Uses and gratification theoryPresentation Transcript
Uses and gratification theory
The uses and gratification follows a basic model. It is an audience-centered approach. It has been developed by many people since the concept was first introduced in the 1940’s. The approach suggests that audiences are more active than passive and opposes the hypodermic needle model. The theory says that audiences choose what media they consume and what they take away from the media instead of being passive and accepting what they see to be true. There are three main paradigms in media effects: hypodermic needle (i.e., direct, or strong effects), limited effects, and the powerful to limited effects. "Uses and Gratifications" falls under the second paradigm which reached its apex around 1940-1960, when studies helped realize that the first paradigm was inaccurate.
Many people have criticized this theory as they believe the public has no control over the media and what it produces. It can also be said to be too kind to the media, as they are being 'let off the hook' and do not need to take responsibility for what they produce. "The nature of the theory underlying Uses and Gratifications research is not totally clear," (Blumler, 1979) This makes the line between gratification and satisfaction blurred calling into question if we only seek what we desire or actually enjoy it. (Palmgreen,P., and Rayburn,J.D., 1985)