Published on

Published in: Technology, Health & Medicine
  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

No Downloads
Total views
On SlideShare
From Embeds
Number of Embeds
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide
  • Affects influence our organizational behavior.
    Emotions vary in intensity, and are usually not long-lasting.
  • Individuals who can recognize and control their own emotions are less likely to say or do things that could have a negative impact on their jobs, their co-workers, or the organization. This ability is essential for those in leadership roles.
  • If we practice self-awareness (recall the discussion of ‘self-monitoring’), we become more skilled at identifying and understanding our own emotions in different organizational situations, as well as their impact on others.
    Empathy for others’ feelings and emotions is key aspect of social awareness.
  • Each category of emotion generally includes some subcategories. For example, anger may contain disgust and envy. Fear may contain alarm and anxiety. Joy may contain cheerfulness and contentment.
    Love may contain affection, longing, and lust. Sadness may contain disappointment, neglect, and shame.
    Individuals high in EI are able to recognize these emotions in themselves and others, and behave in non-disruptive ways.
  • Moods can persist over time and can affect an individual’s likeability and job performance.
    Leaders who express themselves emotionally are often seen as charismatic and transformational.
  • The positive attitude of up beat leaders is often reflected in their employees.
    Emotional labor is particularly difficult to accomplish when an individual is in a bad mood or is experiencing spillover effects from a plumbing problem at home.
    Customer service jobs require maintaining a consistently helpful and cheerful demeanor.
  • Deep acting and surface acting are two terms reflecting ways of dealing with emotional dissonance.
  • Norms for expressions vary across cultures. In collectivist cultures (emphasizing group relationships) individual emotional displays are less likely, while people in individualistic cultures tend not to think that another’s emotional expression is directed at them.
  • Current moods can be affected by many different events. There are relatively stable tendencies to experience positive or negative feelings.
  • Affective Events theory suggests how heredity and environment influence job performance and satisfaction.
  • It is important to remember that an attitude is a hypothetical construct. Attitudes are inferred from the things people say formally or informally.
  • Whether or not the behavior is actually carried out is related to how strong the attitude is.
  • Two factors that influence actions are the degree of control a person thinks he or she has over the situation and the magnitude of the rewards involved.
  • Employee job satisfaction is a key managerial goal.
    Can be assessed by managerial observation and interpretation of employee attitudes and behavior.
    Through use of job satisfaction interviews and questionnaires.
    Job Involvement
    Organizational commitment (rational and emotional). Emotional commitment is more powerful influencing high performance.
    Together = high employee engagement
  • The JDI and the Minnesota Satisfaction Survey (MSQ) are the two most popular job satisfaction questionnaires.
  • Research shows that 65% of employees are actively or passively seeking jobs through networking. Millennials were most likely to engage in job seeking activities.
    Popular internet sites like LinkedIn provide many opportunities to learn about job openings.
  • Positive organizational citizenship has a spillover effect on home life.
    Counterproductive workplace behaviors are associated with job dissatisfaction and poor performance.
  • Performance will lead to satisfaction only if rewards are perceived as equitable. If an individual feels that his performance is unfairly rewarded, the performance-causes-satisfaction theory will not hold.
  • Giving a low performer only small rewards initially may lead to dissatisfaction; the expectation is that the individual will make efforts to improve performance in order to obtain greater rewards in the future.
  • Ch03[1]

    1. 1. What are emotions and moods? What do emotions and moods influence behavior in organizations? What are attitudes? What is job satisfaction and what are its implications? 3-2Copyright © 2008 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
    2. 2. Affects Broad range of feelings, in the form of moods and emotions, that people experience in their life context.  Emotions are strong positive or negative feelings directed toward something. 3-3Copyright © 2008 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
    3. 3. Emotional intelligence (EI) Ability to understand emotions and manage relationships effectively. 3-4Copyright © 2008 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
    4. 4. Copyright © 2008 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 3-5 Four Dimensions of Emotionally Intelligent Leadership
    5. 5. Copyright © 2008 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 3-6 JoyJoy SadnessSadness LoveLove AngerAnger SurpriseSurprise FearFear Major Emotions
    6. 6. Self conscious emotions  Arise from internal sources (shame, guilt, embarrassment, pride) and help regulate interpersonal relationships. Social emotions  Arise from external sources (pity, jealousy) and refer to individuals’ feelings based on information external to themselves. 3-7Copyright © 2008 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
    7. 7. Moods Generalized positive or negative feelings or states of mind. 3-8Copyright © 2008 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
    8. 8. Copyright © 2008 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 3-9 Emotions “I was really angry when Prof. Nitpicker criticized my presentation” •Identified with a source, cause •Tend to be brief, episodic •Many forms and types •Action oriented; link to behavior •Can turn into a mood Moods “Oh, I just don’t have the energy to do much today. I’ve felt down all week.” •Hard to identify cause •Can be long lasting •Either positive or negative •More cerebral; less action oriented •Can influence emotion
    9. 9. Emotion and mood contagion – spillover effects of one’s emotions and mood onto others. Emotional labor – regulating one’s emotions to display those desired by the organization. Emotional dissonance – inconsistencies between emotions we feel and emotions we project. 3-10Copyright © 2008 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
    10. 10. Deep acting Trying to modify your true inner feelings based on display rules. Surface acting Hiding true feelings while displaying different ones. 3-11Copyright © 2008 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
    11. 11. Display rules Informal standards that govern the degree to which it is appropriate for people from different cultures to display their emotions. 3-12Copyright © 2008 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
    12. 12. Positive affect tendency to be perceptually positive Negative affect tend to experience negative moods in a wide range of settings and under many different conditions 3-13Copyright © 2008 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
    13. 13. 3-14Copyright © 2008 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Job Satisfaction Job Performance Work Environment: •Characteristics of job •Job demands •Emotional labor requirements Work Events: •Daily hassles •Daily uplifts Emotional Reactions: •Positive •Negative Personal Predispositions: •Personality •Mood
    14. 14. Attitude Predisposition to respond in a positive or negative way to someone or something in one’s environment. 3-15Copyright © 2008 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
    15. 15. Cognitive component  Underlying beliefs, opinions, knowledge, or information a person possesses. Affective component  Specific feeling regarding the personal impact of the antecedents. Behavioral component  Intention to behave in a certain way based on your specific feelings or attitudes. 3-16Copyright © 2008 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
    16. 16. Copyright © 2008 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 3-17
    17. 17. Cognitive dissonance  A psychologically disturbing state of inconsistency between an individual’s attitudes and his or her behavior. Cognitive dissonance can be reduced by:  Changing the underlying attitude.  Changing future behavior.  Developing new ways of explaining or rationalizing the inconsistency. 3-18Copyright © 2008 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
    18. 18. Job satisfaction  An attitude that reflects whether individuals feel positively or negatively about their jobs. Job Involvement  Degree to which individuals are dedicated to their jobs. Organizational Commitment  Degree of loyalty to the organization. 3-19Copyright © 2008 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
    19. 19. Five facets of job satisfaction: The work itself Quality of supervision Relationships with co-workers Promotion opportunities Pay 3-20Copyright © 2008 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
    20. 20. The Job Descriptive Index (JDI) is a questionnaire that addresses aspects of satisfaction with which good managers should be concerned. Take the sample survey. 3-21Copyright © 2008 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
    21. 21. Withdrawal effects  Dissatisfied workers are absent more frequently, are not engaged in their work (daydreaming, socializing, web surfing), and are more likely to quit.  Employee turnover results in costly corporate impact:  Loss of talent  Replacement cost 3-22Copyright © 2008 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
    22. 22. Organizational Citizenship Behaviors that represent employees’ willingness to go the extra mile in their work.  Advancing organizational interests, positive attitudes and public comments.  Helping behaviors that are unsolicited (volunteering, mentoring). 3-23Copyright © 2008 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
    23. 23. Relationship between satisfaction and performance – three theories: Satisfaction causes performance. Performance causes satisfaction. Rewards cause satisfaction and performance. 3-24Copyright © 2008 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
    24. 24. Theory: Satisfaction causes performance Managerial implication — to increase employees’ work performance, make them happy. Job satisfaction alone is not a consistent predictor of work performance. 3-25Copyright © 2008 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
    25. 25. Theory: performance causes satisfaction  Managerial implication — help people achieve high performance, then satisfaction will follow.  Performance in a given time period is related to satisfaction in a later time period.  Rewards link performance with later satisfaction. 3-26Copyright © 2008 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
    26. 26. Theory: rewards cause both satisfaction and performance  Managerial implication — Proper allocation of rewards can positively influence both satisfaction and performance.  High job satisfaction and performance-contingent rewards influence a person’s work performance.  Size and value of the reward should vary in proportion to the level of one’s performance. 3-27Copyright © 2008 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
    27. 27. If you won the lotto, would you ever work again? Consider the meanings we derive from work (social identity, accomplishment, achievement). How would replace these? 3-28Copyright © 2008 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.