Protein synthesis

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Protein synthesis

  1. 1. PROTEIN SYNTHESIS<br />·The basic building block of which proteins are made are called amino acids.<br />·All amino acids have same basic structure<br />H (R)<br />CH3 (R)<br />H2N<br />(amino group)<br />C<br />COOH<br />(an acid group<br />H2N<br />C<br />COOH<br />H<br />H<br />Glycine<br />Alanine<br />·When two amino acids combine the product is dipeptide and when more than two or more amino acids combine a polypeptide is formed<br />·There are just twenty different amino acids from which proteins are formed.<br />·The order in which the amino acids are attached to each other determines which protein is formed<br />·The sequence of the bases determine which protein is going to be formed<br />
  2. 2. Step 1: DNA forms mRNA<br />·Weak hydrogen bonds break and DNA splits into two single strands<br />·Alongside one of the strands free nucleotides are picked up to make a mRNA<br />·REMEMBER IN RNA THYMINE IS REPLACED BY URACIL<br />·The process of forming mRNA is called transcription and enzyme transcriptase helps in transcription<br />·Three adjacent bases on mRNA make up a CODON<br />
  3. 3. Step 2: mRNA moves out of nucleus<br />·mRNA leaves the nucleus and attaches the ribosomes in the cytoplasm<br />
  4. 4. Step 3: tRNA picks up amino acids<br />(TRANSLATION)<br />tRNA has triplets of bases called anti-codon<br />·tRNA picks up amino acids from the cytoplasm<br />·Each tRNA can only pick up one type of amino acid<br />·The tRNAs with their attached amino acids move to the ribosomes<br />
  5. 5. (TRANSLATION)<br />Step 4: tRNA attaches to mRNA<br />·Each tRNA moves along the mRNA until its anti-codon matches the bases on the mRNA codon<br />
  6. 6. Step 5: Amino acids join<br />(TRANSLATION)<br />·The amino acids, attached to tRNAs detach from the tRNA<br />·The amino acids combine by dehydration synthesis to form dipeptides or polypeptides<br />·The tRNA breaks from ribosomes in search of new amino acids to make more proteins<br />
  7. 7. GeneticsTour.exe<br />
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