Affects influence our organizational behavior. Emotions vary in intensity, and are usually not long-lasting.
Individuals who can recognize and control their own emotions are less likely to say or do things that could have a negative impact on their jobs, their co-workers, or the organization. This ability is essential for those in leadership roles.
If we practice self-awareness (recall the discussion of ‘self-monitoring’), we become more skilled at identifying and understanding our own emotions in different organizational situations, as well as their impact on others. Empathy for others’ feelings and emotions is key aspect of social awareness.
Each category of emotion generally includes some subcategories. For example, anger may contain disgust and envy. Fear may contain alarm and anxiety. Joy may contain cheerfulness and contentment. Love may contain affection, longing, and lust. Sadness may contain disappointment, neglect, and shame. Individuals high in EI are able to recognize these emotions in themselves and others, and behave in non-disruptive ways.
Moods can persist over time and can affect an individual’s likeability and job performance. Leaders who express themselves emotionally are often seen as charismatic and transformational.
The positive attitude of up beat leaders is often reflected in their employees. Emotional labor is particularly difficult to accomplish when an individual is in a bad mood or is experiencing spillover effects from a plumbing problem at home. Customer service jobs require maintaining a consistently helpful and cheerful demeanor.
Deep acting and surface acting are two terms reflecting ways of dealing with emotional dissonance.
Norms for expressions vary across cultures. In collectivist cultures (emphasizing group relationships) individual emotional displays are less likely, while people in individualistic cultures tend not to think that another’s emotional expression is directed at them.
Current moods can be affected by many different events. There are relatively stable tendencies to experience positive or negative feelings.
Affective Events theory suggests how heredity and environment influence job performance and satisfaction.
It is important to remember that an attitude is a hypothetical construct. Attitudes are inferred from the things people say formally or informally.
Whether or not the behavior is actually carried out is related to how strong the attitude is.
Two factors that influence actions are the degree of control a person thinks he or she has over the situation and the magnitude of the rewards involved.
Employee job satisfaction is a key managerial goal. Can be assessed by managerial observation and interpretation of employee attitudes and behavior. Through use of job satisfaction interviews and questionnaires. Job Involvement Organizational commitment (rational and emotional). Emotional commitment is more powerful influencing high performance. Together = high employee engagement
The JDI and the Minnesota Satisfaction Survey (MSQ) are the two most popular job satisfaction questionnaires.
Research shows that 65% of employees are actively or passively seeking jobs through networking. Millennials were most likely to engage in job seeking activities. Popular internet sites like LinkedIn provide many opportunities to learn about job openings.
Positive organizational citizenship has a spillover effect on home life. Counterproductive workplace behaviors are associated with job dissatisfaction and poor performance.
Performance will lead to satisfaction only if rewards are perceived as equitable. If an individual feels that his performance is unfairly rewarded, the performance-causes-satisfaction theory will not hold.
Giving a low performer only small rewards initially may lead to dissatisfaction; the expectation is that the individual will make efforts to improve performance in order to obtain greater rewards in the future.