English language teaching and positive cultural change SHPRESA DELIJA  UNIVERSITY OF TIRANA ALBANIA Email: delija.sh@gmail...
The Impact of EFL toward the  positive changes in Albania
What is Linguistic Imperialism? <ul><li>“ Linguistic imperialism, or language imperialism, is a </li></ul><ul><li>linguist...
<ul><li>Linguistic imperialism is often seen in the context of cultural imperialism; </li></ul><ul><li>English linguistic ...
Those who promote English use three types of argument: <ul><li>Intrinsic  arguments describe the English language as provi...
Other arguments for English are: <ul><li>its economic utility: it enables people to operate technology; </li></ul><ul><li>...
Albania in 1945
Albania after 60-s
Albania after 1990
Albanian Education System until 1990  <ul><li>Language </li></ul><ul><li>Russian Language (in all levels of school) - 1945...
My experience as a learner   1970 – 1974 - 1977 <ul><li>Chinese Textbooks </li></ul><ul><li>Life in China </li></ul><ul><l...
Eastern European Countries  Influence on Albanian Education <ul><li>Teaching Methods & T Materials   </li></ul><ul><li>Tea...
FL Effects on Language Acquisition <ul><li>Good Effect </li></ul><ul><li>More open minded and extraverted; </li></ul><ul><...
Democratic Changes in 1990 - 1991 <ul><li>James Baker, the former secretary of the American Department of State set foot i...
The visit of other diplomats from all over the world, mainly neighbors, establishing relations with Albania
Influence of Culture on Language  <ul><li>Develop thinking ; (input given is processed) </li></ul><ul><li>Develop speaking...
The Council of Europe and the ‘Intercultural Dimension ’ <ul><li>Education for intercultural understanding is central to t...
Aims of intercultural awareness <ul><li>To help language learners to interact and form relationships with speakers of othe...
Intercultural Competence <ul><li>Knowledge </li></ul><ul><li>- of the Arts, of the way of life, of the history </li></ul><...
Intercultural competence <ul><li>Attitudes  </li></ul><ul><li>- curiosity, openness, ability to decentre </li></ul><ul><li...
Summary and conclusions <ul><li>Intercultural awareness focuses on skills, attitudes and values as well as knowledge  </li...
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Tesol english language teaching and positive cultural change

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The use of contemporary English language teaching methods and the use of British and American textbooks are affecting classroom culture and student behavior in ways unexpected by the educational systems which have adopted them. While this has sometimes been analyzed solely in terms of cultural or linguistic imperialism, the changes can also be seen by local observers as positive and in keeping with behaviors valued by the local culture.
In educational systems which have traditionally stressed recitation and a teacher-centered classroom, the language development activities of communicatively based classes are producing not only increased fluency but also increased student confidence in forming and expressing opinions in their first language. From simple (and amusing) examples such as the eight-year-old picky eater trying a new food “because Jack in my English textbook eats it” to high school seniors with clearly increased critical thinking skills, the cultural influence of the English class extends beyond the ability to communicate in a new language.

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Tesol english language teaching and positive cultural change

  1. 1. English language teaching and positive cultural change SHPRESA DELIJA UNIVERSITY OF TIRANA ALBANIA Email: delija.sh@gmail.com TESOL 2011 Annual Convention and Exhibit Examining the ‘E’ in TESOL March 16-19, 2011 Email: delija.sh@gmail.com
  2. 2. The Impact of EFL toward the positive changes in Albania
  3. 3. What is Linguistic Imperialism? <ul><li>“ Linguistic imperialism, or language imperialism, is a </li></ul><ul><li>linguistics concept that involves the transfer of </li></ul><ul><li>dominant language to other people. The transfer is </li></ul><ul><li>essentially a demonstration of power—traditionally, </li></ul><ul><li>military power but also, in the modern world, economic </li></ul><ul><li>power—and aspects of the dominant culture are </li></ul><ul><li>usually transferred along with the language”. </li></ul><ul><li>Gerald Knowles, Encyclopedia Britannica </li></ul>
  4. 4. <ul><li>Linguistic imperialism is often seen in the context of cultural imperialism; </li></ul><ul><li>English linguistic imperialism is defined as the dominance asserted and retained by the establishment and continuous reconstitution of structural and cultural inequalities between English and other languages. </li></ul><ul><li>Robert Phillipson (1992) Linguistic Imperialism </li></ul>
  5. 5. Those who promote English use three types of argument: <ul><li>Intrinsic arguments describe the English language as providential, rich, noble and interesting. </li></ul><ul><li>Extrinsic arguments point out that English is well-established: that it has many speakers, and that there are trained teachers and a wealth of teaching material. </li></ul><ul><li>Functional arguments emphasize the usefulness of English as a gateway to the world. </li></ul>
  6. 6. Other arguments for English are: <ul><li>its economic utility: it enables people to operate technology; </li></ul><ul><li>its ideological function: it stands for modernity; </li></ul><ul><li>its status as symbol for material advance and efficiency. </li></ul>
  7. 7. Albania in 1945
  8. 8. Albania after 60-s
  9. 9. Albania after 1990
  10. 10. Albanian Education System until 1990 <ul><li>Language </li></ul><ul><li>Russian Language (in all levels of school) - 1945- 1961-1978; 1 st FL </li></ul><ul><li>French Language - 1950 – 1989; 2 nd FL </li></ul><ul><li>English Language - 1980 - 1989; 1 st FL </li></ul><ul><li>English Language - 1990 – 2005 – 2011; 1 st FL </li></ul><ul><li>Matura Shteterore </li></ul><ul><li>Culture (Relations) </li></ul><ul><li>Specialists to Russia; </li></ul><ul><li>Few specialists to France and in Eastern European countries; (Prague, Bucharest, Sofia, Budapest, Warsaw, </li></ul><ul><li>1968-1978 – specialists in China, </li></ul><ul><li>1992 – until now (again relations with China) </li></ul><ul><li>1992 – until now with USA and UK mainly, but also with neighbors and other people where English is needed. </li></ul>
  11. 11. My experience as a learner 1970 – 1974 - 1977 <ul><li>Chinese Textbooks </li></ul><ul><li>Life in China </li></ul><ul><li>policy </li></ul><ul><li>economy </li></ul><ul><li>social life </li></ul><ul><li>family life </li></ul><ul><li>education (revolutionary triangle) </li></ul>
  12. 12. Eastern European Countries Influence on Albanian Education <ul><li>Teaching Methods & T Materials </li></ul><ul><li>Teacher centered; </li></ul><ul><li>Adopted texts (not from native speakers); </li></ul><ul><li>Translations </li></ul><ul><li>Memorization </li></ul><ul><li>Teacher & Students relations </li></ul><ul><li>Tough </li></ul><ul><li>Students no right to ask and talk freely; </li></ul><ul><li>Teacher the authority of the class; </li></ul>
  13. 13. FL Effects on Language Acquisition <ul><li>Good Effect </li></ul><ul><li>More open minded and extraverted; </li></ul><ul><li>Wake interest for other cultures and languages; </li></ul><ul><li>Look at the world differently; </li></ul><ul><li>Self confident with growing abilities in FL </li></ul><ul><li>Knowing an FL one can easily find a job (motivated) </li></ul><ul><li>Creative thinkers and users of FL </li></ul><ul><li>Good communicators. </li></ul><ul><li>Bad Effect </li></ul><ul><li>Overuse of L1; </li></ul><ul><li>L 1 differences with L2; </li></ul><ul><li>Confusion; </li></ul><ul><li>Difficulties in learning FL; </li></ul><ul><li>Hatred towards FL; </li></ul><ul><li>Frustration to the FL; </li></ul><ul><li>Differences in age; </li></ul><ul><li>New grammar; </li></ul><ul><li>Vocabulary </li></ul><ul><li>Not good communicators </li></ul>
  14. 14. Democratic Changes in 1990 - 1991 <ul><li>James Baker, the former secretary of the American Department of State set foot in Albania in 1992. He was the first representative from the USA Government since 1945. </li></ul>
  15. 15. The visit of other diplomats from all over the world, mainly neighbors, establishing relations with Albania
  16. 16. Influence of Culture on Language <ul><li>Develop thinking ; (input given is processed) </li></ul><ul><li>Develop speaking and all the other language skills (communication skills) </li></ul><ul><li>Develop feelings; (development of one’s culture) </li></ul><ul><li>Develop beliefs; </li></ul>
  17. 17. The Council of Europe and the ‘Intercultural Dimension ’ <ul><li>Education for intercultural understanding is central to the Council of Europe’s activities in order ‘to promote mutual understanding and acceptance of difference in our multicultural and multilingual societies’ </li></ul><ul><li>Interculturalism is one of the key principles </li></ul><ul><li>of the CEF </li></ul><ul><li>Intercultural awareness is one of the aims </li></ul><ul><li>of language teaching </li></ul>
  18. 18. Aims of intercultural awareness <ul><li>To help language learners to interact and form relationships with speakers of other languages and people of other cultures </li></ul><ul><li>To help language learners to become ‘intercultural communicators’, aware of their own identities and those of their interlocutors, and of the perceptions of identity that impinge on cross-cultural relationships </li></ul><ul><li>Relationships with speakers of other languages and people of other cultures </li></ul>
  19. 19. Intercultural Competence <ul><li>Knowledge </li></ul><ul><li>- of the Arts, of the way of life, of the history </li></ul><ul><li>and geography of a country </li></ul><ul><li>Skills </li></ul><ul><li>- comparing, relating, interpreting, </li></ul><ul><li>discovering </li></ul>
  20. 20. Intercultural competence <ul><li>Attitudes </li></ul><ul><li>- curiosity, openness, ability to decentre </li></ul><ul><li>Values </li></ul><ul><li>- awareness of one’s own values, respect for </li></ul><ul><li>diversity </li></ul>
  21. 21. Summary and conclusions <ul><li>Intercultural awareness focuses on skills, attitudes and values as well as knowledge </li></ul><ul><li>Intercultural awareness brings an added enriching dimension to cultural awareness </li></ul><ul><li>Activity and discovery based methodologies are important in intercultural awareness </li></ul><ul><li>Every topic can be explored through an intercultural perspective </li></ul>
  22. 22. QUESTIONS?

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