Tecnologia
Capacidade
(milhões)
Custo Investimento
(milhões por km)
Custo
operaci...
PROGRAMA DE TESTES COM ONIBUS
ELÉTRICOS E HIBRÍDOS NA AMÉRICA LATINA
Bogotá, Rio de Janeiro, Santiago e São Paulo
• Emisión de contaminantes locales (HC, CO, NOx, PM);
• Eficiencia Energética das diferentes tecnologías
(motores combusti...
Como são feitos os testes?
Exemplo de medição das emissões segundo a segundo em ônibus
rodando por linha comercial com car...
Tecnologías testadas? Total de 16 buses
(diesel, híbridos, trolebús e eléctrico con baterías)
Sao Paulo: Buses testados
Trolebuses y híbridos serie (Eletra)
Híbrido paralelo Volvo Diesel (Mercedez)
0.0
0.5
1.0
1.5
2.0
2.5
3.0
3.5
4.0
DB1 DB2 HB1 HB2 TB1-1 TB1-2
AverageFE[km/lt]
Diesel (DB1 e DB2) Hibrido Paralelo (HB1)...
Consumo de combustível padronizado dos Híbridos e
Trólebus em relação ao ônibus diesel base
-70%
-60%
-50%
-40%
-30%
-20%
...
Bogotá: Tecnologías testadas?
YoungMan
Volvo
Bus Eléctrico
BYD
Diesel Transmilenio
1,00 1,00 1,00 1,00 1,00
0,05
0,65
0,53
0,95
0,32
0,07
0,47
0,16
0,89
0,38
0,00
0,20
0,40
0,60
0,80
1,00
1,20
THC CO NOx C...
Bogotá: Consumo
-34%
-72%
-81%
-31%
-57%
-71%
-90%
-80%
-70%
-60%
-50%
-40%
-30%
-20%
-10%
0%
HB1 EB1-1 EB1-2
FuelConsumpo...
Bogotá: Eficiência & Consumo
Ônibus
Eficiência
(km/gl)
Eficiência %
Consumo.
(gl/ 100km)
Consumo. %
Diesel 7,80 0% 13,3 0%...
Bogotá:
ruídos de cabine em rota(dB)
50.00
55.00
60.00
65.00
70.00
75.00
80.00
85.00
1 11 21 31 41 51 61
Noise[dB]
Time[se...
61
26%
62%
72% 73%
80%
0%
10%
20%
30%
40%
50%
60%
70%
80%
90%
100%
CO2 NOx PM1.5 THC CO
EmissionReduconparallel-hybridvers...
Conclusão geral sobre consumo energético
Elétrico
Bateria Ferro
Redução de 81%
Elétrico
Bateria Lítio
Redução 73%
Trólebus...
• Ciudad do México;
• Gotemburgo;
• Estocolmo;
• Londres
• Xangai;
• Shenzhen,
• Changsa;
• Hong Kong
Nov/Dez 2012: Visita...
HYBRID ELECTRIC BUS TEST
PROGRAM IN LATIN AMERICA:
Economic Analysis of the Program
Prepared by:
Lower energy and maintenance costs reduce lifecycle costs
for hybrid and electric buses compared to diesel buses
Notes: Bu...
Lifecycle costs of hybrid and electric buses are lower than
costs for diesel buses due to preferential financing options
A...
Beneficios uso de los buses híbridos y eléctricos
• Reducción de contaminantes locales (HC, CO, NOx, PM);
• Seguridad ener...
C40 Cities Climate Leadership Group
?Alcaldes de América Latina?
CIUDADES SON EL FUTURO
Obrigado Adalberto Maluf
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Adalberto Maluf - Que se debe proponer en la cop 20 de Lima?

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IV Congreso SIBRT - Lima 2014, Asociación Latinoamericana de sistemas integrados y brt - SIBRT

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Transcript of "Adalberto Maluf - Que se debe proponer en la cop 20 de Lima?"

  1. 1. 1 1 Ciudades y Cambios Climáticos: Que se debe proponer en la COP 20 em Lima?
  2. 2. 2 1 Ciudades y Cambios Climáticos: 1) Adaptación y Resiliencia 2) Mitigación y Reducción de Emisiones AVOID – SHIFT – IMPROVE Tecnologías de Bajo Carbono
  3. 3. Environment Infrastructure Public space Nodes Information People housing industry offices shopping economy leisure health education culture sports administration security STRUCTURE INFORMATION CIVITAS CityProtocol.org Background -Urban networks: -Telecommunications -Water cycle: supply -Water cycle: sewer -Matter cycle -Energy -Mobility First Projects -TISU: Barcelona Urban Resilience Board -Concept -Project monitoring -Projects Where are we? -Project update -Exporting the model -Resilience Department structure and working lines BARCELONA Creando Estrategias de Resiliencia BARCELONA
  4. 4. Copenhagen Londres Oslo Fonte: C40 Mitigación: Las ciudades están haciendo
  5. 5. Las ciudades están haciendo Bogotá Fonte: C40 e SPTRANS Bogota Sao Paulo
  6. 6. Fonte: C40 Taxis Elétricos: Bogotá Sao Paulo Buses Elétricos: Rio de Janeiro Copenhague
  7. 7. Ciudades e Cambio Climático
  8. 8. • 42 ciudades da C40 divulgaran resultados sobre riscos climáticos, emisores de GEE en plataforma consistente e comparable. Algunas informaciones: • 57% das ciudades ten metas mensuraréis de reducción de GEE; e 62% ya aprobaran planos de acciones para de las cuestiones climáticas. • Mas de 90% das ciudades da C40 identificaran-se en riscos con relación a calentamiento global. CDP Cities (2011) • Benchmarking das acciones de las ciudades da C40. • Inventario dos poderes e capacidades disponibles en las ciudades. • Evaluación de las oportunidades en las ciudades Algunas informaciones. • 75% dos Alcades de la C40 tem controle directo sobre o viario urbano, que representa cerca de 35% das emisores. • Mas de 80% das ações das cidades foram feitas depois da criação da C40 Climate Action in Megacities (2011) Estudios Pioneros y Monitoreo De las acciones de las ciudades
  9. 9. C40 CDP Report 2013 48 73 110 42 45 53 0 50 100 150 2011 2012 2013 NumberofCities Reporting Responding Cities C40 Cities
  10. 10. 2013 Climate Action in Megacities CAM 2.0. Como Curitiba y Bogotá, 35 ciudades (66%) da Rede C40 están hacienda BRT, siendo 57% en el hemisferio norte. SUL NORTE0. 2011: 6 ciudades tenían bicis públicas. In 2013: 36 ciudades seguían el ejemplo de Paris. 2013: 80% das ciudades da C40 tenían implementado ciclorutas. 2011: 20 ciudades (50%) estaban implantando LED para iluminación pública 2013, más de 90% das ciudades dijeran que estaban haciendo proyectos con LED para iluminación pública. 150% aumento en las Acciones
  11. 11. As ciudades lideran acciones 2011 2013 8068 climate actions Transit Residential waste Landfills Building regulation Water supply City planning Outdoor lighting City streets & parking 417 188 1343 192 388 121 194 661 1039 1668 590 1038 114 873 1024 TOTAL 4,734 8,068
  12. 12. C40 está IMPACTANDO
  13. 13. A blog about energy and the environment. Go to Blog » World Bank to Help Cities Control Climate Change By ALEXEI BARRIONUEVO Published: June 1, 2011 SÃO PAULO, Brazil — The World Bank signed an agreement on Wednesday with mayors from 40 of the world’s biggest cities to work on technical and financial assistance for projects to minimize the effects of climate change. The deal, announced at the C40 large cities climate meeting here, will ease access to financing for climate-change- reduction projects. It was hailed by many of the mayors, including Michael R. Bloomberg of New York City, and by former President Bill Clinton, who attended the event as part of a new partnership with Mr. Bloomberg. “The World Bank announcement is terrifically important,” Mr. Clinton said. “It will give credibility to these projects to get private capital.” The agreement will make it easier for investors who have been hesitant to finance projects to assess city action plans by providing a standard approach, said Robert B. Zoellick, the World Bank’s president. It will also provide a common way to measure and report on the greenhouse gas emissions of cities, easing access to carbon financing, he said. No single standard exists for reporting citywide carbon emissions. Mayors said they were eager to gain access to the World Bank’s climate investment funds, which totaled $6.4 billion last year. Mr. Zoellick said the bank hoped to use that money to attract as much as $50 billion in private capital. “What is holding back the sustainable clean technology revolution for a lot of mayors and SuHOME PAGE TODAY'S PAPER VIDEO MOST POPULAR TIMES TOPICS Environment WORLD U.S. N.Y. / REGION BUSINESS TECHNOLOGY SCIENCE HEALTH SPORTS OPINION A ENVIRONMENT SPACE & COSMOS RECOMMEND TWITTER LINKEDIN SIGN IN TO E-MAIL PRINT REPRINTS SHARE World Bank to Ease Access to Climate Change Money - NYTim... http://www.n A blog about energy and the environment. Go to Blog » World Bank to Help Cities Control Climate C By ALEXEI BARRIONUEVO Published: June 1, 2011 SÃO PAULO, Brazil — The World Bank signed an agreement on Wednesday with mayors from 40 of the world’s biggest cities to work on technical and financial assistance for projects to minimize the effects of climate change. The deal, announced at the C40 large cities climate meeting here, will ease access to financing for climate-change- reduction projects. It was hailed by many of the mayors, including Michael HOME PAGE TODAY'S PAPER VIDEO MOST POPULAR TIMES TOPICS Environmen WORLD U.S. N.Y. / REGION BUSINESS TECHNOLOGY SCIENCE HEALTH ENVIRONMENT World Bank to Ease Access to Climate Change Money - NYTim... Search All NYTimes.com Advertise on NYTimes.com An Unlikely Power Duo Emerges in the Global Fight Against Climate Change Todd Heisler/The New York Times Bill Clinton and Michael R. Bloomberg announced a merger of initiatives in New York last month. By JOHN M. BRODER Published: May 28, 2011 WASHINGTON — Bill Clinton and Michael R. Bloomberg have Log In With Facebook Lunar Colonies, Lunacy and Losses Wildlife Activists Follow Lone Wolf’s Trek Into California Log in to see what your friends are sharing on nytimes.com. Privacy Policy | What’s This? What’s Popular Now Ads by Google what's this? NYSERDA Grants Learn How You Can Save Money & Energy With Our Free Solutions Kit. nyserdasolutions.org Epson WorkForce® Pro World's Fastest 2-sided Printer Explore Epson's new WorkForce Pro. Epson.com/Workforce Alzheimer's Foundation Alzheimer's Foundation of America Reach out to us for help . . . alzfdn.org Subscribe: Home Delivery / Digital Log In Register Now HelpHOME PAGE TODAY'S PAPER VIDEO MOST POPULAR TIMES TOPICS Environment WORLD U.S. N.Y. / REGION BUSINESS TECHNOLOGY SCIENCE HEALTH SPORTS OPINION ARTS STYLE TRAVEL JOBS REAL ESTATE ENVIRONMENT SPACE & COSMOS RECOMMEND Bloomberg and Clinton Team Up to Fight Climate Change - N... http://www.nytimes.com/2011/05/29/science/earth/29enviro.html Subscribe 108 Like 87K CONNECT Search the Huffington Post Lucia Graves lucia@huffingtonpost.com Become a fan of this reporter GETUPDATESFROMLucia Tackling Climate Change: New Reports Underscore Role Of LocalLeaders FirstPosted:5/31/1109:02PMETUpdated:7/31/1106:12AMET React WASHINGTON -- More than 40 of the world's largest cities have reported their greenhouse gas emissions along with a comprehensiveanalysisofanyclimatechange-relatedreformsinstudiesreleasedTuesdaynight. Gathered from areas representing 300 million people and ten percent of global CO2 emissions, the reports show the impact participating cities have on climate change and outline the role local leaders could play in reducing their citiesʼ carbon Subscribe 108 TION: U.S. Canada FR France US United States UK United Kingdom uary 28, 2012 NNECT ch the Huffington Post a Graves @huffingtonpost.com ome a fan of this rter GET UPDATES FROM Lucia ckling Climate Change: New Reports Underscore Role Of ocal Leaders Posted: 5/31/11 09:02 PM ET Updated: 7/31/11 06:12 AM ET ct SHINGTON -- More than 40 of the world's largest cities have reported their greenhouse gas emissions along with a prehensive analysis of any climate change-related reforms in studies released Tuesday night. hered from areas representing 300 million people and ten percent of global CO2 emissions, the reports show the impact cipating cities have on climate change and outline the role local leaders could play in reducing their citiesʼ carbon ssions. mly believe that if you canʼt measure it, you canʼt manage it,” said New York City Mayor Michael Bloomberg in a statement uesday. “That is true in business and it is true in government. Only by regularly and rigorously measuring and analysing efforts can we learn what works, what doesnʼt and why, and take effective action." trated by partisan bickering and stalemate in Congress, local leaders at the fourth biennial Conference of Mayors, a ate Change: New Reports Underscore Role Of Lo... http://www.huffingtonpost.com/2011/05/31/local-leaders-fightin... Related News: Environment ! Executive ! Africa ! Canada ! Europe ! France ! Germany ! Latin America ! U.K. & Ireland ! U.S. ! Energy Markets ! Municipal Bonds ! Real Estate ! Technology TweetTweet 112 Print Email 0 Cities From London to Portland Slash Emissions as UN Climate Envoys Bicker Q By Alex Morales - May 31, 2011 8:31 AM ET Cities from Johannesburg to Los Angeles are changing street lights, insulating buildings and promoting bicycling to slash carbon emissions as envoys at United Nations talks bicker about binding greenhouse-gas goals. “While national governments continue their excruciatingly frustrating dialog on climate change, we in the cities are acting,” Portland, Oregon Mayor Sam Adams said in an interview. “It’s sheer common Advertisement Sumitomo to Invest $322 Million in Brazilian Plant, Estado Says Q Vekselberg Says He’ll Drop Gazprom Power Merger If No Deal Soon Q Indonesia's Wirjawan Expects Resumption in Doha Talks (Video) Q Cameron Says Hester’s Decision Over Bonus Is ‘A Matter for Him’ Q Rate These Stories More News » ShareShare 46 More More Stories DOW 12,660.50 -74.17 -0.58% S&P 500 1,316.33 -2.10 -0.16% NASDAQ 2,816.55 +11.27 0.40% MARKET SNAPSHOT U.S. EUROPE ASIA Gold 1,735.40 +0.32% EUR : USD 1.3220 0.8500% Nasdaq 2,816.55 +0.40% Dow 12,660.50 -0.58% S&P 500 1,316.33 -0.16% FTSE 100 5,733.45 -1.07% STOXX 50 Recommend Our Company Professional Anywhere Sign in Search News, Quotes and Opinion Cities From London to Portland Slash Emissions as UN Climat... http://www.bloomberg.com/news/2011-05-31/portland-copenha... Hosted by Search News Mayors reach climate deal with World Bank (AFP) – Jun 1, 2011 SAO PAULO — Leaders of the C40 Mayors Summit on climate change said Wednesday the group had reached a financing agreement with the World Bank to help the world's major cities better adapt to climate change "The partnership with the World Bank creates opportunities for financial support," said New York city Mayor Michael Bloomberg. "If we don't stop polluting our world right now, and continuing to spill greenhouse gases into the atmosphere, the consequences may be very well irreversible," Bloomberg said. The 40 major cities whose mayors are attending the Sao Paulo conference -- including New York, Jakarta, Mexico City, Berlin, Barcelona, Rio de Janeiro and Paris -- are responsible for 12 percent of global greenhouse emissions. "Cities are also paying big price of climate change," said World Bank president Robert Zoellick. New Y Bloom Summ 0 +You Search Images Videos Maps News Shopping Gmail More AFP: Mayors reach climate deal with World Bank http://www.google.com/hoste Cidades estão liderando AGENDA
  14. 14. A importancia de las Ciudades: Ejemplo C40 8% da população 21% do PIB global $$$$$ 5% da emissão global GEE CO2e CO2e CO2e CO2e CO2e CO2e CO2e CO2e CO2e CO2e CO2e CO2e CO2e CO2e CO2e CO2e CO2e CO2e
  15. 15. As ciudades controlan y deciden sobre 63% 66% 60% 57% 60% Transporte Publico Residuos Solidos Aterros Regulamientos Agua Planeamiento 50% 80% 87% Iluminación Calles & Parqueos
  16. 16.  Integración de políticas públicas;  TOD (Desarrollos orientados al transporte)  TDM (restricciones transporte privado)  Fomento de comunidades sostenibles. Planeamento Urbano 16 Images are indicative artists impression only. Current as at August 2007 VictoriaHarbour
  17. 17. DENSIDADES Match density and transit capacity
  18. 18. USO MIX Guangzhou, China
  19. 19. 19 Oportunidade de desarrolho urbano
  20. 20. 20
  21. 21. CONNECTAR Create dense networks of streets and paths Malmo, Sweden
  22. 22. New York, USA ANDAR Develop neighborhoods that promote walking
  23. 23. PEDALAR Prioritize cycle networks Hangzhou, China: 43% of trips by bike
  24. 24. TRANSPORT PUBLICO Support high quality transit Ahmadabad, India
  25. 25. Paisagismo e Arquitetura Bonita no corredor Guayaquil, Bogota
  26. 26. Guangzhou Delhi Carriles Exclusivos
  27. 27. Vantagens:  Permite pre-pagamento – Velocidad. “desembarcado”  Aumenta significativamente la capacidade del sistema;  Protege los clientes del clima Estaciones cerradas
  28. 28. Estaciones con portas automáticas
  29. 29. Embarque rápido Quito, Ecuador Curitiba, Brasil Embarque mesmo nivel, rampa mecânica (flip-down)
  30. 30. Beijing, China
  31. 31. Cidade do México
  32. 32. Bogotá Goiania Embarque mismo nivel, mismo sin rampa Sao Paulo Los Angeles “degraus”
  33. 33. Estación de trolebús Quito Harmonía del Centro
  34. 34. Las estaciones tubo de Curitiba Fonte: URBS IMAGEM SISTEMA
  35. 35. 35 Estaciones con imágenes fuertes; Identidad del sistema. Fácil Visualización; Informaciones Quito Melbourne Las Vegas
  36. 36. Instalaciones de conforto Usuarios clientes
  37. 37. Custo-BeneficioVentiladores
  38. 38. Cores na pista Separação física Fiscalização Pontos de Ônibus elegantes, bonitos Granada - Espanha Rouen, França Visibilidade
  39. 39.  Mapa acessível e de fácil compreensão  Horários e conhecimento das linhas  Tecnologias web – Internet ou celular Informação de Qualidade ao Cliente Bogotá
  40. 40. 21 km/h 17 km/h 21 km/h 17 km/h SANTO AMARO-NOVE DE JULHO-CENTRO (14.8 km) 0h06 0h09 22 16 de AV. JORN. ROBERTO MARINHO até AV. HELIO PELLEGRINO (2.6 km) AV. STO. AMARO 0h47 0h45 18 19 17.2 8.9 8.2 13.6 6.2 7.5 3.9 30.5 15.2 14.8 0h48 0h28 0h12 0h36 0h15 0h24 0h11 01h10 0h49 0h47 01h04 0h32 0h12 0h39 0h23 0h37 0h10 01h19 01h04 0h45 CAMPO LIMPO-REBOUÇAS-CENTRO VER. JOSÉ DINIZ-IBIRAPUERA-SANTA CRUZ EXPRESSO TIRADENTES (EIXO SUDESTE) INAJAR-RIO BRANCO-CENTRO ITAPECERICA-JOÃO DIAS-SANTO AMARO JD. ÂNGELA-GUARAPIRANGA-SANTO AMARO PAES DE BARROS PARELHEIROS-RIO BONITO-SANTO AMARO PIRITUBA-LAPA-CENTRO SANTO AMARO-NOVE DE JULHO-CENTRO 21 km 18 km 39 km 22 km 24 km 18 km 19 km 26 km 18 km 18 km 15 km 16 km 40 km 19 km 16 km 12 km 22 km 22 km 14 km 19 km
  41. 41. Sao Paulo Hasta 2013, solo uno BRT y 113kms de BRT abiertos 2013: 88% viajes contra 22% metro y 11% surface rail. 41 Expresso Tiradentes, Sao Paulo 23 de Maio, Sao Paulo
  42. 42. 42 Sept/ 2013 Mas de 200kms de carriles exclusivos. Total: 100+220 km Total: 400km (2014)
  43. 43. 43 2014/ 2015 Mas de 150kms de nuevos BRTs. • Nueva concesión; • Buses Nocturnos; • Tickets mensuales; • 70% de la compañía de ingeniaría de trafego trabajando para mejorar la operación de los buses en horario pico
  44. 44. Reconversión del centro y centros comerciales Bogota
  45. 45. Ônibus modernos (Novas tecnologias)
  46. 46. Diesel limpo Trolebus elétrico Híbrido-elétrico Célula a combustível - Hidrogênio Etanol
  47. 47. 1. Costos de Inversión (previsión de los costos reales). 2. Costos de operación (subvenciones) 3. Capacidad e material rodante 4. Tiempo de construcción 5. Creación de una red integrada Quais critérios para escolha da tecnologia
  48. 48. Custo de investimento e material rodante Tecnologia Capacidade (milhões) Custo Investimento (milhões por km) Custo operacional Material rodante TEMPO CONSTRUCAO METRO enterrados ou elevados 70 mil US$ 100 a 400 milhões/ km ALTO Custo veiculo: US$ 5 milhões 500 pessoas 8 a 14 anos BRT Sistemas de buses rápidos 50 mil US$ 2 a 10 milhões/km BAIXO US$ 400 mil 180 lugares 2 a 3 anos BRT 40 mil US$ 4 a 12 milhões/km BAIXO U$$ 600 mil 180 lugares 2 a 3 anos Monoriel VLT 20 mil US$ 100 a 150 milhões/ km MUITO ALTO Custo veiculo: US$ 5 milhões 270 lugares 6 a 8 anos
  49. 49. PROGRAMA DE TESTES COM ONIBUS ELÉTRICOS E HIBRÍDOS NA AMÉRICA LATINA Bogotá, Rio de Janeiro, Santiago e São Paulo
  50. 50. • Emisión de contaminantes locales (HC, CO, NOx, PM); • Eficiencia Energética das diferentes tecnologías (motores combustión y eléctricos – batería e trolebús) • Medición de ruidos e polución interna ómnibus. • Viabilidades económica de las tecnologías e ciclo de vida total en cada ciudades. PROGRAMA DE TESTES:
  51. 51. Como são feitos os testes? Exemplo de medição das emissões segundo a segundo em ônibus rodando por linha comercial com carga máxima. 51
  52. 52. Tecnologías testadas? Total de 16 buses (diesel, híbridos, trolebús e eléctrico con baterías)
  53. 53. Sao Paulo: Buses testados Trolebuses y híbridos serie (Eletra) Híbrido paralelo Volvo Diesel (Mercedez)
  54. 54. 0.0 0.5 1.0 1.5 2.0 2.5 3.0 3.5 4.0 DB1 DB2 HB1 HB2 TB1-1 TB1-2 AverageFE[km/lt] Diesel (DB1 e DB2) Hibrido Paralelo (HB1) e Hibrido serie (HB2) Trólebus (TB1-1-Energia; TB2-Custos), 2,81 1,57 1,37 3,47 2,35 1,98 Eficiencia energética en São Paulo Dúas campanas con híbrido y trolebús.
  55. 55. Consumo de combustível padronizado dos Híbridos e Trólebus em relação ao ônibus diesel base -70% -60% -50% -40% -30% -20% -10% 0% HB1 HB2 TB1-1 TB1-2 FuelConsumpon ReferenceDB1=0% FC FC/pax Energia Custo:
  56. 56. Bogotá: Tecnologías testadas? YoungMan Volvo Bus Eléctrico BYD Diesel Transmilenio
  57. 57. 1,00 1,00 1,00 1,00 1,00 0,05 0,65 0,53 0,95 0,32 0,07 0,47 0,16 0,89 0,38 0,00 0,20 0,40 0,60 0,80 1,00 1,20 THC CO NOx CO2 PM2.5 NormalizedEmissions DB1 HB2 HB1 Bogotá: emisiones normalizadas
  58. 58. Bogotá: Consumo -34% -72% -81% -31% -57% -71% -90% -80% -70% -60% -50% -40% -30% -20% -10% 0% HB1 EB1-1 EB1-2 FuelConsumpon ReferenceDB1=0% FC FC/pax Custo Energia Eléctricos a batería
  59. 59. Bogotá: Eficiência & Consumo Ônibus Eficiência (km/gl) Eficiência % Consumo. (gl/ 100km) Consumo. % Diesel 7,80 0% 13,3 0% Híbrido 11,58 49% /die. 8,9 -34% vs eléc. Elétrico 27,63 254% / die. 3,8 -72% vs Diesel 139% / hb 1 - 57% vs hb 1
  60. 60. Bogotá: ruídos de cabine em rota(dB) 50.00 55.00 60.00 65.00 70.00 75.00 80.00 85.00 1 11 21 31 41 51 61 Noise[dB] Time[sec] DB1 EB1 HB1 0 50 100 150 200 250 300 350 DB1 EB1 HB1 CabinPM[mg/m3] Aerosol em cabine PM1.5
  61. 61. 61 26% 62% 72% 73% 80% 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% 80% 90% 100% CO2 NOx PM1.5 THC CO EmissionReduconparallel-hybridversusdiesel Rio de Janeiro Sao Paulo Average Bogota San ago Reducción de las emisiones de los contaminantes Rio de Janeiro, Sao Paulo, Bogotá e Santiago.
  62. 62. Conclusão geral sobre consumo energético Elétrico Bateria Ferro Redução de 81% Elétrico Bateria Lítio Redução 73% Trólebus Redução de 56% Híbridos: Redução média de 31%.
  63. 63. • Ciudad do México; • Gotemburgo; • Estocolmo; • Londres • Xangai; • Shenzhen, • Changsa; • Hong Kong Nov/Dez 2012: Visita técnica
  64. 64. HYBRID ELECTRIC BUS TEST PROGRAM IN LATIN AMERICA: Economic Analysis of the Program Prepared by:
  65. 65. Lower energy and maintenance costs reduce lifecycle costs for hybrid and electric buses compared to diesel buses Notes: Bus costs/initial taxes are as follows: Diesel ($180K/$29K), Hybrid ($290K/$5K), Electric ($450K/$23K). Battery total value for hybrids are $100K. Battery total value for electrics is $203K. Salvage value represents % of total value discounted to yea zero. Capital investment includes deduction for salvage value; Taxes include initial taxes and annual taxes related to bus ownership 30 192 313 71 200 Hybrid High Case 170 93 213 313 256 Diesel Hybrid Low Case 43 200 30 171 98 62 Electric 40 406 81 321 Maintenance Taxes Fuel/Energy Financing Capital investment and salvage value 10% interest 10 year term 6% interest 10 year term 6% interest 10 year term 6% interest 10 year term (baseline) +20% higher than diesel -10% lower than diesel -20% lower than diesel Zero 10% of battery value 30% of battery value 30% of battery value Lifecycle Costs (‘000 USD, 10-Year Net Present Value) Financing Maintenance costs Salvage Value 10-year total 872 880 806 744 • Hybrid and electric buses have lower lifecycle costs as scale and learning effects drive down maintenance costs • Preferential financing can speed adoption, scale, and learning Bogota
  66. 66. Lifecycle costs of hybrid and electric buses are lower than costs for diesel buses due to preferential financing options Assumes electric buses are partially produced/assembled locally. 10-year diesel costs includes purchase/resale of new bus after 5 years of operation. Capital investment includes deduction for salvage value; Taxes include annual taxes related to bus ownership. Bus costs/initial taxes are as follows: Diesel (BRL 296K/ BRL 123K), Hybrid (BRL 493K/BRL 146K), Electric (BRL 735K/BRL 175K). Battery total value for hybrids are BRL 163K; For electrics value is BRL 340K. Salvage value represents % of total value discounted to year zero. Electric 48 717 85 108 61 43 503 Hybrid Low Case 29 195 472 57 503 472 260 29 Diese l Hybrid High Case 158 280 613 217 100 Fuel/Energy Maintenance Taxes Financing Capital investment and salvage value 10% interest 5 year term 5% interest 10 year term 5% interest 10 year term 5% interest 10 year term (baseline) +20% higher than diesel -10% lower than diesel -50% lower than diesel 20% of bus value (BRL 98,600) 10% of battery value 30% of battery value 30% of battery value Financing Maintenance costs Salvage Value 1,367 1,321 1,242 1,018 • Electric buses achieve ~30% lower lifecycle costs than diesel • Even with 20% higher maintenance costs, hybrids are more attractive than diesel Lifecycle Costs (‘000 BRL, 10-Year Net Present Value) 10-year total São Paulo
  67. 67. Beneficios uso de los buses híbridos y eléctricos • Reducción de contaminantes locales (HC, CO, NOx, PM); • Seguridad energética (reducción de importaciones de diesel). • Estabilidad del precio (electricidad sube menos que el diesel). • Mejora de ruidos e polución interna buses. • Menor costo operacional si considerados todo el ciclo de vida de los vehículos. • Relatoríos: http://www.c40.org/c40_research
  68. 68. C40 Cities Climate Leadership Group
  69. 69. ?Alcaldes de América Latina?
  70. 70. CIUDADES SON EL FUTURO Obrigado Adalberto Maluf
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