Employee
Socialization
and
Orientation
By Si hosseini
Organizational Socialization



How employees adjust to a new organization
What is at stake:
 Employee

satisfaction, c...
Two Approaches to Socialization
Realistic Job Preview (RJP)
 Employee Orientation


3
Organizational Socialization
Defined


“The process by which an individual
acquires the social knowledge and skills
neces...
Organizational Role


A set of behaviors expected of individuals
who hold a given position in a group.

5
Dimensions of Organizational
Roles

Inclusionary– social dimension (e.g.,
outsider, probationary, permanent status)
 Func...
Role Situations


Role – a set of behaviors expected of
individuals holding a given position in a
group
 Role

overload ...
Issues Relevant to Socialization



Role communication – how well the role is
communicated to the individual and the gro...
Group Norms


Unwritten rules of conduct established by
group members



Types:
 Pivotal–

essential to group membershi...
Expectations


A belief or likelihood that something will
occur

10
Socialization Categories


Preliminary learning



Learning about the organization



Learning to function in the work ...
Feldman’s Stage Model of
Socialization (1981)
Three stages:


Anticipatory socialization



Encounter



Change and Acq...
Feldman’s Model of
Organizational Socialization

13
Anticipatory Socialization
Setting of realistic expectations
 Determining a match with newcomer


14
Encounter
Formal commitment made to join the
organization
 “Breaking in” (initiation into the job)
 Establishing relatio...
Change and Acquisition
New employee accepts group norms and
values
 Employee masters tasks
 Employee resolves any role c...
People Processing Strategies (Van
Maanen)
Formal versus Informal
 Individual versus Collective
 Sequential versus Nonseq...
Formal versus Informal
Formal Strategy– All newcomers will likely
have very similar experiences. Formal
activities are iso...
Individual versus Collective
Degree to which newcomers are socialized
individually or as a group
 Are newcomers part of a...
Sequential versus Nonsequential


Sequential – individual progresses through
a series of established stages to achieve a
...
Fixed versus Variable
Fixed – employee knows when transition
period will end
 Variable – length of transition period vari...
Tournament versus Contest
Tournament– as time passes, candidates
are sorted according to potential, ambition,
background, ...
Serial versus Disjunctive


Serial – using senior employees to provide a
mentoring approach
 Tends



to perpetuate the...
Investiture versus Divestiture
Investiture– Strategy that reinforces the
uniqueness and viability of newcomer’s
individual...
People Processing Tactics &
Strategies
1.

2.

A process that is: sequential, variable,
serial and involves divestiture pr...
Insider Advantages
Accurate expectations
 Knowledge base
 Relationships with other insiders


26
What Do Newcomers Need?


Clear information on:





Expectations
Norms
Roles
Values

Assistance in developing needed...
Effects of Realistic Job Preview
(John Wanous: 4 interrelated
mechanisms)
1

2

4

3

28
The Realistic Job Preview




Vaccination Against Unrealistically High
Expectations (recruiters provide accurate
informa...
When to Use Realistic Job
Previews (RJPs)

When candidates can be selective about
jobs
 When there are more applicants th...
Issues in determining RJP Content



A variety of media for delivering RJP has been
suggested (booklet, DVD, presentation...
Employee Orientation Programs








Reduce newcomer stress
Reduce start-up costs
Reduce turnover
Expedite profici...
Orientation Program Content
Information about company as a whole
 Job-specific information


33
Company Information
Overview of company
 Key policies and procedures
 Mission statement
 Company goals and strategy
 C...
Job-Specific Information







Department functions
Job duties and responsibilities
Polices, rules, and procedures
...
A Large Company Procedure
(Table 8-4)
Material distribution
 Pre-arrival period
 First day
 First week
 Second week
 ...
Orientation Roles


Supervisor
 Information

source
 Guide for new employees


Coworkers
 Socialize

into organizatio...
Orientation and the HRD Staff
HRD staff designs and implements
new employee orientation program
 HRD schedules participat...
Common Problems in Employee
Orientation
Too much paperwork
 Information overload
 Information irrelevance
 Scare tactic...
Common Problems in Employee
Orientation – 2
Too much one-way communication
 One-shot mentality
 No evaluation of program...
Designing and Implementing an
Orientation Program
Set objectives
 Research orientation as a concept
 Interview recent ne...
Designing and Implementing an
Orientation Program – 2
Produce and package the printed and
audiovisual materials
 Train su...
Summary
New employees face many challenges
 Realistic job previews and employee
orientation programs can:


 Reduce

st...
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Employee socialization & orientation

  1. 1. Employee Socialization and Orientation By Si hosseini
  2. 2. Organizational Socialization   How employees adjust to a new organization What is at stake:  Employee satisfaction, commitment, and performance  Work group satisfaction and performance  Start-up costs for new employee  Likelihood of retention  Replacement costs 2
  3. 3. Two Approaches to Socialization Realistic Job Preview (RJP)  Employee Orientation  3
  4. 4. Organizational Socialization Defined  “The process by which an individual acquires the social knowledge and skills necessary to assume an organizational role.” 4
  5. 5. Organizational Role  A set of behaviors expected of individuals who hold a given position in a group. 5
  6. 6. Dimensions of Organizational Roles Inclusionary– social dimension (e.g., outsider, probationary, permanent status)  Functional – task dimension (e.g., sales, engineering, administrative)  Hierarchical – rank dimension (e.g., line employee, supervisor, management, officer)  6
  7. 7. Role Situations  Role – a set of behaviors expected of individuals holding a given position in a group  Role overload – more than can be reasonably expected from an individual  Role conflict – unclear expectations from others  Role ambiguity – role itself is unclear  Common in newly created positions 7
  8. 8. Issues Relevant to Socialization   Role communication – how well the role is communicated to the individual and the group Role orientation – how innovative an individual is in interpreting an organizational role  Custodial  Status quo  Innovative  Redefining role 8
  9. 9. Group Norms  Unwritten rules of conduct established by group members  Types:  Pivotal– essential to group membership  Relevant– desirable, but not essential  Peripheral– unimportant behaviors 9
  10. 10. Expectations  A belief or likelihood that something will occur 10
  11. 11. Socialization Categories  Preliminary learning  Learning about the organization  Learning to function in the work group  Learning to perform the job  Personal learning 11
  12. 12. Feldman’s Stage Model of Socialization (1981) Three stages:  Anticipatory socialization  Encounter  Change and Acquisition 12
  13. 13. Feldman’s Model of Organizational Socialization 13
  14. 14. Anticipatory Socialization Setting of realistic expectations  Determining a match with newcomer  14
  15. 15. Encounter Formal commitment made to join the organization  “Breaking in” (initiation into the job)  Establishing relationships  Roles clarified  15
  16. 16. Change and Acquisition New employee accepts group norms and values  Employee masters tasks  Employee resolves any role conflicts and overloads  16
  17. 17. People Processing Strategies (Van Maanen) Formal versus Informal  Individual versus Collective  Sequential versus Nonsequential  Fixed versus Variable  Tournament versus Contest  Serial versus Disjunctive  Investiture versus Divestiture  17
  18. 18. Formal versus Informal Formal Strategy– All newcomers will likely have very similar experiences. Formal activities are isolated and make newcomer’s role explicit (clear)  Informal Strategy– each newcomer’s experience will likely be unique. Informal processes take place within work context and do not clearly specify newcomer’s role.  18
  19. 19. Individual versus Collective Degree to which newcomers are socialized individually or as a group  Are newcomers part of a new group, or are they treated individually?  Group camaraderie formed, versus feeling of isolation  Generally, Collective strategy is less expensive  19
  20. 20. Sequential versus Nonsequential  Sequential – individual progresses through a series of established stages to achieve a position & gain a recognized role or status  e.g., mail clerk, mailroom supervisor, information manager  Nonsequential – individual achieves position immediately  e.g., six-month training program to become a bank branch manager 20
  21. 21. Fixed versus Variable Fixed – employee knows when transition period will end  Variable – length of transition period varies from individual to individual  21
  22. 22. Tournament versus Contest Tournament– as time passes, candidates are sorted according to potential, ambition, background, etc., and then assigned to various tracks (fast)  Contest– all individuals pass through all stages according to observed abilities and interests (slow)  22
  23. 23. Serial versus Disjunctive  Serial – using senior employees to provide a mentoring approach  Tends  to perpetuate the status quo Disjunctive – uses outsiders (trainers) to provide mentoring  Encourages innovation 23
  24. 24. Investiture versus Divestiture Investiture– Strategy that reinforces the uniqueness and viability of newcomer’s individual characteristics. Preserves newcomer’s identity, such as in recruiting upper management  Divestiture– suppressing certain characteristics like attitudes and selfconfidence and replace it with others of value to organization (e.g., basic military training)  24
  25. 25. People Processing Tactics & Strategies 1. 2. A process that is: sequential, variable, serial and involves divestiture practices will lead newcomers to develop a custodial orientation (will define their roles as organization has defines them) e.g. military A process that is: collective, formal, random, fixed and disjunctive will lead to content innovation role orientation (newcomers will make changes and improves their roles from org. perspectives) 25
  26. 26. Insider Advantages Accurate expectations  Knowledge base  Relationships with other insiders  26
  27. 27. What Do Newcomers Need?  Clear information on:     Expectations Norms Roles Values Assistance in developing needed KSAOs  Accurate help in interpreting events  27
  28. 28. Effects of Realistic Job Preview (John Wanous: 4 interrelated mechanisms) 1 2 4 3 28
  29. 29. The Realistic Job Preview   Vaccination Against Unrealistically High Expectations (recruiters provide accurate information to outsiders) Self-Selection   Coping Effect   Does job & organization meet individual needs? If no, individual will be dissatisfied & quit Realistic expectations help newcomers develop clear idea of their roles and cope with selected job Personal Commitment  Based on personal choice, individual will develop a strong personal commitment to that choice. 29
  30. 30. When to Use Realistic Job Previews (RJPs) When candidates can be selective about jobs  When there are more applicants than jobs  When recruits lack necessary information  When replacement costs are high  30
  31. 31. Issues in determining RJP Content  A variety of media for delivering RJP has been suggested (booklet, DVD, presentation) Descriptive or Judgmental Content   Extensive or Intensive Content   Massive information given or selective information presented in brief? Degree of Content Negativity   Factual information or incumbent feelings? Positive or negative approach? Message Source  Actors or company members? 31
  32. 32. Employee Orientation Programs        Reduce newcomer stress Reduce start-up costs Reduce turnover Expedite proficiency Assist in newcomer assimilation Enhance adjustment to work group and norms Encourage positive attitude 32
  33. 33. Orientation Program Content Information about company as a whole  Job-specific information  33
  34. 34. Company Information Overview of company  Key policies and procedures  Mission statement  Company goals and strategy  Compensation, benefits, safety  Employee relations  Company facilities  34
  35. 35. Job-Specific Information       Department functions Job duties and responsibilities Polices, rules, and procedures Tour of department Introduction to departmental employees Introduction to work group 35
  36. 36. A Large Company Procedure (Table 8-4) Material distribution  Pre-arrival period  First day  First week  Second week  Periodic updates  36
  37. 37. Orientation Roles  Supervisor  Information source  Guide for new employees  Coworkers  Socialize into organization  Help learn norms of the work group and organization 37
  38. 38. Orientation and the HRD Staff HRD staff designs and implements new employee orientation program  HRD schedules participation by various level of management  HRD staff evaluates orientation program and implements needed changes  38
  39. 39. Common Problems in Employee Orientation Too much paperwork  Information overload  Information irrelevance  Scare tactics  Too much “selling” of the  organization 39
  40. 40. Common Problems in Employee Orientation – 2 Too much one-way communication  One-shot mentality  No evaluation of program  Lack of follow-up  40
  41. 41. Designing and Implementing an Orientation Program Set objectives  Research orientation as a concept  Interview recent new hires  Survey other company practices  Review existing practices  Select content and delivery method  Pilot and revise materials  41
  42. 42. Designing and Implementing an Orientation Program – 2 Produce and package the printed and audiovisual materials  Train supervisors and install program  Evaluate program effectiveness  Improve and update program  42
  43. 43. Summary New employees face many challenges  Realistic job previews and employee orientation programs can:   Reduce stress  Reduce turnover  Improve productivity 43
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