TISSUES, CELLS AND MOLECULAR STUDIES<br />DNA, RNA MEIOSIS AND GENETICS<br />
STRUCTURE OF NUCLEUS<br />·Nuclear membrane<br />·Nucleoplasm<br />·Nucleolus<br />·Chromatin Network – contains DNA<br />...
Functions of DNA<br />·It controls the synthesis of proteins<br />·It carries hereditary characteristics from parents to t...
Structure of dna<br />·DNA is made up of monomers (smaller units) called nucleotides.<br />·Each nucleotide is made up of<...
STRUCTURE OF DNA<br />·The sugar molecule of one nucleotide attaches to the phosphate ion of another sugar-phosphatee bond...
DNA Finger Printing<br />DNA Fingerprints: are a pattern of black bars left on X-ray film when an extract of DNA is put th...
STRUCTURE OF RNA<br />·RNA is a single stranded structure<br />·It is not coiled<br />·The sugar found in RNA is Ribose<br...
DNA
DNA
DNA
DNA
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DNA

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DNA

  1. 1. TISSUES, CELLS AND MOLECULAR STUDIES<br />DNA, RNA MEIOSIS AND GENETICS<br />
  2. 2. STRUCTURE OF NUCLEUS<br />·Nuclear membrane<br />·Nucleoplasm<br />·Nucleolus<br />·Chromatin Network – contains DNA<br />·Small amounts of DNA are also found within the chloroplasts called CHLOROPLASTIC DNA<br />·Also found in the mitochondria called MITOCHONDRIAL DNA<br />
  3. 3. Functions of DNA<br />·It controls the synthesis of proteins<br />·It carries hereditary characteristics from parents to their offspring.<br />·Chloroplastic DNA and mitochondrial DNA control DNA synthesis within these organelles themselves.<br />
  4. 4. Structure of dna<br />·DNA is made up of monomers (smaller units) called nucleotides.<br />·Each nucleotide is made up of<br />·A sugar<br />·A phophate ion<br />·A nitrogenous base<br />·Four different types of Nitrogenous base<br />·Cytosine<br />·Guanine Pyrimidines<br />·Adenine<br />·Thymine Purines<br />
  5. 5. STRUCTURE OF DNA<br />·The sugar molecule of one nucleotide attaches to the phosphate ion of another sugar-phosphatee bonds.<br />
  6. 6.
  7. 7. DNA Finger Printing<br />DNA Fingerprints: are a pattern of black bars left on X-ray film when an extract of DNA is put through a special biotechnical process.<br />A DNA fingerprint is made by extracting a DNA sample using body tissue or fluid such as blood, saliva or using hair.<br />Uses of DNA fingerprinting:<br />·To identify genetic diseases<br />·Diagnosis of inherited disorders<br />·Developing cures for inherited disorders<br />·Used as biological evidence in criminal cases<br />·For identification of relatives<br />
  8. 8.
  9. 9. STRUCTURE OF RNA<br />·RNA is a single stranded structure<br />·It is not coiled<br />·The sugar found in RNA is Ribose<br />·The nitrogenous base Thymine is replaced by uracil<br />·The pyrimidine base of RNA are cytosine and uracil<br />·The chains of RNA are shorter<br />There are 3 types of RNA. All three types play an important role in protein synthesis.<br />·Ribosomal RNA (rRNA)<br />·Messenger RNA (mRNA)<br />·Transfer RNA (tRNA)<br />
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