What is Management InformationSystems?Management Information Systems (MIS) is the study of people, technology, organizatio...
Below are some frequently asked questions regarding careers in MIS. This information will help youlearn more about a caree...
 Hands-on problem solving Innovation and creativity Global opportunities Great chance for advancement You can have an...
government regulatory agencies. Such a system, while it may have interfaces with an MIS, would not bea part of it, Instanc...
effective management information systems must be developed to provide modern managers with thespecific marketing , financi...
Contents[hide]1 Overview2 History3 Types and Terminology4 Advantages5 Enterprise applications6 Developing Information Syst...
History[edit]Kenneth and Jane Laudon identify five eras of MIS evolution corresponding to the five phases in thedevelopmen...
Executive Information Systems (EIS) is a reporting tool that provides quick access to summarizedreports coming from all co...
accounts. Supermarkets use them to record sales and track inventory. Most managers use thesesystems to deal with tasks suc...
A management information system (MIS) is a computer-based system that supplies the necessaryinformation to efficiently man...
c. Is open and also self organizing in the nature.d. Is also adoptive or adaptive to the changing environment as it is fle...
3) Choice phase4) Implementation phaseInitially the problem comes and we are in the intelligence phase thinking of the pro...
find the algorithms and the way that can actually solve the problem and hence we use the genetic algorithm tofind the solu...
Simon model), passes the same to its central processing unit ("brain" in the Newell and Simon model),which in turn, after ...
6. MIS assembles, process , stores , Retrieves , evaluates and Disseminates the information.reference:http://www.managemen...
2. In Minimizes information overload : MIS change the larger amount of data in tosummarized form and there by avoids the c...
3. MIS Encourages Decentralization : Decentralization of authority is possibly when there is a system formonitoring operat...
E-mail : acad@biyanicolleges.orgWebsite :www.gurukpo.com; www.biyanicolleges.orgFirst Edition : 2009Leaser Type Setted by ...
Efficiency Criteria.Overview of System and Design, Feasibility Analysis, Design, Implementation,Testingand Evaluation. Int...
4.2 Development of MIS4.3 Approaches to MIS Development4.4 Factors Responsible for Development of MISS. No. Name of Topic ...
Academically, the term is commonly used to refer to the group of informationmanagement methods tied to the automation or s...
RetrievalStorage ofDataSourceUserPDF Created with deskPDF PDF Writer - Trial :: http://www.docudesk.comFor more detail: - ...
With the Penetration of Computer in Business Society, Information System hasgot a new meaning, explain.Ans.: Characteristi...
a) Lack of Common Sense : Computer is only an electronic device. It can notthink. If we provide an incorrect data, it does...
MIS is that it should be managed by qualified officers. These officersshould have a mutual understanding about the roles a...
Ans.: The word “decision “is derived from the Latin word “decido”. Which means “Adecision, therefore is• A Settlement• A f...
b) Outcome is not known.c) No methods or models are used.d) Decide objective or goal; select one where his aspirates or de...
satisfactory solution is found.In the following three phase cycle, you may use inquiry, analysis, and modelsand accounting...
Design : Manager develops a model of problem situation on which he cangenerate and test, summarizing the different decisio...
should be free from mistakes, errors &, clear Accuracy also means that theinformation is free from bias. Wrong information...
• Planning Information : Certain standard norms and specifications areused in planning of any activity. Hence such informa...
level is generally poorly-served within organizations, although collaborationtools are increasingly being used to address ...
• Transaction Processing System (TPS)• Management Information System(MIS)• Decision Making System (DSS)• Office Automation...
information. V1 and C1 relate to one set of information V2, C2 relate to thenew set.In MIS, the concept of the value of in...
Ans.: Methods of Data and Information Collection : Several methods are availableforthe collection of data. The choice of m...
analysis.c) Resources for the Development : Designer has to select resources.Resources ca be in-house verses external, cus...
For more detail: - http://www.gurukpo.comfirst idea of the completed program orallow the clients to evaluate theprogram.Ad...
prototypes. At the end the separate prototypes are merged in anoverall design.Advantages of Prototyping :i) Reduced Time a...
national policies.(a) Industry level : At the industry level, we are looking at characteristics asdegree of diffusion of c...
objectives? Discuss the various elements of Database System.Ans.: A database management system is a collection of interrel...
What is management information systems
What is management information systems
What is management information systems
What is management information systems
What is management information systems
What is management information systems
What is management information systems
What is management information systems
What is management information systems
What is management information systems
What is management information systems
What is management information systems
What is management information systems
What is management information systems
What is management information systems
What is management information systems
What is management information systems
What is management information systems
What is management information systems
What is management information systems
What is management information systems
What is management information systems
What is management information systems
What is management information systems
What is management information systems
What is management information systems
What is management information systems
What is management information systems
What is management information systems
What is management information systems
What is management information systems
What is management information systems
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What is management information systems

  1. 1. What is Management InformationSystems?Management Information Systems (MIS) is the study of people, technology, organizations and therelationships among them. MIS professionals help firms realize maximum benefit from investment inpersonnel, equipment, and business processes. MIS is a people-oriented field with an emphasis onservice through technology. If you have an interest in technology and have the desire to usetechnology to improve people’s lives, a degree in MIS may be for you.Businesses use information systems at all levels of operation to collect, process and store data.Management aggregates and disseminates this data in the form of information needed to carry outthe daily operations of business. Everyone who works in business, from someone who pays the billsto the person who makes employment decisions, uses information systems. A car dealership coulduse a computer database to keep track of which products sell best. A retail store might use acomputer-based information system to sell products over the Internet. In fact, many (if not most)businesses concentrate on the alignment of MIS with business goals to achieve competitiveadvantage over other businesses.MIS professionals create information systems for data management (i.e., storing, searching andanalyzing data). In addition, they manage various information systems to meet the needs ofmanagers, staff and customers. By working collaboratively with various members of their workgroup, as well as with their customers and clients, MIS professionals are able to play a key role inareas such as information security, integration and exchange. As an MIS major, you will learn todesign, implement and use business information systems in innovative ways to increase theeffectiveness and efficiency of your company.A common misconception that MIS only concerns programming. However, programming is just asmall part of the MIS curriculum. While programming concepts represent some of the foundingconcepts and information systems development, implementation and use, many jobs in MIS do notutilize programming at all. A large portion of the MIS degree focuses on data analysis, teamwork,leadership, project management, customer service and underlying business theories. These aspectsof the degree are what set the MIS professional apart from a computer science specialist. Do you enjoy working with people? Would you enjoy the chance to work on global problems with people from all over the world? Do you enjoy analyzing and solving problems? Do you want to create innovative, cutting-edge technology solutions? Do you want to learn how to make businesses more efficient, effective and competitive?Then you should consider as your major the field that is experiencing a critical shortage ofprofessionally trained individuals. A field where demand is skyrocketing with projected growth ratesof 38 percent – the fastest of any business discipline (U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics).MIS professionals make business better
  2. 2. Below are some frequently asked questions regarding careers in MIS. This information will help youlearn more about a career in MIS and to better understand the opportunities such a career may havein store for you.What kinds of people pursue MIS degrees?The profiles of MIS professionals are varied, but in general, such individuals possess many of thefollowing traits: good problem solving skills ability to effectively manage time and resources a clear vision of ―the big picture‖ as well as the ―small details‖ a desire to work closely with other people excellent communication skills ability to think strategically about technology a desire to take responsibility for developing and implementing their own ideasWhat are typical career options for MIS professionals? IT Consultant Web Developer Information Systems Manager Business Intelligence Analyst Network Administrator Business Application Developer Systems Analyst Technical Support Specialist Business Analyst Systems DeveloperWhy should I choose to major in MIS? Job satisfaction High placement rate High salaries Exciting field Challenging field
  3. 3.  Hands-on problem solving Innovation and creativity Global opportunities Great chance for advancement You can have an impact!What is an average salary for an MIS professional?MIS majors have one of the highest starting salaries of all the undergraduate degree programs inMays Business School. The average starting salaries of our MIS graduates in 2012 was $57,705with top students commanding salaries as high as $72,000A management information system (MIS) provides information that organizations need to managethemselves efficiently and effectively.[1]Management information systems are typically computer systemsused for managing five primary components: hardware, software,data (information for decision making),procedures (design,development and documentation), and people (individuals, groups, ororganizations). Management information systems are distinct from other information systems, in that theyare used to analyze and facilitate strategic and operational activities.[2]Academically, the term iscommonly used to refer to the study of how individuals, groups, and organizations evaluate, design,implement, manage, and utilize systems to generate information to improve efficiency and effectivenessof decision making, including systems termed decision support systems, expert systems, and executiveinformation systems.[2]Most business schools (or colleges of business administration within universities)have an MIS department, alongside departments of accounting, finance, management, marketing, andsometimesThe system provides information on the past, present and project future and on relevantevents inside and outside the organization . It may be defined as a planned and integrated system forgathering relevant data, converting it in to right information and supplying the same to the concernedexecutives. The main purpose of MIS is to provide the right information to the right people at the righttime.The Concept of management information systems originated in the 1960s and become the byword ofalmost all attempts to relate computer technology and systems to data processing in business . Duringthe early 1960s , it became evident that the computer was being applied to the solution of businessproblem in a piecemeal fashion, focusing almost entirely on the computerization of clerical and record –keeping tasks. The concepts of management information systems was developed to counteract such inefficient development and in effective use of the computer. The MIS concepts is vital to efficient andeffective computer use in business of two major reasons:· It serves as a systems framework for organizing business computer applications. Business applicationsof computers should be viewed as interrelated and integrated computer – based information systems andnot as independent data processing job .· In emphasizes the management orientation of electronics information processing in business . Theprimary goal of computer based information systems should be the processing of data generated bybusiness operations.A management information system is an integrated man – machine systems that provides information tosupport the planning and control function of manager in an organization .· The out put of an MIS is information that sub serves managerial functions. When a system providesinformation to persons who are not managers, then it will not be considered as part of an MIS . For.example , an organization often process a lot of data which it is required by law to furnish to various
  4. 4. government regulatory agencies. Such a system, while it may have interfaces with an MIS, would not bea part of it, Instances of such systems are salary disclosures and excise duty statements. By the sametoken to sophisticated computer – aided design system for engineering purposes would also not be a partof an MIS.· Generally, MIS deals with information that is systematically and routinely collected in accordance with awell-defined set of rules. Thus, and MIS is a part of the formal information network in an organization.Information that has major managerial planning significance is sometimes collected at golf courses. Suchinformation is not part of MIS, how ever, one- shot market research data collected to gauge the potentialof a new product does not come with in the scope of an MIS by our definition because although suchinformation may be very systematically collected it is not collected on a regular basis.· Normally, the information provided by an MIS helps the managers to make planning and controldecisions. Now, we will see, what is planning and control. Every organization in order to function mustperform, certain operations. For Example, a car manufacturer has to perform certain manufacturingactivities, a wholesaler has o provide water to its area of jurisdiction. All these are operations that need tobe done. Besides, these operations, an organization must make plans for them. In other words it mustdecide on how many and what type of cars to make next month or what commissions to offer retailers orwhat pumping stations to install in the next five years.Also an organization must control the operations in the light of the plans and targets developed in theplanning process. The car manufacturer must know if manufacturing operations are in line with the targetsand if not, he must make decisions to correct the deviation or revise his plans. Similarly the wholesalerwill want to know the impacts that his commissions have had on sales and make decisions to correctadverse trends. The municipal corporation will need to control the tendering process and contractors whowill execute the pumping station plans.Generally, MIS is concerned with planning and control. Often there are elaborate systems for informationthat assists operations. For example, the car manufacturer will have a system for providing information tothe workers on the shop floor about the job that needs to be done on a particular batch of material. Theremay be route sheets, which accompany the rate materials and components in their movement throughvarious machines. This system per se provides only information to support operation. It has nomanagerial decision-making significance. It I not part of an MIS. If, however, the system does providedinformation on productivity, machine utilization or rejection rates, then we would say that the system ispart of an MIS.· Generally MIS has all the ingredients that are employed in providing information support to manager tomaking planning and control decisions. Managers often use historical data on an organization’s activitiesas well as current status data make planning and control decisions. Such data comes from a data basewhich is contained in files maintained by the organization . This data base is an essential component ofan MIS. Manual procedures that are used to collect and process information and computer hardware areobvious ingredients of an MIS . These also form part of the MIS. In summary , when we say that ― an MISis an integrated man – machine systems that provided information to supports the planning and controlfunction of managers in an origination . It does the following function .- sub serves managerial function- collects stores , evaluates information systematically and routinely- supports planning and control decisions- Includes files , hardware , software , software and operations research models.Effective management information systems are needed by all business organization because of theincreased complexity and rate of change of today’s business environment . For Example, Marketingmanager need information about sales performance and trends, financial manger returns, productionmanagers needs information analyzing resources requirement and worker productivity and personnelmanager require information concerning employee compensation and professional development. Thus,
  5. 5. effective management information systems must be developed to provide modern managers with thespecific marketing , financial, production and personnel information products they required to support theirdecision making responsibilities .An MIS provides the following advantages.1. It Facilitates planning : MIS improves the quality of plants by providing relevant information for sounddecision – making . Due to increase in the size and complexity of organizations, managers have lostpersonal contact with the scene of operations.2. In Minimizes information overload : MIS change the larger amount of data in to summarized form andthere by avoids the confusion which may arise when managers are flooded with detailed facts.3. MIS Encourages Decentralization : Decentralization of authority is possibly when there is a system formonitoring operations at lower levels. MIS is successfully used for measuring performance and makingnecessary change in the organizational plans and procedures.4. It brings Co ordination : MIS facilities integration of specialized activities by keeping each departmentaware of the problem and requirements of other departments. It connects all decision centers in theorganization .5. It makes control easier : MIS serves as a link between managerial planning and control. It improves theability of management to evaluate and improve performance . The used computers has increased thedata processing and storage capabilities and reduced the cost .6. MIS assembles, process , stores , Retrieves , evaluates and Disseminates the information .others, and grant degrees (at undergrad, masters, and PhD levels) in MIS.
  6. 6. Contents[hide]1 Overview2 History3 Types and Terminology4 Advantages5 Enterprise applications6 Developing Information Systems7 See also8 References9 External linksOverview[edit]This section does not cite any references or sources. Please helpimprove this section by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourcedmaterial may be challenged and removed. (May 2013)This section may contain original research. Please improveit by verifying the claims made and adding inline citations. Statementsconsisting only of original research may be removed. (November 2012)A management information system gives the business managers the information that they need to makedecisions. Early business computers were used for simple operations such as tracking inventory, billing,sales, or payroll data, with little detail or structure[3](see EDP). Over time, these computerapplications became more complex, hardware storage capacities grew, and technologies improved forconnecting previously isolated applications. As more data was stored and linked, managers soughtgreater abstraction as well as greater detail with the aim of creating significant management reports fromthe raw, stored data. Originally, the term "MIS" described applications providing managers withinformation about sales, inventories, and other data that would help in managing the enterprise. Overtime, the term broadened to include: decision support systems, resource management and humanresource management, enterprise resource planning(ERP), enterprise performancemanagement (EPM), supply chain management (SCM), customer relationshipmanagement (CRM), project management and database retrieval applications.
  7. 7. History[edit]Kenneth and Jane Laudon identify five eras of MIS evolution corresponding to the five phases in thedevelopment of computing technology: 1) mainframe and minicomputer computing, 2) personalcomputers, 3) client/server networks, 4) enterprise computing, and 5) cloud computing.[4]The first era (mainframe and minicomputer) was ruled by IBM and their mainframe computers; thesecomputers would often take up whole rooms and require teams to run them - IBM supplied the hardwareand the software. As technology advanced, these computers were able to handle greater capacities andtherefore reduce their cost. Smaller, more affordable minicomputers allowed larger businesses to run theirown computing centers in-house.The second era (personal computer) began in 1965 as microprocessors started to compete withmainframes and minicomputers and accelerated the process of decentralizing computing power fromlarge data centers to smaller offices. In the late 1970s minicomputer technology gave way to personalcomputers and relatively low cost computers were becoming mass market commodities, allowingbusinesses to provide their employees access to computing power that ten years before would have costtens of thousands of dollars. This proliferation of computers created a ready market for interconnectingnetworks and the popularization of the Internet.As technological complexity increased and costs decreased, the need to share information within anenterprise also grew—giving rise to the third era (client/server), in which computers on a common networkaccess shared information on a server. This lets thousands and even millions of people access datasimultaneously. The fourth era (enterprise) enabled by high speed networks, tied all aspects of thebusiness enterprise together offering rich information access encompassing the complete managementstructure.The fifth era (cloud computing) is the latest and employs networking technology to deliver applications aswell as data storage independent of the configuration, location or nature of the hardware. This, along withhigh speed cellphone and wifi networks, led to new levels of mobility in which managers access the MISremotely with laptops, tablet PCs, and smartphones.Types and Terminology[edit]The terms Management Information System (MIS), information system, Enterprise ResourcePlanning (ERP), and information technology management are often confused. Information systems andMIS are broader categories that include ERP. Information technology management concerns theoperation and organization of information technology resources independent of their purpose.Most management information systems specialize in particular commercial and industrial sectors, aspectsof the enterprise, or management substructure.Management information systems (MIS), produce fixed, regularly scheduled reports based on dataextracted and summarized from the firm’s underlying transaction processing systems[5]to middle andoperational level managers to identify and inform structured and semi-structured decision problems.Decision Support Systems (DSS) are computer program applications used by middle management tocompile information from a wide range of sources to support problem solving and decision making.
  8. 8. Executive Information Systems (EIS) is a reporting tool that provides quick access to summarizedreports coming from all company levels and departments such as accounting, human resources andoperations.Marketing Information Systems (MIS) are Management Information Systems designed specifically formanaging the marketing aspects of the business.Office Automation Systems (OAS) support communication and productivity in the enterprise byautomating work flow and eliminating bottlenecks. OAS may be implemented at any and all levels ofmanagement.School Information Management Systems (SIMS) cover school administration,and often includingteaching and learning materials.Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP) facilitates the flow of information between all business functionsinside the boundaries of the organization and manage the connections to outside stakeholders.[6]Advantages[edit]The following are some of the benefits that can be attained for different types of management informationsystems.[7]Companies are able to highlight their strengths and weaknesses due to the presence of revenuereports, employees performance record etc. The identification of these aspects can help thecompany improve their business processes and operations.Giving an overall picture of the company and acting as a communication and planning tool.The availability of the customer data and feedback can help the company to align their businessprocesses according to the needs of the customers. The effective management of customer data canhelp the company to perform direct marketing and promotion activitiesTypes of Management InformationSystemsA management information system (MIS) is a computer-based system that provides the informationnecessary to manage an organization effectively. An MIS should be designed to enhance communicationamong employees, provide an objective system for recording information and support the organizationsstrategic goals and direction. There are four types of MIS that will be introduced in ascending order ofsophistication.Transaction Processing Systems1. These systems are designed to handle a large volume of routine, recurring transactions.They were first introduced in the 1960s with the advent of mainframe computers. Transactionprocessing systems are used widely today. Banks use them to record deposits and payments into
  9. 9. accounts. Supermarkets use them to record sales and track inventory. Most managers use thesesystems to deal with tasks such as payroll, customer billing and payments to suppliers.Operations Information Systems2. These systems were introduced after transaction processing systems. An operationsinformation system gathers comprehensive data, organizes it and summarizes it in a form that isuseful for managers. Most of these systems access data from a transaction processing systemand organize it into a form usable by managers. Managers use operations information systems toobtain sales, inventory, accounting and other performance-related information.Decision Support Systems (DSS)3. A DSS is an interactive computer system that can be used by managers without helpfrom computer specialists. A DSS provides managers with the necessary information to makeintelligent decisions. A DSS has three fundamental components:1. Database management system (DBMS): Stores large amounts of data relevant to problems theDSS has been designed to tackle.2. Model-based management system (MBMS): Transforms data from the DBMS into informationthat is useful in decision making.3. Dialog generation and management system (DGMS): Provides a user-friendly interfacebetween the system and the managers who do not have extensive computer training.Expert Systems and Artificial Intelligence4. These systems use human knowledge captured in a computer to solve problems thatordinarily need human expertise. Mimicking human expertise and intelligence requires that thecomputer (1) recognize, formulate and solve a problem; (2) explain solutions and (3) learn fromexperience. These systems explain the logic of their advice to the user; hence, in addition tosolving problems they can also serve as a teacher. They use flexible thinking processes and canaccommodate new knowledge.Considerations5. A potential problem with relying on electronic communication and processing ofinformation is the loss of the vital human element. Sometimes because of the complexity ofinformation, an MIS report cannot effectively summarize it. Very rich information is needed tocoordinate and run an enterprise and certain classes of information cannot be quantified. Forexample, it might be wrong to evaluate an employees performance solely based on numbersgenerated by an MIS. Numbers can indicate a performance problem but a face-to-face meetingwill be necessary to discuss the nature of the problem.Types of MIS?AnswerMIS stands for Management Information Systems. There are two main kinds. Thefirst is routine, ordinary daily work. The second is a variety of operations that requiredecision making.Types of MIS
  10. 10. A management information system (MIS) is a computer-based system that supplies the necessaryinformation to efficiently manage an organization. This system entails three primary resources:information, technology and people. MIS is designed to record... More »difficulty: EasySource: www.ehow.comAdFile Income Tax ReturnsGet tax advice from a CA File accurately with convenience.HRBlock.in/Income_Tax_ServicesQ&A Related to "Types of MIS?"What are types of mis?Management information systems are those systems that allow managers to make decisions for thesuccessful operation of businesses. Management information systems consist of computerhttp://wiki.answers.com/Q/What_are_types_of_misManagement information systemA management information system (MIS) provides information that isneeded to manage organizations efficiently and effectively.Management information systems are not on Explain varioustypes of Systems in MIS?Posted in Management Information System | Email This PostTypes of the System in the Management Information Systems1. Conceptual Systemsa. Are theoretical and explanatory in the nature.b. Provide the much needed clarification.c. Provide theoretical framework for which there may or may not be any real lifecounterpart.d. E.g. of such systems can be philosophy, theology etc.2. Empirical Systemsa. Are very practical, specific and also very operational in the nature.b. Can be based on the conceptual system.c. Examination system, surgery act as very good examples of the empirical systems.3. Open Systemsa. Involve continuous interaction with the environment.b. So exchanges the information, material, energy with the environment.
  11. 11. c. Is open and also self organizing in the nature.d. Is also adoptive or adaptive to the changing environment as it is flexible.4. Closed Systemsa. Shuns any kind of the exchange with the environment.b. Is rigid in nature.c. Is not at all amenable to the change.d. Is also self contained.e. Is somewhat isolated in the nature.f. Is having a well defined boundary.g. Is not at all adaptive in the nature.5. Natural Systemsa. Such Systems exist and also abound in the nature.b. Are also not at all the results of the human endeavors.c. Rivers, mountains, minerals etc. are the major examples of the natural Systems.6. Artificial Systemsa. Are manufactured (man made).b. Examples of such Systems are dams, canals, roads, machines, factories etc.7. Probabilistic Systemsa. Based on the predictability of the behavior or the outcome.8. Deterministic Systemsa. In such Systems, the interaction of the elements is known.b. As the behavior of the elements is pre determined, it becomes possible to workupon the reaction well in the advancely computer What is Simons decision-makingmodel?Answer:AnswerSimons Model is based on premise that decision rash null. Decision making in Simons Model is characterizedby limited information processing and use of rules. Simmons decision-making model there are four phases1) Intelligence phase2) Design phase
  12. 12. 3) Choice phase4) Implementation phaseInitially the problem comes and we are in the intelligence phase thinking of the problem as it comes and thenwe try to find out what the solution to the given problem and then we move to design phase. In the designphase the way and method to solve the problem is thought and we actually try analyze the problem, we try tofind the algorithms and the way that can actually solve the problem and hence we use the genetic algorithm tofind the solution to the given problem .After finding the method which is to be applied to the given problemwe move to choice phase and here the actual work of finding the best algorithm come .Here we try to find thebest algorithm from the given set of algorithm we have the option of choosing the algorithms such as "ACO"algorithm which is called the ant colony optimization algorithm or we have the choice of finding the algorithmsuch as Simulated annealing (SA) is a related global optimization technique that traverses the search space bytesting random mutations on an individual solution. A mutation that increases fitness is always accepted. Amutation that lowers fitness is accepted probabilistically based on the difference in fitness and a decreasingtemperature parameter. In SA parlance, one speaks of seeking the lowest energy instead of the maximumfitness. SA can also be used within a standard GA algorithm by starting with a relatively high rate of mutationand decreasing it over time along a given schedule. After deciding that genetic algorithm is the most suitablealgorithm for the programming we move to the next step which is the implemetation phase here the realimplemeation of the slotuin is done we implemet the solution to the given problem by using the geneteicalgorithm according to the given problem.In the given problem a list of 26 items is given they all have different price, different weights and differentvolumes. The problem says that we have to find the items which can be fitted in to the given space of thecontainer the number of items chosen to be fitted in to the given space should be such that the weight and thevolume of the selected items should not be more than the total allowed volume and weight in the container.The care has to be taken such that the total weight and volume of the selected items should not exceed morethan the allowed weight and the volume.AnswerSimmons decision-making model there are four phases1) Intelligence phase2) Design phase3) Choice phase4) Implementation phaseInitially the problem comes and we are in the intelligence phase thinking of the problem as it comes and thenwe try to find out what the solution to the given problem and then we move to design phase. In the designphase the way and method to solve the problem is thought and we actually try analyze the problem, we try to
  13. 13. find the algorithms and the way that can actually solve the problem and hence we use the genetic algorithm tofind the solution to the given problem .After finding the method which is to be applied to the given problemwe move to choice phase and here the actual work of finding the best algorithm come .Here we try to find thebest algorithm from the given set of algorithm we have the option of choosing the algorithms such as "ACO"algorithm which is called the ant colony optimization algorithm or we have the choice of finding the algorithmsuch as Simulated annealing (SA) is a related global optimization technique that traverses the search space bytesting random mutations on an individual solution. A mutation that increases fitness is always accepted. Amutation that lowers fitness is accepted probabilistically based on the difference in fitness and a decreasingtemperature parameter. In SA parlance, one speaks of seeking the lowest energy instead of the maximumfitness. SA can also be used within a standard GA algorithm by starting with a relatively high rate of mutationand decreasing it over time along a given schedule. After deciding that genetic algorithm is the most suitablealgorithm for the programming we move to the next step which is the implemetation phase here the realimplemeation of the slotuin is done we implemet the solution to the given problem by using the geneteicalgorithm according to the given problem.In the given problem a list of 26 items is given they all have different price, different weights and differentvolumes. The problem says that we have to find the items which can be fitted in to the given space of thecontainer the number of items chosen to be fitted in to the given space should be such that the weight and thevolume of the selected items should not be more than the total allowed volume and weight in the container.The care has to be taken such that the total weight and volume of the selected items should not exceed morethan the allowed weight and the volume.systemSimons Model of Decision MakingNewell and Simon formulated a methodology for human information processing. This model isconceptual in nature and goes hand in hand with the working of a digital computer.According to this model, a human being interacts with the external environment, gets information, andprocesses them. The initial interaction between the human being and the environment is triggered bystimuli. The sensory organs (receptors) accept the environment and pass it on to thebrain (processor). The brain transfers the information so obtained intoSTM and LTM. Decisions madeby the brain are conveyed to the environment by various organs of the human body (effectors) in theform of speech, physical activity, written messages, etc. To illustrate, a poet visualizes a beautifulnatural scenario, is totally absorbed in it and the response to this stimulus is a poem that flowsspontaneously. The model, as already mentioned, goes hand in hand with the working of a digitalcomputer. A digital computer gets data through one of its input devices ("receptor" in the Newell and
  14. 14. Simon model), passes the same to its central processing unit ("brain" in the Newell and Simon model),which in turn, after processing, sends an output through its output unit ("effectors" in the Newell andSimon model). Important information is stored in external memory units.Any human being, in response to a stimulus, reacts and decides what to do. For example, if the shareprices are falling the initial reaction is panic. Shareholders then decide either to offload all the sharesor wait for the market to pick up. How do they decide on these? Are there any models available thatcan explain clearly the decision-making process? A well-known model on the human decision-makingprocess was proposed by H.A. Simon. Simons decision-making model consists of three major stages:Stage I: Problem identification and data collection stage (also called intelligence phase).Stage 2: Identification and planning of alternative solutions (also called as design phase)Stage 3: Selection of a solution from multiple alternatives, implementing and monitoring (also calledas choice phase.)s - these systeWhat are the advantagesand disadvantages of MIS?Answer:ADVANTAGESAn MIS provides the following advantages.1. It Facilitates planning : MIS improves the quality of plants by providing relevant information for sounddecision - making . Due to increase in the size and complexity of organizations, managers have lost personalcontact with the scene of operations.2. In Minimizes information overload : MIS change the larger amount of data in to summarized form and thereby avoids the confusion which may arise when managers are flooded with detailed facts.3. MIS Encourages Decentralization : Decentralization of authority is possibly when there is a system formonitoring operations at lower levels. MIS is successfully used for measuring performance and makingnecessary change in the organizational plans and procedures.4. It brings Co ordination : MIS facilities integration of specialized activities by keeping each departmentaware of the problem and requirements of other departments. It connects all decision centers in theorganization .5. It makes control easier : MIS serves as a link between managerial planning and control. It improves theability of management to evaluate and improve performance . The used computers has increased the dataprocessing and storage capabilities and reduced the cost .
  15. 15. 6. MIS assembles, process , stores , Retrieves , evaluates and Disseminates the information.reference:http://www.management-hub.com/information-management-advantages.htmlDISADVANTAGES1.highly senstive requires constant monitoring.2.buddgeting of MIS extremely difficult.3.Quality of outputs governed by quality of inputs.4.lack of flexiblity to update itself.5.effectiveness decreases due to frequent changes in top management6.takes into account only qualitative factors and ignores non-qualitative factors like morale of worker, attitudeof worker etc...msdata dictionaryA data dictionary is a collection of descriptions of the data objects or items in a data modelfor the benefit of programmers and others who need to refer to them. A first step inanalyzing a system of objects with which users interact is to identify each object and itsrelationship to other objects. This process is called data modeling and results in a picture ofobject relationships. After each data object or item is given a descriptive name, itsrelationship is described (or it becomes part of some structure that implicitly describesrelationship), the type of data (such as text or image or binary value) is described, possiblepredefined values are listed, and a brief textual description is provided. This collection canbe organized for reference into a book called a data dictionary.When developing programs that use the data model, a data dictionary can be consulted tounderstand where a data item fits in the structure, what values it may contain, and basicallywhat the data item means in real-world terms. For example, a bank or group of banks couldmodel the data objects involved in consumer banking. They could then provide a datadictionary for a banks programmers. The data dictionary would describe each of the dataitems in its data model for consumer banking (for example, "Account holder" and""Available credit").An MIS provides the following advantages.1. It Facilitates planning : MIS improves the quality of plants by providing relevantinformation for sound decision – making . Due to increase in the size and complexityof organizations, managers have lost personal contact with the scene of operations.
  16. 16. 2. In Minimizes information overload : MIS change the larger amount of data in tosummarized form and there by avoids the confusion which may arise whenmanagers are flooded with detailed facts.3. MIS Encourages Decentralization : Decentralization of authority is possibly whenthere is a system for monitoring operations at lower levels. MIS is successfully usedfor measuring performance and making necessary change in the organizationalplans and procedures.4. It brings Co ordination : MIS facilities integration of specialized activities bykeeping each department aware of the problem and requirements of otherdepartments. It connects all decision centers in the organization .5. It makes control easier : MIS serves as a link between managerial planning andcontrol. It improves the ability of management to evaluate and improve performance. The used computers has increased the data processing and storage capabilitiesand reduced the cost .6. MIS assembles, process , stores , Retrieves , evaluates and Disseminates theinformatioData DictionaryDefinition - What does Data Dictionary mean?A data dictionary is a file or a set of files that contains a databases metadata. The data dictionarycontains records about other objects in the database, such as data ownership, data relationships toother objects, and other data.The data dictionary is a crucial component of any relational database. Ironically, because of itsimportance, it is invisible to most database users. Typically, only database administrators interactwith the data dictionary.Techopedia explains Data DictionaryAnswer:ADVANTAGESAn MIS provides the following advantages.1. It Facilitates planning : MIS improves the quality of plants by providing relevant information for sounddecision - making . Due to increase in the size and complexity of organizations, managers have lost personalcontact with the scene of operations.2. In Minimizes information overload : MIS change the larger amount of data in to summarized form and thereby avoids the confusion which may arise when managers are flooded with detailed facts.
  17. 17. 3. MIS Encourages Decentralization : Decentralization of authority is possibly when there is a system formonitoring operations at lower levels. MIS is successfully used for measuring performance and makingnecessary change in the organizational plans and procedures.4. It brings Co ordination : MIS facilities integration of specialized activities by keeping each departmentaware of the problem and requirements of other departments. It connects all decision centers in theorganization .5. It makes control easier : MIS serves as a link between managerial planning and control. It improves theability of management to evaluate and improve performance . The used computers has increased the dataprocessing and storage capabilities and reduced the cost .6. MIS assembles, process , stores , Retrieves , evaluates and Disseminates the information.reference:http://www.management-hub.com/information-management-advantages.htmlDISADVANTAGES1.highly senstive requires constant monitoring.2.buddgeting of MIS extremely difficult.3.Quality of outputs governed by quality of inputs.4.lack of flexiblity to update itself.5.effectiveness decreases due to frequent changes in top management6.takes into account only qualitative factors and ignores non-qualitative factors like morale of worker, attitudeof worker etc...Biyanis Think TankConcept based notesManagementInformation System(BBA Part-II)Ms. Kusumlata BhargavaDeptt. Of ManagementBiyani Girls College, JaipurPDF Created with deskPDF PDF Writer - Trial :: http://www.docudesk.comFor more detail: - http://www.gurukpo.comPublished by :Think TanksBiyani Group of CollegesConcept & Copyright :Biyani Shikshan SamitiSector-3, Vidhyadhar Nagar,Jaipur-302 023 (Rajasthan)Ph : 0141-2338371, 2338591-95 • Fax : 0141-2338007
  18. 18. E-mail : acad@biyanicolleges.orgWebsite :www.gurukpo.com; www.biyanicolleges.orgFirst Edition : 2009Leaser Type Setted by :Biyani College Printing DepartmentWhile every effort is taken to avoid errors or omissions in this Publication, anymistake or omission that may have crept in is not intentional. It may be taken note ofthat neither the publisher nor the author will be responsible for any damage or lossofany kind arising to anyone in any manner on account of such errors and omissions.PDF Created with deskPDF PDF Writer - Trial :: http://www.docudesk.comFor more detail: - http://www.gurukpo.comPrefaceI am glad to present this book, especially designed to serve the needs of thestudents. The book has been written keeping in mind the general weakness inunderstanding the fundamental concepts of the topics. The book is self-explanatoryandadopts the “Teach Yourself” style. It is based on question-answer pattern. Thelanguageof book is quite easy and understandable based on scientific approach.This book covers basic concepts related to the microbial understandings aboutdiversity, structure, economic aspects, bacterial and viral reproduction etc.Any further improvement in the contents of the book by making corrections,omission and inclusion is keen to be achieved based on suggestions from the readersfor which the author shall be obliged.I acknowledge special thanks to Mr. Rajeev Biyani, Chairman & Dr. Sanjay Biyani,Director (Acad.) Biyani Group of Colleges, who are the backbones and main conceptprovider and also have been constant source of motivation throughout thisEndeavour.They played an active role in coordinating the various stages of this Endeavour andspearheaded the publishing work.I look forward to receiving valuable suggestions from professors of variouseducational institutions, other faculty members and students for improvement of thequality of the book. The reader may feel free to send in their comments andsuggestionsto the under mentioned address.AuthorPDF Created with deskPDF PDF Writer - Trial :: http://www.docudesk.comFor more detail: - http://www.gurukpo.comSyllabusB.B.A. Part-IIManagement Information SystemIntroduction to MIS : Meaning and Role of MIS, Definition of MIS, SystemApproach toMIS, MIS Organization within a Company. Concept of Balanced MIS, Effectivenessand
  19. 19. Efficiency Criteria.Overview of System and Design, Feasibility Analysis, Design, Implementation,Testingand Evaluation. Introduction to Systems Development Life Cycle and its Phases.MIS Planning : MIS Structure and Components, MIS Features, Problem andDerivationof MIS Plans, Prioritization and Developmental Strategies.Conceptual Design of MIS : Definition of the Problem, System Objectives andSystemConstraints, Analysis of Information Source.Alternative System Design and Selection of Optimal System.Conceptual System Design Document.Detailed System Design and Implementation : Application of Basic System DesignConcepts to MIS, Involvement of End-User and Role of MIS Department and SystemAnalyst, Role of Top Management during Design an Implementation. SystemEvaluation Review and Update. Management and Control of MIS Function.AdvancedMIS Concept, Decision Support System.MIS in Operation : (See Note at End) : MIS for Accounting and Finance FunctionMISfor Personnel Systems, MIS for Marketing Systems, Production & Inventory System.Note : A STANDARD LAYOUT IS TO BE ADOPTED FOR ALL MIS.□ □ □PDF Created with deskPDF PDF Writer - Trial :: http://www.docudesk.comFor more detail: - http://www.gurukpo.comContentS. No. Name of Topic Page No.1. Introduction to MIS 7-141.1 Introduction & Objective of MIS1.2 Computer Based MIS1.3 Organizational Need for MIS in Company1.4 Pre-requisites of Effective MIS2. Information System of Decision Making 15-202.1 Introduction & Characteristics of MIS2.2 Steps in Decision Making2.3 Purpose of DSS2.4 Herbert S. Model3. Information 21-303.1 Information3.2 Classification of Information3.3 Types of Information System3.4 Value of Information3.5 Data Collection Method4. Development of MIS 31-374.1 Introduction & MIS Planning
  20. 20. 4.2 Development of MIS4.3 Approaches to MIS Development4.4 Factors Responsible for Development of MISS. No. Name of Topic Page No.5. Database Management System 38-475.1 Introduction5.2 Database Design5.3 Model of DBMS5.4 Views in DBMS5.5 Data AccessPDF Created with deskPDF PDF Writer - Trial :: http://www.docudesk.comFor more detail: - http://www.gurukpo.com6. Network 48-546.1 Data Communication6.2 Introduction of Network6.3 Types of Computer Network6.4 Topologies7. System Analysis & Design 55-787.1 Introduction7.2 Types of Business System7.3 System Analysis‟s Tools7.4 Introduction to System Analysis & Design7.5 Feasibility Study & Cost Benefit Analysis7.6 System Documentation8. MIS in Operation 79-868.1 MIS for Finance8.2 MIS for Marketing8.3 MIS for Production8.4 MIS for HRM□ □ □PDF Created with deskPDF PDF Writer - Trial :: http://www.docudesk.comFor more detail: - http://www.gurukpo.comChapter-1Introduction to MISQ.1 What is MIS? Discuss in detail?ORDescribe the three words of MIS: Management, Information, System.ORDiscuss the objectives and characteristics of MIS.Ans.: Management Information Systems (MIS), referred to as InformationManagementand Systems, is the discipline covering the application of people, technologies,and procedures collectively called information systems, to solving businessproblems.“MIS is a planned system of collecting, storing and disseminating data in theform of information needed to carry out the functions of management.”
  21. 21. Academically, the term is commonly used to refer to the group of informationmanagement methods tied to the automation or support of human decisionmaking, e.g. Decision Support Systems, Expert Systems, and ExecutiveInformation Systems.Management : Management is art of getting things done through and with thepeople in formally organized groups. The basic functions performed by amanager in an organization are: Planning, controlling, staffing, organizing, anddirecting.Information : Information is considered as valuable component of anorganization. Information is data that is processed and is presented in a formwhich assists decision maker.Information GenerationSystem : A system is defined as a set of elements which are joined together toachieve a common objective. The elements are interrelated and interdependent.Thus every system is said to be composed of subsystems. A system has one ormultiple inputs, these inputs are processed through a transformation process toconvert these input( s) to output.Data Processing InformationPDF Created with deskPDF PDF Writer - Trial :: http://www.docudesk.comFor more detail: - http://www.gurukpo.comThese subsystems are interrelatedthrough a process ofInput - Throughput - OutputA systemObjectives of MIS :Data Capturing : MIS capture data from various internal and external sources oforganization. Data capturing may be manual or through computer terminals.Processing of Data : The captured data is processed to convert into requiredinformation. Processing of data is done by such activities as calculating, sorting,classifying, and summarizing.Storage of Information : MIS stores the processed or unprocessed data for futureuse. If any information is not immediately required, it is saved as an organizationrecord, for later use.Retrieval of Information : MIS retrieves information from its stores as and whenrequired by various users.Dissemination of Information : Information, which is a finished product of MIS,is disseminated to the users in the organization. It is periodic or online throughcomputer terminal.Objectives of MISInput TransformationProcessOutputDataCaptureProcessing Dissemination
  22. 22. RetrievalStorage ofDataSourceUserPDF Created with deskPDF PDF Writer - Trial :: http://www.docudesk.comFor more detail: - http://www.gurukpo.comCharacteristics of MIS :Systems Approach : The information system follows a systems approach.Systems approach means taking a comprehensive view or a complete look at theinterlocking sub-systems that operate within an organization.Management Oriented : Management oriented characteristic of MIS implies thatthe management actively directs the system development efforts. For planning ofMIS, top-down approach should be followed. Top down approach suggests thatthe system development starts from the determination of management‟s needsand overall business objective. To ensure that the implementation of system‟spolices meet the specification of the system, continued review and participationof the manager is necessary.Need Based : MIS design should be as per the information needs of managers atdifferent levels.Exception Based : MIS should be developed on the exception based also, whichmeans that in an abnormal situation, there should be immediate reporting aboutthe exceptional situation to the decision –makers at the required level.Future Oriented : MIS should not merely provide past of historical information;rather it should provide information, on the basis of future projections on theactions to be initiated.Integrated : Integration is significant because of its ability to produce moremeaningful information. Integration means taking a comprehensive view orlooking at the complete picture of the interlocking subsystems that operatewithin the company.Common Data Flow : Common data flow includes avoiding duplication,combining similar functions and simplifying operations wherever possible. Thedevelopment of common data flow is an economically sound and logical concept,but it must be viewed from a practical angle.Long Term Planning : MIS is developed over relatively long periods. A heavyelement of planning should be involved.Sub System Concept : The MIS should be viewed as a single entity, but it mustbe broken down into digestible sub-systems which are more meaningful.Central database : In the MIS there should be common data base for wholesystemPDF Created with deskPDF PDF Writer - Trial :: http://www.docudesk.comFor more detail: - http://www.gurukpo.comQ.2 Highlight the Salient Features ofComputer which makes it an essentialcomponent of MISOR
  23. 23. With the Penetration of Computer in Business Society, Information System hasgot a new meaning, explain.Ans.: Characteristics of Computerized MIS :(i) Ability to process data into information with accuracy and high speed. Itinvolves complex computation, analysis, comparisons and summarization.(ii) Organizing and updating of huge amount of raw data of related andunrelated nature, derived from internal and external sources at differentperiods of time.(iii) The information processing and computer technology have been soadvanced that managers are able to obtain real time information aboutongoing activities and events without any waiting period.(iv) The input data in computer can be converted into different output formatsfor a variety of purpose. The system is so organized that managers atdifferent levels and in different activity units are in a position to obtaininformation in whatever form they want , provided that relevant “programmes” or instructions have been designed for the purpose.(v) Super-human memory, tremendous volume of data and information andthe set of instructions can be stored in the computer and can be retrievedas and when needed. Management can get bit of stored information fromthe computer in seconds.Advantages of Computer : The usage of computer gives following advantages incomparison to manual MIS :a) Speed : The speed of carrying out the given instructions logically andnumerically is incomparable between computers and human beings. Acomputer can perform and give instructions in less than a millionth ofsecondb) Accuracy : Computer can calculate very accurately without any errors.c) Reliability : The information stored in the computer is in digital format.The information can be stored for a long time and have long life. A usermay feel comfortable and be rely on, while using information stored incomputer.d) Storage : Computer can store huge data for a long time in comparison tohuman brain.PDF Created with deskPDF PDF Writer - Trial :: http://www.docudesk.comFor more detail: - http://www.gurukpo.come) Automaticity : Computers performautomatically in user friendly andmenu driven program.f) Repetitiveness : Computer can be used repetitively to process informationwithout any mental fatigue as in case of human brain.g) Diligence : A computer is an electronic device. It does not suffer from thehuman traits of lack of concentration.h) No Feeling : Computers are devoid of any emotions. They have no feelingsand no instincts because they are machines.Limitations of Computer :
  24. 24. a) Lack of Common Sense : Computer is only an electronic device. It can notthink. If we provide an incorrect data, it does not have a commonsense toquestion the correctness of the data.b) Memory Without Brain : Computer can store data in its memory;however, if a wrong instruction is given to computer it does not have abrain to correct the wrong instruction.Q.3 Discuss an Organizational Need for MIS in a Company?Ans.: To facilitate the management decision making at all levels of company, the MISmust be integrated. MIS units are company wide. MIS is available for the Topmanagement. The top management of company should play an active role indesigning, modifying and maintenance of the total organization widemanagement information system.Information system and Information technology have become a vital componentof any successful business and are regarded as major functional areas just likeany other functional area of a business organization like marketing, finance,production and HR. Thus it is important to understand the area of informationsystem just like any other functional area in the business. MIS is importantbecause all businesses have a need for information about the tasks which are tobe performed. Information and technology is used as a tool for solving problemsand providing opportunities for increasing productivity and quality.Information has always been important but it has never been so available, socurrent and so overwhelming. Efforts have been made for collection and retrievalof information, However, challenges still remain in the selection analysis andinterpretation of the information that will further improve decision making andproductivity.PDF Created with deskPDF PDF Writer - Trial :: http://www.docudesk.comFor more detail: - http://www.gurukpo.comMIS for a Business Organization :Support the Business Process : Treats inputs as a request from the customer andoutputs as services to customer. Supports current operations and use the systemto influence further way of working.Support Operation of a Business Organization : MIS supports operations of abusiness organization by giving timely information, maintenance andenhancement which provides flexibility in the operation of an organizations.To Support Decision Making : MIS supports the decision making by employeein their daily operations. MIS also supports managers in decision making tomeet the goals and objectives of the organization. Different mathematical modelsand IT tools are used for the purpose evolving strategies to meet competitiveneeds.Strategies for an Organization : Today each business is running in a competitivemarket. MIS supports the organization to evolve appropriate strategies for thebusiness to assented in a competitive environment.Q.4 Discuss the Prerequisites of an Effective MIS?Ans.: Essential Requirement of an Effective MIS :(i) Qualified System and Management Staff : The prerequisite of an effective
  25. 25. MIS is that it should be managed by qualified officers. These officersshould have a mutual understanding about the roles and responsibilities ofeach other. be understand clearly the view of their fellow officers. For this,each organization should have two categories of officers :(a) System and Computer Experts who in addition to their expertise intheir subject area , they should also be capable of understandingmanagement concepts to facilitate the understanding of problemsasked by concern. They should also be clear about the process ofdecision making and information requirements for planning.(b) Management experts who should also understand quite-clearly theconcepts and operations of a computer. This basic knowledge ofcomputer will be useful will place them in a comfortable position,while working with systems, technicians in designing or other wise,of the information system.(ii) Futuristic Perspective : An effective MIS should be capable of meeting thefuture requirements of its executives as well. This capability can beachieved by regular monitoring and updating the MIS.PDF Created with deskPDF PDF Writer - Trial :: http://www.docudesk.comFor more detail: - http://www.gurukpo.com(iii) Support of Top Management : For amanagement information system tobe effective, it must receive the full support of top management. TheReasons for this are :(a) Subordinate managers are usually lethargic about activities whichdo not receive the support of their superiors.(b) The resources involved in computer based information system arelarger and are growing larger and larger in view of importancegained by management information system.(iv) Common Database : It is an integrated collection of data and informationwhich is utilized by several information subsystems of an organization. Acommon database may be defined as a super file which consolidates andintegrates data records formerly stored in a separate data file. Such adatabase can be organized as an integrated collection of data records into asingle super file or it can be organized as an integrated collection of severaldata file.(v) Control and maintenance of MIS : Control of the MIS means the operationof the system as it was designed to operate. Some times, users developtheir own procedures or short cut methods to use the system whichreduces its effectiveness.□ □ □PDF Created with deskPDF PDF Writer - Trial :: http://www.docudesk.comFor more detail: - http://www.gurukpo.comChapter-2Information System for Decision MakingQ.1 What do you understand by Decision Making? Discuss the nature andcharacteristics of Decision?
  26. 26. Ans.: The word “decision “is derived from the Latin word “decido”. Which means “Adecision, therefore is• A Settlement• A fixed intuition to bringing to a conclusive result• A judgment• A resolutionDecision : A decision is the choice out of several options made by the decisionmaker to achieve some objective in a given situation.Business Decision : Business decisions are those which are made in the processof conducting business to achieve its objective in a given situation.Characteristic of Business Decision Making :a) Sequential in nature.b) Exceedingly complex due to risk and trade off.c) Influenced by personal values.d) Made in institutional setting and business environment.Rational Decision Making : A rational decision is the one which, effectively andefficiently, ensure the achievement of the goal for which the decision is made .Inreality there is no right or wrong decision but a rational decision or irrationaldecision which depends on situation.Type of Rationality :Objectively : Maximum the value of the objectives.Subjective : If it is minimize the attainment of value in relation to the knowledgeand awareness of subject.Consciously : Extent the process of the decision making is a conscious oneOrganizationally : degree of the orientation towards the organization.PDF Created with deskPDF PDF Writer - Trial :: http://www.docudesk.comFor more detail: - http://www.gurukpo.comPersonal: Rational to the extent isachieve‟s an individual‟s personal reason(goals).Type of Decision Making System : There are two types of decision makingsystem on the basis of knowledge about the environment.(i) Closed : If the manager operates in a known environment then it is calledclosed decision making system.Conditions :a) Manager knows the set of decision alternative and know theiroutcome in term of values.b) Manager has a model, by which decision alternatives can begenerated, tested and ranked.c) The manager can choose one of them, based on some goal orobjective.(ii) Open : If the manager operates in unknown environment then it is calledopen decision making.Conditions :a) Manager does not know all alternatives.
  27. 27. b) Outcome is not known.c) No methods or models are used.d) Decide objective or goal; select one where his aspirates or desire aremet best.Types of Decision : Types of decision are based on the degree of knowledgeabout the out come of the events which are yet to take place.Certainty : If the manager has full knowledge of event or outcome then it is asituation of certainty.Risk : If the manager has partial knowledge or probabilistic knowledge then it isdecision under risk.Uncertainty : If the manager does not have any knowledge, it is decision makingunder uncertaintyMIS converts the uncertainty to risk and risk to certainty. The decision at the lowlevel management is certain, at middle level of the management the decision isunder risk and at the top level management the decision is in under uncertain.Nature of decision : Decision making is a complex task. To resolve thecomplexity the nature of decision are of two types :Programmed and Non-Programmed Decision :PDF Created with deskPDF PDF Writer - Trial :: http://www.docudesk.comFor more detail: - http://www.gurukpo.coma) If a decision can be based on a rule,methods or even guidelines, it is calledthe programmed decision.b) A decision which can not be made by using a rule or model is the nonprogrammeddecision.Q.2 Discuss the essential steps in process of Decision Making?Ans.: Decision making process is same as Hebert Simon Model.Q.3 What is DSS? What is the purpose of Decision Support System in MIS.Ans.: Decision Support System refers to a class of systems which support in theprocess of decision making and does not always give a decision it self.Decision Support Systems (DSS) are a specific class of computerized informationsystem that supports business and organizational decision-making activities. Aproperly designed DSS is an interactive software-based system intended to helpdecision makers compile useful information from raw data, documents, personalknowledge, and/or business models to identify and solve problems and makedecisionsDSS is an application of Hebert Simon model, as discussed, the model has threephases :i) Intelligenceii) Designiii) ChoiceThe DSS basically helps in the information system in the intelligence phase wherethe objective is to identify the problem and then go to the design phase forsolution. The choice of selection criteria varies from problem to problem.It is therefore, required to go through these phases again and again till
  28. 28. satisfactory solution is found.In the following three phase cycle, you may use inquiry, analysis, and modelsand accounting system to come to rational solution.These systems are helpful where the decision maker calls for complexmanipulation of data and use of several methods to reach an acceptable solutionusing different analysis approach. The decision support system helps in making adecision and also in performance analysis. DSS can be built around the rule incase of programmable decision situation. The rules are not fixed orpredetermined and requires every time the user to go through the decisionmaking cycle as indicated in Herbert Simon model.Attributes :PDF Created with deskPDF PDF Writer - Trial :: http://www.docudesk.comFor more detail: - http://www.gurukpo.comi) DSS should be adaptable and flexible.ii) DSS should be interactive and provide ease of use.iii) Effectiveness balanced with efficiency (benefit must exceed cost).iv) Complete control by decision-makers.v) Ease of development by (modification to suit needs and changingenvironment) end users.vi) Support modeling and analysis.vii) Data access.viii) Standalone, integration and Web-basedDSS Characteristics :i) Support for decision makers in semi structured and unstructuredproblems.ii) Support managers at all levels.iii) Support individuals and groups.iv) Support for interdependent or sequential decisions.v) Support intelligence, design, choice, and implementation.vi) Support variety of decision processes and stylesQ.4 Discuss in brief the Hebert A. Simon „Decision Support System Model‟.Define the term Intelligence, Design and Choice as Model.ORDiscuss the essential steps in process of decision making.Ans.: There are three phases in Hebert Simon model :Hebert Simon ModelINTELLIGENCEDESIGNCHIOCEPDF Created with deskPDF PDF Writer - Trial :: http://www.docudesk.comFor more detail: - http://www.gurukpo.comIntelligence : In this phase MIS collectsthe raw data. Further the data is sortedand merged with other data and computation are made, examined andpresented. In this phase, the attention of the manager is drawn to the entireproblem situation, calling for a decision.
  29. 29. Design : Manager develops a model of problem situation on which he cangenerate and test, summarizing the different decision alternatives and test thefeasibility of implementation. Assess the value of the decision outcome.Choice : In this phase the manager evolves a selection criterion and selects onealternative as decision based on selection criteria.In these three phases if the manager fails to reach a decision, he starts the processall over again from intelligence phase where additional data and information iscollected, the decision making process is refined, the selection criteria is changedand a decision is arrived at.□ □ □PDF Created with deskPDF PDF Writer - Trial :: http://www.docudesk.comFor more detail: - http://www.gurukpo.comChapter-3InformationQ.1 What do you understand by Information? What are the characteristics ofInformation?Ans.: Data : Data is raw facts. Data is like raw material. Data does not interrelate andalso it does not help in decision making. Data is defined as groups of nonrandomsymbols in the form of text, images, voice representing quantities, actionand objects.Information : Information is the product of data processing. Information isinterrelated data. Information is equivalent to finished goods produced afterprocessing the raw material. The information has a value in decision making.Information brings clarity and creates an intelligent human response in the mind.According to Davis and Olson : “Information is a data that has been processedinto a form that is meaningful to recipient and is of real or perceived value in thecurrent or the prospective action or decision of recipient.”Information GenerationIt is a most critical resource of the organization. Managing the information meansmanaging future. Information is knowledge that one derives from facts placed inthe right context with the purpose of reducing uncertainty.Characteristics of Information :The parameters of a good quality are difficult to determine for information.Quality of information refers to its fitness for use, or its reliability.Following are the essential characteristic features :i) Timeliness : Timeliness means that information must reach the recipientswithin the prescribed timeframes. For effective decision-making,information must reach the decision-maker at the right time, i.e. recipientsmust get information when they need it. Delays destroys the value ofinformation. The characteristic of timeliness, to be effective, should alsoinclude up-to-date, i.e. current information.Data Processing InformationPDF Created with deskPDF PDF Writer - Trial :: http://www.docudesk.comFor more detail: - http://www.gurukpo.comii) Accuracy : Information should beaccurate. It means that information
  30. 30. should be free from mistakes, errors &, clear Accuracy also means that theinformation is free from bias. Wrong information given to managementwould result in wrong decisions. As managers decisions are based on theinformation supplied in MIS reports, all managers need accurateinformation.iii) Relevance : Information is said to be relevant if it answers especially forthe recipient what, why, where, when, who and why? In other words, theMIS should serve reports to managers which is useful and the informationhelps them to make decisions..iv) Adequacy : Adequacy means information must be sufficient in quantity,i.e. MIS must provide reports containing information which is required inthe deciding processes of decision-making. The report should not giveinadequate or for that matter, more than adequate information, which maycreate a difficult situation for the decision-maker. Whereas inadequacy ofinformation leads to crises, information overload results in chaos.v) Completeness : The information which is given to a manager must becomplete and should meet all his needs. Incomplete information mayresult in wrong decisions and thus may prove costly to the organization.vi) Explicitness : A report is said to be of good quality if it does not requirefurther analysis by the recipients for decision making.vii) Impartiality : Impartial information contains no bias and has beencollected without any distorted view of the situation.Q.2 What are the different types of Information?Ans.: Classification of Information : The information can be classified in a number ofways provide to better understanding.Jhon Dearden of Harvard University classifies information in the followingmanner :(1) Action Verses No-Action Information : The information which inducesaction is called action Information. „No stock„report calling a purchaseaction is an action information.The information which communicates only the status is No-ActionInformation. The stock balance is no-action information.(2) Recurring Verses No-Recurring Information : The information generatedat regular intervals is Recurring Information. The monthly sales reports,the stock statement, the trial balance, etc are recurring information. ThePDF Created with deskPDF PDF Writer - Trial :: http://www.docudesk.comFor more detail: - http://www.gurukpo.comfinancial analysis or the report on themarket research study is norecurring information.(3) Internal and external information : The information generated throughthe internal sources of the organization is termed as Internal Information,while the information generated through the govt. reports, the industrysurvey etc., termed as External Information, as the sources of the data areoutside the organization.The information can also be classified, in terms of its application :
  31. 31. • Planning Information : Certain standard norms and specifications areused in planning of any activity. Hence such information is called thePlanning Information. e. g. Time standard, design standard.• Control Information : Reporting the status of an activity through afeedback mechanism is called the Controlling Information. When suchinformation shows a deviation from the goal or the objective, it will inducea decision or an action leading to control.• Knowledge Information : A collection of information through the libraryrecords and the research studies to build up a knowledge base as aninformation is known as Knowledge Information.• Organization Information : When the information is used by everybody inthe organization, it is called Organization Information. Employee andpayroll Information is used by a number of people in an organization.• Functional/ Operational Information : When the information is used inthe operation of a business it is called Functional/OperationalInformation.• Database Information : When the information has multiple use andapplication, it is called as database information. Material specification orsupplier information is stored for multiple users.Q.3 Explain the level of business activity with reference to information required?Ans.: While developing an information management strategy within an organization,itis useful to consider informations need at on three levels :• Corporate (Top Level )• Team, Division, Business Unit (Middle Level)• Individual (Low Level )The needs of each of these three levels must be met if a coordinated and effectivesolution is to be maintained in the long-term.PDF Created with deskPDF PDF Writer - Trial :: http://www.docudesk.comFor more detail: - http://www.gurukpo.comFailure to address any one of the levelswill lead to areas of the business orindividuals finding their own solution, which may not fit well within thestrategic goals of the organization.Corporate (Top Level Information) : At the top level corporate information thatis useful for the whole organization. This global information is generally welladdressed by the corporate intranet. Examples of corporate information includepolicies and procedures, HR information, online forms, phone directory, etc.Interestingly, there may be a limited amount of truly global information, and itmay not deliver the greatest (measurable) business benefits.Team, division, business unit (Middle level) : The middle level is perhaps themost important, as it covers all the information shared within teams, divisions,business units, etc. This information may be critical to the day-to-day activities ofthe group, but of little interest to the rest of the organization. Examples includeproject documentation, business unit specific content, meeting minutes, etc. This
  32. 32. level is generally poorly-served within organizations, although collaborationtools are increasingly being used to address team information needs. It is alsobeing recognized that it is this local information that may be the most valuable,in terms of driving the day-to-day activity of the organization.Levels of Informations NeedIndividual (Low Level) : At the lowest level the personal information need ofstaff exists throughout the organization. Examples include correspondence,reports and spreadsheets. In most organizations, staff must struggle with usingemail to meet their information management needs. While staff generallyrecognizes the inadequacy of e-mail, they have few other approaches ortechnologies at their disposal.Managing the Levels : While managing the information at each of the threelevels, consider aspects need consideration:• An information management solution must be provided for staff at each ofthe three levels.PDF Created with deskPDF PDF Writer - Trial :: http://www.docudesk.comFor more detail: - http://www.gurukpo.com• If corporate solutions arent provided,then staff will find their ownsolutions. This is the source of poor-quality intranet sub-sites, and otherundesirable approaches.• A clear policy must be developed, outlining when and how it will apply atall the three levels and how information should be managed at each level.• Processes must be put in place to bubble up or promote informationfrom lower levels to higher levels. For example, some team-generatedinformation will be critical for the whole organization.• As much as possible, a seamless information management environmentshould be delivered that covers all the three levels.Q.4 What do you understand by Information System? Discuss various type ofInformation.Ans.: A business has several information systems :(A) Formal Information System(B) Informal Information System(C) Computer Based Information SystemFormal Information System : It is based on organizational chart represented bythe organization.Informal Information System : It is an employee based system designed to meetpersonal and vocational needs and to help in the solution of work-relatedproblems. It also funnels information upward through indirect channels. It workswithin the framework of the business and its stated policies.Computer Based Information System (CBIS) : This category of informationsystem depends mainly on the computer for handling business application.System analysis develops different types of information system to meet variety ofbusiness needs. There is class of system known as collectively as computer basedinformation system. They can be classified as :
  33. 33. • Transaction Processing System (TPS)• Management Information System(MIS)• Decision Making System (DSS)• Office Automation System (OAS)PDF Created with deskPDF PDF Writer - Trial :: http://www.docudesk.comFor more detail: - http://www.gurukpo.comQ.5 What do you mean by Value ofInformation?Ans.: Dimensions of Information : There are three most common dimensions ofinformation for MIS :(i) Economic Dimension : Economic dimension of information refers to thecost of information and its benefits. Generation of information costsmoney. Measuring cost and benefit of information is difficult because ofintangible characteristic of information.Cost of Information : Cost of information may include: Cost of acquiringdata, Cost of maintaining data, Cost of generating information and Cost ofcommunication information. Cost related to the response time require togenerate information and communicating it. Thus, for system with lowresponse time, the cost is high. The cost is depends on accuracy, speed ofgeneration etc.Value of Information : Information has a cost for its acquisition andmaintenance. Thus before a particular piece of information is acquired,decision maker must know its value. The information has a perceivedvalue in terms of decision making. The decision maker feels more securedwhen additional information is received in case of decision making underuncertainty or risk.Perfect Information : The information is called a Perfect Information, if itwipes out uncertainty or risk completely. However, perfect information isa myth.The value of information is the value of the change in decision behaviorbecause of the information. The change in the behaviour due to newinformation is measured to determine the benefit from its use. To arrive atthe value of information, the cost incurred to get this information isdeducted from the benefit.Value of information = Cost to get information-benefitGiven a set of possible decisions, a decision maker will select one on thebasis of the available information. If the new information causes a changein the decision, then the value of information is the difference in the valuebetween outcome of the old decision and that of new decision, less the costobtaining the new information. The value of the additional informationmaking the existing information perfect (VPI) is:VPI = (V2 - V1) - (C2 - C1)PDF Created with deskPDF PDF Writer - Trial :: http://www.docudesk.comFor more detail: - http://www.gurukpo.comWhere V is the value of the informationand C is the cost of obtaining the
  34. 34. information. V1 and C1 relate to one set of information V2, C2 relate to thenew set.In MIS, the concept of the value of information is used to find out thebenefit of perfect information and if the value is significantly high, thesystem should provide it. If the value is insignificant, it would not beworth collecting the additional information.(ii) Business Dimension : Different types of information are required bymanagers at different levels of the management hierarchy. Theinformation needs of managers at strategic planning level are altogetherdifferent that those of operational control managers. It is because of thefact that managers at different levels are required to perform differentfunctions in an organization.(iii) Technical Dimension : This dimension of information refers to thetechnical aspects of the database. It includes the capacity of database,response time, security, validity, data interrelationship etc.Q.6 What is the difference between Data Processing and Information Processing?Ans.: Data Processing : Data Processing is a process that converts data intoinformation or knowledge. The processing is usually assumed to be automatedand running on a computer. Because data are most useful when well-presentedand actually informative, data-processing systems are often referred to asinformation systems to emphasize their practicality. Nevertheless, both terms areroughly synonymous, performing similar conversions; data-processing systemstypically manipulate raw data into information, and likewise informationsystems typically take raw data as input to produce information as output.Data processing is that a business has collected numerous data concerning anaspect of its operations and that this multitude of data must be presented inmeaningful, easy-to-access presentations for the managers who must then usethat information to increase revenue or to decrease cost. That conversion andpresentation of data as information is typically performed by a data-processingapplication.Information Processing : Information processing is the change or processing ofinformation in any manner detectable by an observer.Information processing may more specifically be defined in terms by Claude E.Shannon as the conversion of latent information into manifest information.Latent and manifest information is defined through the terms of equivocation,PDF Created with deskPDF PDF Writer - Trial :: http://www.docudesk.comFor more detail: - http://www.gurukpo.comremaining uncertainty, what value thesender has actually chosen, dissipationuncertainty of the sender what the receiver has actually received andtransformation saved effort of questioning - equivocation minus dissipation.Practical Information Processing can be described as a cycle, where data whichmay have no inherent meaning to the observer is converted into information,which does have meaning to the observer.Q.7 What are the different methods for Data Collection?
  35. 35. Ans.: Methods of Data and Information Collection : Several methods are availableforthe collection of data. The choice of method will have an impact on the quality ofinformation. Similarly the design of data collection method also decides thequality of data and information.Following are the methods of data collection :i) Observationii) Experimentiii) Surveyiv) Subjective Estimationv) Transaction Processingvi) Purchase from Outsidevii) Publicationviii) Government Agencies□ □ □PDF Created with deskPDF PDF Writer - Trial :: http://www.docudesk.comFor more detail: - http://www.gurukpo.comChapter-4Development of MISQ.1 What is MIS Planning? Discuss the need and objectives of MIS Planning.ORWhat are the objectives and need of MIS Planning?Ans.: The plan for development and its implementation is a basic necessity for MIS.In MIS the information is recognized as major resource like capital and time. Ifthis resource has to be managed well, it calls upon the management to plan for itand control it, so that the information becomes a vital resource for the system.The management information system needs good planning. This system shoulddeal with the management information not with data processing alone. It shouldprovide support for the management planning, decision making and action. Itshould provide support to the changing needs of business management.A long range MIS plan provides direction for the development of the system andprovides a basis for achieving the specific targets or tasks against time frame.Following are the contents of MIS planning :MIS Goals and Objectives : It is necessary to develop the goal and objectives forthe MIS which will support the business goals. The MIS goals and objectives willconsider management philosophy, policy constraints, Business risk, internal andexternal environment of the organization and business. The goals and objectivesof the MIS would be so stated that they can be measured. The typical statementsof the goals can be providing online information on the stock and market; thequery processing should not exceed more than three seconds and the like.Strategy for Plan Achievement : The designer has to take a number of strategicdecisions for the achievement of MIS goals and objectives. They area) Development Strategy : Ex. an online, batch , a real time.b) System Development Strategy : Designer selects an approach to systemdevelopment like operational verses functional, accounting verses
  36. 36. analysis.c) Resources for the Development : Designer has to select resources.Resources ca be in-house verses external, customized or use of package.d) Manpower Composition : The staff should have the staffs of an analyst,and programmer.PDF Created with deskPDF PDF Writer - Trial :: http://www.docudesk.comFor more detail: - http://www.gurukpo.comThe Architecture of MIS : Thearchitecture of the MIS plan provides a systemand subsystem structure and their input, output and linkage. It spells out indetails the subsystem from the data entry to processing, analysis to modeling andstorage to printing.The System Development Schedule : A schedule is made for development of thesystem. While preparing a schedule due consideration is given to importance ofthe system in the overall information requirements. This development schedule isto be weighed against the time scale for achieving certain informationrequirements.Hardware and Software Plan : Giving due regards to the technical andoperational feasibility, the economics of investment is worked out. Then the planof procurement is made after selecting the hardware and software. One can takethe phased approach of investing starting from the lower configuration ofhardware going to the higher as development take place. The process needsmatching the technical decisions with the financial decisions.Q.2 What are the stages of Development of MIS?Ans.: In order to develop a system successfully, it is managed by breaking the totaldevelopment process into smaller basic activities or phases. Any systemdevelopment process, in general, is understood to have the following phases :i) Systems Planningii) Systems Analysisiii) Systems Designiv) Systems Implementationv) Systems Operation and SupportQ.3 What are different approaches to Development of MIS?Ans.: There are two basic approaches for development of MIS :a) System development life cycle : The system development life cycle havefollowing steps of development :i) Systems Planningii) Systems Analysisiii) Systems Designiv) Systems Implementationv) Systems Operation and Support (System Maintenance)b) Prototyping : Prototyping is the process of creating an incomplete modelof the future full-featured system, which can be used to let the users have aPDF Created with deskPDF PDF Writer - Trial :: http://www.docudesk.com
  37. 37. For more detail: - http://www.gurukpo.comfirst idea of the completed program orallow the clients to evaluate theprogram.Advantages :i) The designer and implementer can obtain feedback from the usersearly in the project development.ii) The client and the contractor can compare that the developingsystem matches with the system specification, according to whichthe system is built.iii) It also gives the engineer some idea about the accuracy of initialproject estimates and whether the deadlines can be successfullymet.The process of prototyping involves the following steps :i) Identify basic requirements.ii) Develop initial prototype.iii) Review : The customers, including end-users, examine theprototype and provide feedback for additions or changes.iv) Revise and Enhance the Prototype : Using the feedback both thespecifications and the prototype can be improved. If changes areintroduced then a repetition of steps 3 and 4 may be needed.Types of prototyping : System prototyping are of various kinds.However, all the methods are in some way based on two major types ofprototyping :• Throwaway Prototyping : Throwaway or Rapid Prototyping refersto the creation of a model that will eventually be discarded ratherthan becoming part of the finally delivered system. Afterpreliminary requirements gathering is accomplished, a simpleworking model of the system is constructed to visually show theusers what their requirements may look like when they areimplemented into a finished system. The most obvious reason forusing Throwaway Prototyping is that it can be done quickly.• Evolutionary Prototyping : Evolutionary Prototyping (also knownas Breadboard Prototyping) is quite different from ThrowawayPrototyping. The main goal when using Evolutionary Prototypingis to build a very good prototype in a structured manner so that wecan refine it or make further changes to it. The reason for this isthat the Evolutionary prototype, when built, forms the heart of thenew system, and the improvements and further requirements willPDF Created with deskPDF PDF Writer - Trial :: http://www.docudesk.comFor more detail: - http://www.gurukpo.combe built on to it. It is not discarded orremoved like the ThrowawayPrototype. When developing a system using EvolutionaryPrototyping, the system is continually refined and rebuilt.• Incremental Prototyping : The final product is built as separate
  38. 38. prototypes. At the end the separate prototypes are merged in anoverall design.Advantages of Prototyping :i) Reduced Time and Costs : Prototyping can improve the quality ofrequirements and specifications provided to developers. Earlydetermination of what the user really wants can result in faster andless expensive software.ii) Improved and Increased User Involvement : Prototyping requiresuser involvement and allows them to see and interact with aprototype; allowing them to provide better and more completefeedback and specifications. Since users know the problem betterthan anyone, the final product is more likely to satisfy the usersdesire for look, feel and performance.Disadvantages of Prototyping :i) Insufficient Analysis : Since a model has to be created, developerswill not properly analyse the complete project. This may lead to apoor prototype and a final project that will not satisfy the users.ii) User Confusion for Prototype and Finished System : Users canbegin to think that a prototype, intended to be thrown away, isactually a final system that merely needs to be finished or polished.Users can also become attached to features that were included in aprototype for consideration and then removed from thespecification for a final system.iii) Excessive Development Time of the Prototype : A key property toprototyping is the fact that it is supposed to be done quickly. If thedevelopers forget about this fact, they will develop a prototype thatis too complex.iv) Expense of Implementing Prototyping : The start up costs forbuilding a development team focused on prototyping may be high.Many companies have to train the team for this purpose whichneeds extra expensive?Q.4 Factors responsible for Development of MIS?Ans.: Factors Responsible for the development of MIS are numerous and have beenaprime concern for many Researchers and Practitioners. Both Inter and externalPDF Created with deskPDF PDF Writer - Trial :: http://www.docudesk.comFor more detail: - http://www.gurukpo.comfactors must be taken into account whentrying to understand and organization‟scriteria for deciding about technology. The following are the factors which areresponsible for development of MIS :1. External2. InternalExternal Factors : External Factors are conditions that exist in organization‟sexternal environment. The factors can be found at the industry level or in
  39. 39. national policies.(a) Industry level : At the industry level, we are looking at characteristics asdegree of diffusion of certain technologies, the availability of externalknow-how, for example, technology suppliers, the degree ofinnovativeness of the industry, the requirements imposed by majorcustomers and external markets and overall levels of competition andtechnology sophistication in the industry.(b) National Policies : For the external factors the national policies also affectthe organization that indirectly affects the subsystems of the organization.Internal Factors : Internal factors internal of the firm that may affect thedevelopment of MIS can be grouped into three categories:i) Past Experience with Technology : The organizations past experienceabout the technology in terms of exposure and organizational learningultimately affects its future in developing technology.ii) Organizational Characteristics : An organization‟s characteristic like size,influence the adoption of MIS application in organization. The adoption ofcertain technologies may appear more appropriate for the larger firmsbecause of the large capital investments and the skilled human resourcesinvolve in the implementation and operation of such technologies. Smallerfirms are less affected by organizational inertia and they show a greaterdegree of involvement of organizational member‟s especially topmanagement during implementation. Ready to use software and lessexpensive equipments of MIS application are more attractive to smallerfirms.iii) Organizational Pursued strategy : Internal factors deal with theorganizations pursued strategy on both orientation and technology policy.An organization‟s strategy reflects its action with market and technology,which ultimately modify its experience and consequently its overallcharacteristics and capabilities. The need for a strong technology has beenadvocated by a number of authors and investments in MIS shouldtherefore be closely aligned with overall corporate strategy.PDF Created with deskPDF PDF Writer - Trial :: http://www.docudesk.comFor more detail: - http://www.gurukpo.comOther Factors :Customer Satisfaction : Development of MIS is affected by customer satisfaction.Customer of the services should be satisfied by the presented system.Effective : Development should be effective in terms of organizational benefit &user satisfaction.Efficient : Development should use all the resources, organization valuesefficiently.□ □ □PDF Created with deskPDF PDF Writer - Trial :: http://www.docudesk.comFor more detail: - http://www.gurukpo.comChapter-5Database Management SystemsQ.1 What do you understand by Database Management System? What are its
  40. 40. objectives? Discuss the various elements of Database System.Ans.: A database management system is a collection of interrelated data and a set ofprogram to access those data. The collection of data, usually referred to as the“Database” contains information relevant to an enterprise. The primary goal of aDBMS is to provide a way to store and retrieve database information that is bothconvenient and efficient.Database : An organization must have accurate and reliable data for effectivedecision making. For this, the organization maintains records of various facts ofits operation by building appropriate models of the diverse classes of objects ofinterest. The models capture the essential properties of the objects and recordsrelationship among them. Such related data is called “Database”Objectives :i) The users of the database establish their view of the data and its structurewithout regards to the actual physical storage of the data.ii) That the database establishes a uniform high level of accuracy andconsistency. Validation rules are applied by the DBMS.iii) The data should be available for use by application and by queries.iv) The data item prepared by one application are available to all applicationsor queries. No data items are owned by an application.v) The data base can be evolved according to application usage and queryneeds.Elements of DBMS : The elements of database management system are :i) Database : Databases are banks and is an important constituent of anyinformation system. Data bank for computerized information is organizedin the form of a collection of file stored on secondary storage media. A fileis a collection of records for each entity in the system. The record being acollection of data items representing the attributes of an entity.PDF Created with deskPDF PDF Writer - Trial :: http://www.docudesk.comFor more detail: - http://www.gurukpo.comii) People : The people involved with thedatabase system can be divided into2 groups: those who use the information system provided by the systemand those who design develop and manage the system itself.iii) Database Planning and Design Technique : Since the database systeminvolves people from all parts of organization with variety of informationneeds the development and operation of database system must be verycarefully planned and managed. The data must be carefully designed toprovide efficient excess to information required by different users.iv) Computer Hardware and Software : Computer hardware and software forDBMS are two different important elements of DBMS. They aretechnological foundation of DBMS.Q.2 What is Database Design? And objectives of Database Design?Ans.: Database design is the process of designing the overall schema of database.Thisprocess is mainly divided in four phases: analysis phase, design phase refinement

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