TISSUES, CELLS AND MOLECULAR STUDIES DNA, RNA MEIOSIS AND GENETICS
STRUCTURE OF NUCLEUS ·Nuclear membrane ·Nucleoplasm ·Nucleolus ·Chromatin Network – contains DNA ·Small amounts of DNA are also found within the chloroplasts called CHLOROPLASTIC DNA ·Also found in the mitochondria called MITOCHONDRIAL DNA
Functions of DNA ·It controls the synthesis of proteins ·It carries hereditary characteristics from parents to their offspring. ·Chloroplastic DNA and mitochondrial DNA control DNA synthesis within these organelles themselves.
Structure of dna ·DNA is made up of monomers (smaller units) called nucleotides. ·Each nucleotide is made up of ·A sugar ·A phophate ion ·A nitrogenous base ·Four different types of Nitrogenous base ·Cytosine ·Guanine Pyrimidines ·Adenine ·Thymine Purines
STRUCTURE OF DNA ·The sugar molecule of one nucleotide attaches to the phosphate ion of another sugar-phosphatee bonds.
DNA Finger Printing DNA Fingerprints: are a pattern of black bars left on X-ray film when an extract of DNA is put through a special biotechnical process. A DNA fingerprint is made by extracting a DNA sample using body tissue or fluid such as blood, saliva or using hair. Uses of DNA fingerprinting: ·To identify genetic diseases ·Diagnosis of inherited disorders ·Developing cures for inherited disorders ·Used as biological evidence in criminal cases ·For identification of relatives
STRUCTURE OF RNA ·RNA is a single stranded structure ·It is not coiled ·The sugar found in RNA is Ribose ·The nitrogenous base Thymine is replaced by uracil ·The pyrimidine base of RNA are cytosine and uracil ·The chains of RNA are shorter There are 3 types of RNA. All three types play an important role in protein synthesis. ·Ribosomal RNA (rRNA) ·Messenger RNA (mRNA) ·Transfer RNA (tRNA)