11
MegaCidades e a Mudança Climática
C40 Cities Climate Leadership Group
A Rede de Cidades C40Addis AbabaAmsterdamAthensAustinBangkokBarcelonaBaselBeijingBerlinBogotaBuenos AiresCairoCaracasChang...
A importância da C408%of all humans21%of global GDP $$$$$5%of global GHGemissionsCO2eCO2eCO2eCO2eCO2eCO2eCO2eCO2eCO2eCO2eC...
A importância da C408%da população21%do PIB global $$$$$5%da emissãoglobal GEECO2eCO2eCO2eCO2eCO2eCO2eCO2eCO2eCO2eCO2eCO2e...
A importância da C401 BILHÃO DE TONS DE REDUÇÃO POTENCIAL
A importância da C401 BILHÃO DE TONS DE REDUÇÃO POTENCIAL
A importância da C40
A importância da C40
As cidades controlam e decidem63%66%60%57%60%TransitResidentialwasteLandfillsBuildingregulationWater supplyCity planning 5...
As cidades lideram as ações4734climateactionsTransitResidentialwasteLandfillsBuildingregulationWater supplyCity planningOu...
O que a C40 realmente faz?
C40 cria REDES TEMÁTICASINTERCÂMBIOSTÉCNICOSAPOIOÀ PROJETOSPESQUISA &CONHECIMENTO
C40 promove APOIO DIRETOINTERCÂMBIOSTÉCNICOSAPOIOÀ PROJETOSPESQUISA &CONHECIMENTO
C40 compartilha CONHECIMENTOPESQUISA &CONHECIMENTOINTERCÂMBIOSTÉCNICOSAPOIOÀ PROJETOS
C40 está IMPACTANDO
A blog about energyand theenvironment.Go to Blog »World Bank to Help Cities Control Climate ChangeBy ALEXEI BARRIONUEVOPub...
PROGRAMA DE TESTES COM ONIBUSELÉTRICOS E HIBRÍDOS NA AMÉRICA LATINABogotá, Rio de Janeiro, Curitiba, Santiago e São Paulo
• Emissão de poluentes locais (HC, CO, NOx, PM);• Teste piloto com diesel de cana.• Eficiência Energética das diferentes t...
Tecnologias testadas? Total de 16 ônibus(diesel, híbridos, trólebus e elétrico a bateria).
C40-CCI HEBTP: São Paulo (Fase 1)
Como são feitos os testes?Exemplo de medição das emissões segundo a segundo em ônibusrodando por linha comercial com carga...
C40-CCI HEBTP: São Paulo• Quando?–Agosto-Setembro, 2011–Agosto, 2012• Quantos ônibus?–Dois ônibus híbrido, 12m (Volvo e El...
Ônibus testados
Três trechos principais da rota.
270.00.51.01.52.02.53.03.54.0HB1 DB1 DB2 HB1-scAverageFE[km/lt]Eficiência energética em São Paulo1° Campanha com híbrido p...
0.00.51.01.52.02.53.03.54.0DB1 DB2 HB1 HB2 TB1-1 TB1-2AverageFE[km/lt]Diesel (DB1 e DB2) Hibrido Paralelo (HB1) e Hibrido ...
DB1 DB2 HB1 HB2 TB1-1 TB1-2FE [km/L] 1.57 1.37 2.81 1.98 3.47 2.35FE*pax 1.165 1.445 2.215 1.352 2.794 1.8930.000.501.001....
1.00 1.00 1.00 1.000.120.550.860.690.210.530.200.880.000.200.400.600.801.001.20CO NOx NO2 CO2NormalizedEmissionsDB1 HB1 HB...
SP: PM1.5HB1 HB1 SC DB1 DB2PM1.5 Dek [g/km] 0.10 0.008 0.32 0.180.000.050.100.150.200.250.300.350.40PM1.5[g/km]Articulado/...
SP: óxido de nitrogênioHB1 HB1 SC DB1 DB2NOx [g/km] 7.38 13.31 13.52 13.760.002.004.006.008.0010.0012.0014.0016.0018.00NOx...
Teste piloto com 100% diesel cana331.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.000.641.800.880.085.210.001.002.003.004.005.006.00CO NOx CO2 PM1....
Diesel em subidas e descidas051015202530THC*10CONOx/2CO2/100PM1.5*10Emissions[g/km]Slope upward 1Slope downward 1Slope upw...
Hibridos em subidas e descidasAmpla vantagem dos híbridos (e elétricos) nas descidas0510152025THC*10CONOx/2CO2/100PM1.5*10...
Hibridos em subidas e descidasComparison of emissions up- and downhill between DB1 and HB1 (DB1 upward used as reference)0...
Consumo de combustível padronizado dos Híbridos eTrólebus em relação ao ônibus diesel base-70%-60%-50%-40%-30%-20%-10%0%HB...
Eficiência do Ônibus Hibrido e TrólebusMedida km/litro ou kwh0%20%40%60%80%100%120%140%160%HB1 HB2 TB1-1 TB1-2FuelEfficien...
39-5.0010.0015.0020.0025.0030.00BIN 9 BIN 10 BIN 11 BIN 12 BIN 13 BIN 14CO2[g/s]HB1HB2DB1DB2Demanda Energética (Bin)Vehycl...
400.000.050.100.150.200.25BIN 9 BIN 10 BIN 11 BIN 12 BIN 13 BIN 14NOx[g/s]HB1HB2DB1DB2SCRDemanda Energética (Bin)Vehycle S...
051015202530BIN 9 BIN 10 BIN 11 BIN 12 BIN 13 BIN 14CO2[g/s]HB1HB1 SCDB1DB2Demanda Energética (Bin)Vehycle Specific PowerB...
C40-CCI HEBTP: Bogota• Quando?–Maio- Junho- Julho 2012: duas campanhas.• Quantos?–Dois ônibus híbridos paralelos, 12m(Volv...
Tecnologias testadas?
Bogotá: emissões (g/km)Bus THC CO NOx CO2 PM2.5Diesel 0,51 6,1 11,4 936 0,06Híbrido 0,04 2,9 1,8 835 0,02% reducao -92% -5...
001 001 001 001 001000001001001000000000000001000000000000001001001001THC CO NOx CO2 PM2.5NormalizedEmissionsDB1 HB2 HB1Bo...
Bogotá:ruídos de cabine em rota(dB)50.0055.0060.0065.0070.0075.0080.0085.001 11 21 31 41 51 61Noise[dB]Time[sec]DB1EB1HB10...
Bogotá: Consumo-34%-72%-81%-31%-57%-71%-90%-80%-70%-60%-50%-40%-30%-20%-10%0%HB1 EB1-1 EB1-2FuelConsumponReferenceDB1=0%FC...
Bogotá: Eficiência49%254%435%44%131%249%0%50%100%150%200%250%300%350%400%450%500%HB1 EB1-1 EB1-2FuelEfficiencyReferenceDB1...
Bogotá: Eficiência & ConsumoÔnibusEficiência(km/gl)Eficiência %Consumo.(gl/ 100km)Consumo. %Diesel 7,80 0% 13,3 0%Híbrido ...
Bogotá: EconomizadoGallon: $8000ÔnibusUS$ pax/ 100 kmUS$ consum./ 100 kmEconomizado em100 km, %Diesel $ 0,8 59 0Híbrido 1$...
Conclusão geral sobre consumo energéticoElétricoBateria FerroRedução de 81%ElétricoBateria LítioRedução 73%TrólebusRedução...
-34%-72%-81%-31%-57%-71%-90%-80%-70%-60%-50%-40%-30%-20%-10%0%HB1 EB1-1 EB1-2FuelConsumponReferenceDB1=0%FC FC/paxValor Fi...
• Desafio de treinamentos dos motoristas(variação de consumo em 10% diferentes motoristas)• Significativa redução na emiss...
• Aumento de velocidade gera redução significativa noconsumo e nas emissões (IMPORTANCIA BRT).• Grande economia de energia...
• Cidade do México;• Gotemburgo;• Estocolmo;• Londres• Xangai;• Shenzhen,• Changsa;• Hong KongNov/Dez 2012: Visita tecnica...
HYBRID ELECTRIC BUS TESTPROGRAM IN LATIN AMERICA:Economic Analysis of the ProgramPrepared by:
Lower energy and maintenance costs reduce lifecycle costsfor hybrid and electric buses compared to diesel busesNotes: Bus ...
26029Diesel161313441217113Electric487171275073402957Hybrid HighCase19550734044Hybrid Low Case10854Capital investmentand sa...
Lifecycle costs of hybrid and electric buses are lower thancosts for diesel buses due to preferential financing optionsAss...
São Paulo uptake: Policy and favorable financing candrive uptake and conversion to hybrid and electric busesSource: Driver...
São Paulo RoadmapA. BNDES preferential loans forH/E buses at lower interestthan dieselB. Leasing electric battery systemC....
São Paulo uptake: Fleet conversion will be requiredto meet mandates of Climate Change Law by 20189,3001,3954,6503,2551,953...
C40 OLHANDO PARA FUTUROJohannesburg to host 2014 Mayors SummitC40 & Siemens Announce Broad Collaborationon Cities and Sust...
C40 OLHANDO PARA FUTUROwww.C40cities.org
ACOMPANHEM NOSSOS PROGRESSOSC40 Cities@C40citiesAdalberto MalufCity Director, Sao Pauloamaluf@c40.orgMUITO OBRIGADO!
In partnership with:
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Adalberto Maluf - C40 - Resultados de los Programas de Pruebas de Buses Híbridos y Eléctricos

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Adalberto Maluf - C40 - Resultados de los Programas de Pruebas de Buses Híbridos y Eléctricos

  1. 1. 11
  2. 2. MegaCidades e a Mudança Climática
  3. 3. C40 Cities Climate Leadership Group
  4. 4. A Rede de Cidades C40Addis AbabaAmsterdamAthensAustinBangkokBarcelonaBaselBeijingBerlinBogotaBuenos AiresCairoCaracasChangwonChicagoCopenhagenCuritibaDelhiDhakaHanoiHeidelbergHo Chi Minh CityHong KongHoustonIstanbulJakartaJohannesburgKarachiLagosLimaLondonLos AngelesMadrid
  5. 5. A importância da C408%of all humans21%of global GDP $$$$$5%of global GHGemissionsCO2eCO2eCO2eCO2eCO2eCO2eCO2eCO2eCO2eCO2eCO2eCO2eCO2eCO2eCO2eCO2eCO2eCO2e
  6. 6. A importância da C408%da população21%do PIB global $$$$$5%da emissãoglobal GEECO2eCO2eCO2eCO2eCO2eCO2eCO2eCO2eCO2eCO2eCO2eCO2eCO2eCO2eCO2eCO2eCO2eCO2e
  7. 7. A importância da C401 BILHÃO DE TONS DE REDUÇÃO POTENCIAL
  8. 8. A importância da C401 BILHÃO DE TONS DE REDUÇÃO POTENCIAL
  9. 9. A importância da C40
  10. 10. A importância da C40
  11. 11. As cidades controlam e decidem63%66%60%57%60%TransitResidentialwasteLandfillsBuildingregulationWater supplyCity planning 50%80%87%Outdoor lightingCity streets &parking
  12. 12. As cidades lideram as ações4734climateactionsTransitResidentialwasteLandfillsBuildingregulationWater supplyCity planningOutdoor lightingCity streets &parking417156321343192388121194
  13. 13. O que a C40 realmente faz?
  14. 14. C40 cria REDES TEMÁTICASINTERCÂMBIOSTÉCNICOSAPOIOÀ PROJETOSPESQUISA &CONHECIMENTO
  15. 15. C40 promove APOIO DIRETOINTERCÂMBIOSTÉCNICOSAPOIOÀ PROJETOSPESQUISA &CONHECIMENTO
  16. 16. C40 compartilha CONHECIMENTOPESQUISA &CONHECIMENTOINTERCÂMBIOSTÉCNICOSAPOIOÀ PROJETOS
  17. 17. C40 está IMPACTANDO
  18. 18. A blog about energyand theenvironment.Go to Blog »World Bank to Help Cities Control Climate ChangeBy ALEXEI BARRIONUEVOPublished: June 1, 2011SÃO PAULO, Brazil — The World Bank signed an agreement onWednesday with mayors from 40 of the world’s biggest cities to workon technical and financial assistance for projects to minimize theeffects of climate change.The deal, announced at the C40 largecities climate meeting here, will easeaccess to financing for climate-change-reduction projects. It was hailed bymany of the mayors, including MichaelR. Bloomberg of New York City, andby former President Bill Clinton, whoattended the event as part of a new partnership with Mr. Bloomberg.“The World Bank announcement is terrifically important,” Mr. Clinton said. “It will givecredibility to these projects to get private capital.”The agreement will make it easier for investors who have been hesitant to finance projectsto assess city action plans by providing a standard approach, said Robert B. Zoellick, theWorld Bank’s president.It will also provide a common way to measure and report on the greenhouse gas emissionsof cities, easing access to carbon financing, he said. No single standard exists for reportingcitywide carbon emissions.Mayors said they were eager to gain access to the World Bank’s climate investment funds,which totaled $6.4 billion last year. Mr. Zoellick said the bank hoped to use that money toattract as much as $50 billion in private capital.“What is holding back the sustainable clean technology revolution for a lot of mayors andSuHOME PAGE TODAYS PAPER VIDEO MOST POPULAR TIMES TOPICSEnvironmentWORLD U.S. N.Y. / REGION BUSINESS TECHNOLOGY SCIENCE HEALTH SPORTS OPINION AENVIRONMENT SPACE & COSMOSRECOMMENDTWITTERLINKEDINSIGN IN TOE-MAILPRINTREPRINTSSHAREWorld Bank to Ease Access to Climate Change Money - NYTim... http://www.nA blog about energyand theenvironment.Go to Blog »World Bank to Help Cities Control Climate CBy ALEXEI BARRIONUEVOPublished: June 1, 2011SÃO PAULO, Brazil — The World Bank signed an agreement onWednesday with mayors from 40 of the world’s biggest cities to workon technical and financial assistance for projects to minimize theeffects of climate change.The deal, announced at the C40 largecities climate meeting here, will easeaccess to financing for climate-change-reduction projects. It was hailed bymany of the mayors, including MichaelHOME PAGE TODAYS PAPER VIDEO MOST POPULAR TIMES TOPICSEnvironmenWORLD U.S. N.Y. / REGION BUSINESS TECHNOLOGY SCIENCE HEALTHENVIRONMENTWorld Bank to Ease Access to Climate Change Money - NYTim...Search All NYTimes.comAdvertise on NYTimes.comAn Unlikely Power Duo Emerges in the Global FightAgainst Climate ChangeTodd Heisler/The New York TimesBill Clinton and Michael R. Bloomberg announced a merger of initiatives in New York last month.By JOHN M. BRODERPublished: May 28, 2011WASHINGTON — Bill Clinton and Michael R. Bloomberg haveLog In With FacebookLunar Colonies,Lunacy andLossesWildlife ActivistsFollow LoneWolf’s Trek IntoCaliforniaLog in to see what your friendsare sharing on nytimes.com.Privacy Policy | What’s This?What’s Popular NowAds by Google whats this?NYSERDA GrantsLearn How You Can Save Money & Energy With Our FreeSolutions Kit.nyserdasolutions.orgEpson WorkForce® ProWorlds Fastest 2-sided Printer Explore Epsons newWorkForce Pro.Epson.com/WorkforceAlzheimers FoundationAlzheimers Foundation of America Reach out to us for help . . .alzfdn.orgSubscribe: Home Delivery / Digital Log In Register Now HelpHOME PAGE TODAYS PAPER VIDEO MOST POPULAR TIMES TOPICSEnvironmentWORLD U.S. N.Y. / REGION BUSINESS TECHNOLOGY SCIENCE HEALTH SPORTS OPINION ARTS STYLE TRAVEL JOBS REAL ESTATEENVIRONMENT SPACE & COSMOSRECOMMENDBloomberg and Clinton Team Up to Fight Climate Change - N... http://www.nytimes.com/2011/05/29/science/earth/29enviro.htmlSubscribe 108Like87KCONNECTSearch the Huffington PostLucia Graveslucia@huffingtonpost.comBecome a fan of thisreporterGETUPDATESFROMLuciaTackling Climate Change: New Reports Underscore Role OfLocalLeadersFirstPosted:5/31/1109:02PMETUpdated:7/31/1106:12AMETReactWASHINGTON -- More than 40 of the worlds largest cities have reported their greenhouse gas emissions along with acomprehensiveanalysisofanyclimatechange-relatedreformsinstudiesreleasedTuesdaynight.Gathered from areas representing 300 million people and ten percent of global CO2 emissions, the reports show the impactparticipating cities have on climate change and outline the role local leaders could play in reducing their citiesʼ carbonSubscribe 108TION: U.S.Canada FR France US United States UK United Kingdomuary 28, 2012NNECTch the Huffington Posta Graves@huffingtonpost.comome a fan of thisrterGET UPDATES FROM Luciackling Climate Change: New Reports Underscore Role Ofocal LeadersPosted: 5/31/11 09:02 PM ET Updated: 7/31/11 06:12 AM ETctSHINGTON -- More than 40 of the worlds largest cities have reported their greenhouse gas emissions along with aprehensive analysis of any climate change-related reforms in studies released Tuesday night.hered from areas representing 300 million people and ten percent of global CO2 emissions, the reports show the impactcipating cities have on climate change and outline the role local leaders could play in reducing their citiesʼ carbonssions.mly believe that if you canʼt measure it, you canʼt manage it,” said New York City Mayor Michael Bloomberg in a statementuesday. “That is true in business and it is true in government. Only by regularly and rigorously measuring and analysingefforts can we learn what works, what doesnʼt and why, and take effective action."trated by partisan bickering and stalemate in Congress, local leaders at the fourth biennial Conference of Mayors, aate Change: New Reports Underscore Role Of Lo... http://www.huffingtonpost.com/2011/05/31/local-leaders-fightin...Related News: Environment ! Executive ! Africa ! Canada ! Europe ! France ! Germany ! Latin America !U.K. & Ireland ! U.S. ! Energy Markets ! Municipal Bonds ! Real Estate ! TechnologyTweetTweet 112Print Email0Cities From London to Portland SlashEmissions as UN Climate Envoys BickerQBy Alex Morales - May 31, 2011 8:31 AM ETCities from Johannesburg to Los Angeles are changing street lights,insulating buildings and promoting bicycling to slash carbonemissions as envoys at United Nations talks bicker about bindinggreenhouse-gas goals.“While national governments continue their excruciatingly frustratingdialog on climate change, we in the cities are acting,” Portland,Oregon Mayor Sam Adams said in an interview. “It’s sheer common AdvertisementSumitomo to Invest $322 Million in Brazilian Plant,Estado SaysQVekselberg Says He’ll Drop Gazprom Power MergerIf No Deal SoonQIndonesias Wirjawan Expects Resumption in DohaTalks (Video)QCameron Says Hester’s Decision Over Bonus Is ‘AMatter for Him’QRate These Stories More News »ShareShare 46MoreMore StoriesDOW 12,660.50 -74.17 -0.58%S&P 500 1,316.33 -2.10 -0.16%NASDAQ 2,816.55 +11.27 0.40%MARKET SNAPSHOTU.S. EUROPE ASIAGold 1,735.40 +0.32% EUR : USD 1.3220 0.8500% Nasdaq 2,816.55 +0.40% Dow 12,660.50 -0.58% S&P 500 1,316.33 -0.16% FTSE 100 5,733.45 -1.07% STOXX 50RecommendOur Company Professional Anywhere Sign inSearch News, Quotes and OpinionCities From London to Portland Slash Emissions as UN Climat... http://www.bloomberg.com/news/2011-05-31/portland-copenha...Hosted by Search NewsMayors reach climate deal with World Bank(AFP) – Jun 1, 2011SAO PAULO — Leaders of the C40 Mayors Summit on climate change said Wednesday thegroup had reached a financing agreement with the World Bank to help the worlds major citiesbetter adapt to climate change"The partnership with the World Bank creates opportunities for financial support," said New Yorkcity Mayor Michael Bloomberg."If we dont stop polluting our world right now, and continuing to spill greenhouse gases into theatmosphere, the consequences may be very well irreversible," Bloomberg said.The 40 major cities whose mayors are attending the Sao Paulo conference -- including NewYork, Jakarta, Mexico City, Berlin, Barcelona, Rio de Janeiro and Paris -- are responsible for 12percent of global greenhouse emissions."Cities are also paying big price of climate change," said World Bank president Robert Zoellick.New YBloomSumm0+You Search Images Videos Maps News Shopping Gmail MoreAFP: Mayors reach climate deal with World Bank http://www.google.com/hosteCidades estão liderando AGENDA
  19. 19. PROGRAMA DE TESTES COM ONIBUSELÉTRICOS E HIBRÍDOS NA AMÉRICA LATINABogotá, Rio de Janeiro, Curitiba, Santiago e São Paulo
  20. 20. • Emissão de poluentes locais (HC, CO, NOx, PM);• Teste piloto com diesel de cana.• Eficiência Energética das diferentes tecnologias(motores combustão e elétricos – bateria e trólebus).• Medição de ruídos e poluição interna ônibus.• Viabilidade econômica das tecnologias e ciclo de vidatotal em cada cidade.PROGRAMA DE TESTES:
  21. 21. Tecnologias testadas? Total de 16 ônibus(diesel, híbridos, trólebus e elétrico a bateria).
  22. 22. C40-CCI HEBTP: São Paulo (Fase 1)
  23. 23. Como são feitos os testes?Exemplo de medição das emissões segundo a segundo em ônibusrodando por linha comercial com carga máxima.23
  24. 24. C40-CCI HEBTP: São Paulo• Quando?–Agosto-Setembro, 2011–Agosto, 2012• Quantos ônibus?–Dois ônibus híbrido, 12m (Volvo e Eletra)(tecnologia em paralelo e outro em série)–Dois sombra diesel 12m & outro 18m–Trolebus (Eletra)
  25. 25. Ônibus testados
  26. 26. Três trechos principais da rota.
  27. 27. 270.00.51.01.52.02.53.03.54.0HB1 DB1 DB2 HB1-scAverageFE[km/lt]Eficiência energética em São Paulo1° Campanha com híbrido paralelo (testes com diesel cana).2,811,571,372,68HB1-sc : 100% DIESEL CANADiesel Padron (DB1) Diesel 18m (DB2) Hibrido Paralelo 12m (HB1)
  28. 28. 0.00.51.01.52.02.53.03.54.0DB1 DB2 HB1 HB2 TB1-1 TB1-2AverageFE[km/lt]Diesel (DB1 e DB2) Hibrido Paralelo (HB1) e Hibrido serie (HB2)Trólebus (TB1-1-Energia; TB2-Custos),2,811,571,373,472,351,98Eficiência energética em São Paulo2° Campanha com híbrido serie e trólebus.
  29. 29. DB1 DB2 HB1 HB2 TB1-1 TB1-2FE [km/L] 1.57 1.37 2.81 1.98 3.47 2.35FE*pax 1.165 1.445 2.215 1.352 2.794 1.8930.000.501.001.502.002.503.003.504.000.00.51.01.52.02.53.03.54.0NormalizedFE*paxMeasuredFE[km/L]Diesel 13,2m: 76 passageiros - Diesel 18m: 109 passageirosHibrido1: 84 passageiros - Hibrido2:69 passageiros - Trolebus: 81 passageirosSão Paulo: Eficiência energética padronizadapela capacidade de passageiros máxima.22151165144527941,8931352Articulado
  30. 30. 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.000.120.550.860.690.210.530.200.880.000.200.400.600.801.001.20CO NOx NO2 CO2NormalizedEmissionsDB1 HB1 HB2Sao Paulo com emissões padronizadas.Comparação Híbridos x Diesel
  31. 31. SP: PM1.5HB1 HB1 SC DB1 DB2PM1.5 Dek [g/km] 0.10 0.008 0.32 0.180.000.050.100.150.200.250.300.350.40PM1.5[g/km]Articulado/ Padron- 50%-68%-97%
  32. 32. SP: óxido de nitrogênioHB1 HB1 SC DB1 DB2NOx [g/km] 7.38 13.31 13.52 13.760.002.004.006.008.0010.0012.0014.0016.0018.00NOx[g/km]- 45%
  33. 33. Teste piloto com 100% diesel cana331.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.000.641.800.880.085.210.001.002.003.004.005.006.00CO NOx CO2 PM1.5 NO2NormalizedEmissionsHB1-diesel HB1-sc diesel
  34. 34. Diesel em subidas e descidas051015202530THC*10CONOx/2CO2/100PM1.5*10Emissions[g/km]Slope upward 1Slope downward 1Slope upward 2Slope downward 2
  35. 35. Hibridos em subidas e descidasAmpla vantagem dos híbridos (e elétricos) nas descidas0510152025THC*10CONOx/2CO2/100PM1.5*10Emissions[g/km]Slope upward 1Slope downward 1Slope upward 2Slope downward 2
  36. 36. Hibridos em subidas e descidasComparison of emissions up- and downhill between DB1 and HB1 (DB1 upward used as reference)00.20.40.60.811.2THC*10 CO NOx/2 CO2/100 PM1.5*10Emissions[g/km]DB1 upwardDB1 downwardHB1 upwardHB1 downward
  37. 37. Consumo de combustível padronizado dos Híbridos eTrólebus em relação ao ônibus diesel base-70%-60%-50%-40%-30%-20%-10%0%HB1 HB2 TB1-1 TB1-2FuelConsumponReferenceDB1=0%FC FC/pax EnergiaCusto
  38. 38. Eficiência do Ônibus Hibrido e TrólebusMedida km/litro ou kwh0%20%40%60%80%100%120%140%160%HB1 HB2 TB1-1 TB1-2FuelEfficiencyReferenceDB1=0%FE FE*paxEnergiaCusto:
  39. 39. 39-5.0010.0015.0020.0025.0030.00BIN 9 BIN 10 BIN 11 BIN 12 BIN 13 BIN 14CO2[g/s]HB1HB2DB1DB2Demanda Energética (Bin)Vehycle Specific Power
  40. 40. 400.000.050.100.150.200.25BIN 9 BIN 10 BIN 11 BIN 12 BIN 13 BIN 14NOx[g/s]HB1HB2DB1DB2SCRDemanda Energética (Bin)Vehycle Specific Power
  41. 41. 051015202530BIN 9 BIN 10 BIN 11 BIN 12 BIN 13 BIN 14CO2[g/s]HB1HB1 SCDB1DB2Demanda Energética (Bin)Vehycle Specific PowerBIN 11 – Inicio da aceleraçãoDieselCana
  42. 42. C40-CCI HEBTP: Bogota• Quando?–Maio- Junho- Julho 2012: duas campanhas.• Quantos?–Dois ônibus híbridos paralelos, 12m(Volvo e YoungMan)–Sombra ônibus diesel, 12m, Euro II.–Ônibus elétrico à baterias de fosfatoferro.(BYD)
  43. 43. Tecnologias testadas?
  44. 44. Bogotá: emissões (g/km)Bus THC CO NOx CO2 PM2.5Diesel 0,51 6,1 11,4 936 0,06Híbrido 0,04 2,9 1,8 835 0,02% reducao -92% -53% -84% -11% -62%Ônibus elétrico: sem emissões de poluentes
  45. 45. 001 001 001 001 001000001001001000000000000001000000000000001001001001THC CO NOx CO2 PM2.5NormalizedEmissionsDB1 HB2 HB1Bogotá: emissões normalizadas
  46. 46. Bogotá:ruídos de cabine em rota(dB)50.0055.0060.0065.0070.0075.0080.0085.001 11 21 31 41 51 61Noise[dB]Time[sec]DB1EB1HB1050100150200250300350DB1 EB1 HB1CabinPM[mg/m3]Aerosol em cabine PM1.5
  47. 47. Bogotá: Consumo-34%-72%-81%-31%-57%-71%-90%-80%-70%-60%-50%-40%-30%-20%-10%0%HB1 EB1-1 EB1-2FuelConsumponReferenceDB1=0%FC FC/paxCusto Energia
  48. 48. Bogotá: Eficiência49%254%435%44%131%249%0%50%100%150%200%250%300%350%400%450%500%HB1 EB1-1 EB1-2FuelEfficiencyReferenceDB1=0%FE FE*paxCustoEnergia
  49. 49. Bogotá: Eficiência & ConsumoÔnibusEficiência(km/gl)Eficiência %Consumo.(gl/ 100km)Consumo. %Diesel 7,80 0% 13,3 0%Híbrido 11,58 49% /die. 8,9 -34% vs eléc.Elétrico 27,63254% / die.3,8-72% vs Diesel139% / hb 1- 57% vs hb 1
  50. 50. Bogotá: EconomizadoGallon: $8000ÔnibusUS$ pax/ 100 kmUS$ consum./ 100 kmEconomizado em100 km, %Diesel $ 0,8 59 0Híbrido 1$ 0,539 -34%Elétrico $ 0,3 17-72% / Die.-57% / hb.1
  51. 51. Conclusão geral sobre consumo energéticoElétricoBateria FerroRedução de 81%ElétricoBateria LítioRedução 73%TrólebusReduçãode 56%Híbridos: Redução média de 31%.
  52. 52. -34%-72%-81%-31%-57%-71%-90%-80%-70%-60%-50%-40%-30%-20%-10%0%HB1 EB1-1 EB1-2FuelConsumponReferenceDB1=0%FC FC/paxValor Financeiro Valor EnergéticoHíbridoElétricoMaior eficiência nos Ônibus Hibridos e ElétricosLitro ou kilowatts/ kilometro
  53. 53. • Desafio de treinamentos dos motoristas(variação de consumo em 10% diferentes motoristas)• Significativa redução na emissões de poluentes locaisnos híbridos (e gases efeito estufa – GEE).• Zero emissões de poluentes locais nos ônibuselétricos (muito baixa emissão de GEE).• Custo de operação e manutenção afetam cicloseconômicos mais que custos de capital.Conclusões iniciais
  54. 54. • Aumento de velocidade gera redução significativa noconsumo e nas emissões (IMPORTANCIA BRT).• Grande economia de energia com eletricidade.– Híbridos entre 31% a 39% em planície.– Trólebus geram redução de 56% no consumo.– Ônibus elétricos teve redução média de 77%.Ônibus elétricos com baterias de fosfato de ferroforam a tecnologia com melhor desempenho detodas (81% redução consumo).– Alguns tipos de elétricos não precisam de subsidiosConclusões iniciais
  55. 55. • Cidade do México;• Gotemburgo;• Estocolmo;• Londres• Xangai;• Shenzhen,• Changsa;• Hong KongNov/Dez 2012: Visita tecnicaHIBRIDOSBATERIASELETRICOS
  56. 56. HYBRID ELECTRIC BUS TESTPROGRAM IN LATIN AMERICA:Economic Analysis of the ProgramPrepared by:
  57. 57. Lower energy and maintenance costs reduce lifecycle costsfor hybrid and electric buses compared to diesel busesNotes: Bus costs/initial taxes are as follows: Diesel ($180K/$29K), Hybrid ($290K/$5K), Electric ($450K/$23K). Battery totalvalue for hybrids are $100K. Battery total value for electrics is $203K. Salvage value represents % of total value discounted to yeazero.Capital investment includes deduction for salvage value; Taxes include initial taxes and annual taxes related to bus ownership3019231371200Hybrid High Case17093213313256Diesel Hybrid Low Case43200301719862Electric4040681321MaintenanceTaxesFuel/EnergyFinancingCapital investmentand salvage value10% interest10 year term6% interest10 year term6% interest10 year term6% interest10 year term(baseline)+20% higherthan diesel-10% lowerthan diesel-20% lowerthan dieselZero10% ofbattery value30% ofbattery value30% ofbattery valueLifecycle Costs (‘000 USD, 10-Year Net Present Value)FinancingMaintenancecostsSalvage Value10-yeartotal872 880 806 744• Hybrid and electric buseshave lower lifecycle costsas scale and learningeffects drive downmaintenance costs• Preferential financing canspeed adoption, scale,and learningBogota
  58. 58. 26029Diesel161313441217113Electric487171275073402957Hybrid HighCase19550734044Hybrid Low Case10854Capital investmentand salvage valueFinancingFuel/EnergyMaintenanceTaxes10% interest5 year term5% interest10 year term5% interest10 year term5% interest10 year term(baseline)+20% higherthan diesel-10% lowerthan diesel-50% lowerthan diesel30% of bus value(BRL 123,280)10% ofbattery value30% ofbattery value30% ofbattery valueFinancingMaintenancecostsSalvage Value1,246 1,194 1,115 1,054• Electric buses achievesignificant savings inlifecycle costscompared to diesel• Hybrids are less costlythan diesel evenaccounting for highermaintenance costsElectrics achieve savings of ~20% compared to dieselassuming partially local production andLifecycle Costs (‘000 BRL, 10-Year Net Present Value)Assumes electric buses are partially produced/assembled locally, bypassing most import taxes. 10-year diesel costsincludes purchase/resale of new bus after 5 years of operation. Capital investment includes deduction for salvage value;Taxes include annual taxes related to bus ownership. Bus costs/initial taxes are as follows: Diesel (BRL 329K/ BRL 140K),Hybrid (BRL 493K/BRL 151K), Electric (BRL 735K/BRL 175K). Battery total value for hybrids are BRL 163K; For electricsvalue is BRL 340K. Salvage value represents % of total value discounted to year zero.10-yeartotalRio deJaneiro
  59. 59. Lifecycle costs of hybrid and electric buses are lower thancosts for diesel buses due to preferential financing optionsAssumes electric buses are partially produced/assembled locally. 10-year diesel costs includes purchase/resale of newbus after 5 years of operation. Capital investment includes deduction for salvage value; Taxes include annual taxes related to bus ownership.Bus costs/initial taxes are as follows: Diesel (BRL 296K/ BRL 123K), Hybrid (BRL 493K/BRL 146K), Electric (BRL 735K/BRL 175K).Battery total value for hybrids are BRL 163K; For electrics value is BRL 340K. Salvage value represents % of total value discounted to year zero.Electric48717851086143503Hybrid Low Case291954725750347226029DieselHybrid High Case158280613217100Fuel/EnergyMaintenanceTaxesFinancingCapital investmentand salvage value10% interest5 year term5% interest10 year term5% interest10 year term5% interest10 year term(baseline)+20% higherthan diesel-10% lowerthan diesel-50% lowerthan diesel20% of bus value(BRL 98,600)10% ofbattery value30% ofbattery value30% ofbattery valueFinancingMaintenancecostsSalvage Value1,367 1,321 1,242 1,018• Electric buses achieve~30% lower lifecyclecosts than diesel• Even with 20% highermaintenance costs,hybrids are moreattractive than dieselLifecycle Costs (‘000 BRL, 10-Year Net Present Value)10-yeartotalSão Paulo
  60. 60. São Paulo uptake: Policy and favorable financing candrive uptake and conversion to hybrid and electric busesSource: Drivers based on discussions with officials and operators in São Paulo. Uptake scenarios based onDalberg analysis and assumptions regarding potential conversion ratesPrimary Drivers of Uptake in São Paulo High Uptake ScenarioAssumptions:• Climate Law introduces exemption for diesel hybrids• Large operators become comfortable with operation andmaintenance of hybrid technologies in Curitiba• New/renewed contracts include strict requirements totransition to cleaner fuels more quickly• BNDES establishes concessional finance lines for hybridand electric buses significantly below rates for dieselPotential uptake:• ~2% of fleet transitions to hybrid or electric each year2013-2015, rising to 5% in 2016 and 10% in 2019• 12% of fleet (~1,200 buses) is H/E by 2016; ~70% by2023 (~7,400 buses)Low Uptake ScenarioAssumptions:• Ethanol and/or sugarcane diesel prices declinesteadily• BNDES unable to provide additional financingincentives for hybrid or electric buses• No tax relief provided for imported electric busesPotential uptake:• Minimal uptake by 2016 (approximately 300 buses)• Gradual increase in uptake as cost and performanceimprove; ~13% of fleet transitions by 2020 (~1,330buses); ~30 of fleet transitions by 2023 (~3,200)Policy• Enforcement of existing Climate Change Law• Law requires bus operators to switch away from fossil-based fuels entirely by 2018; Legislation favors electric,biodiesel, ethanol, and sugarcane diesel technologies• Adding technology or fuel performance standards in newBRT concession awards and existing concession renewals• Standards can be included in 4 new BRT routes and inthe renewal of other existing contracts to requiretransition to hybrid or electric technologiesEconomic/Market• Low-interest financing for hybrid & electric technologies• BNDES may reverse financing incentives that currentlyfavor diesel buses over hybrid and electric buses• Reduce/eliminate unfavorable taxes and subsidies• Current high tax rates (import and other taxes) add~35% to the cost of new electric buses imported• Petrobras subsidizes the cost of diesel fuel foroperators, while electricity is taxed heavilyOther• Demonstrated evidence of the advantages andoperational east of hybrids in other Brazilian cities• Small hybrid fleet has begun service in Curitiba, andhas the potential to provide tangible favorableevidence to reduce transition risk for other operatorsin BrazilSão Paulo
  61. 61. São Paulo RoadmapA. BNDES preferential loans forH/E buses at lower interestthan dieselB. Leasing electric battery systemC. Fixed maintenance/fuel/energy fee to reduce costs andtechnological uncertaintyD. Extend life contracts andeliminate 5 year averagemaximum on contractsPotential solutionsEstimatedimpactSource: Interviews with stakeholders; CCI/C40; Dalberg analysisTimeframe needed for implementation (years)1 2 3 4 5Stakeholderto influenceBNDES/BuyersManufacturersManufacturersCity officialsState/CityofficialsState officialsCity officialsMin.Com./Fin./IndMin.Com./Fin./IndMinistry of Ind.Ministry of Ener.BNDES/BID/ManufacturersEconomicPolicyMiscLikelyfeasibilityE. Fuel efficiency standards fornew concessions1.Inter-municipal 4 newBRTs2.City new BRT (150kms)F. Preferential import tax ratesfor H/EG. Incentives locally produceH/EH. Reduce subsidies to dieselI. Reduce taxes to electricityJ. Leasing bus entity toeliminate technologicalrisk/resellingHigh PotentialSão Paulo
  62. 62. São Paulo uptake: Fleet conversion will be requiredto meet mandates of Climate Change Law by 20189,3001,3954,6503,2551,9534,3712,9762,5114,0922,6973,0693,8132,4183,6273,5342,1393,2551,8605,1152,7901,3956,0452,3259306,9751,8604658,1022442332384,185Diesel (15%)Electric (50%)Hybrid (35%)8,829• Additional ~800 buses enter servicefor BRTs; 1/3 of new BRT buses arehybrid• Another ~250 electric buses enterserviceIncremental conversion of ~2% of fleet tohybrid and electric buses annually, rising to5% in 2016 and 10% in 2019By 2023 over 3/4of fleet iscomposed ofhybrid or electricbusesPotential Fleet Transition in São Paulo, 2013-2023 (Illustrative High Uptake Scenario)São PauloSource: Dalberg estimates based on projections and assumed annual conversion rates202320222021202020192018201720162015201420132012Assumptions and Drivers of Change:• Local production to avoid Import tax and/or reduction of taxes• Climate Change Law provides exemption for hybrid (diesel) buses, catalyzing their growth• Share of hybrid and electric buses in fleet reaches 55% by 2018; Remaining diesel buses shift to biodiesel blend &sugarcane to comply with Climate Law• Share of hybrid and electric buses increases by 5% points in each year from 2014 to 2018, growth slowing starting in2019
  63. 63. C40 OLHANDO PARA FUTUROJohannesburg to host 2014 Mayors SummitC40 & Siemens Announce Broad Collaborationon Cities and SustainabilityC40 Cities Climate Leadership Group andWorld Resources Institute (WRI) Partner toPromote City Transit Solutions
  64. 64. C40 OLHANDO PARA FUTUROwww.C40cities.org
  65. 65. ACOMPANHEM NOSSOS PROGRESSOSC40 Cities@C40citiesAdalberto MalufCity Director, Sao Pauloamaluf@c40.orgMUITO OBRIGADO!
  66. 66. In partnership with:

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