• Cloud computing is the use of computing resources (hardware and software) that are delivered as a service over a network (typically the Internet).• The name ‘cloud ’ comes from the early days of the Internet where the network drawn as a cloud in flowcharts.*
Cloud computing history• Cloud computing is the new name for an old service.• The underlying concept of cloud computing dates back to the 1950s. *• John McCarthy* predicted in the 1960s that "computation may someday be organized as a public utility.“
• What made cloud computing a demanded product was the need to make things easier, save on expenditures, infrastructure, maintenance, etc..• Amazon was one of the first providers of cloud computing to external customers, they launched Amazon Web Service (AWS) on a utility computing basis in 2006.• According to salesforce.com By 2020 the cloud computing market is forecast to exceed $ 241 B
Cloud Deployment models:• Private Cloud.• Public Cloud.• Hybrid cloud.
Public Cloud Computing• A public cloud is also called ‘external cloud’• Offers a self-service web portal where the users can specify their desired scope of services• All cloud providers offer wide range of options in performance, pricing and feature set.• Some of the cloud providers offer Platform-as-a-Service and other offer Infrastructure-as-a-Service
Public cloud providers• Amazon Web Services• Google• Go Grid
Advantages of Public cloud computing• Utility Price Model• API access• Configure & Pay Online
Private Cloud• Private Cloud is a special kind of cloud computing where the access to the service is limited to only one organization or a specific group or people.• Internally managed*• Externally managed*
Private cloud models• Internal private cloud:Private cloud implemented and controlled by the organization IT department and serve’s only the organization requirements.• Virtual private cloud:Controlled and managed by a third-party to serve a specific organization or a group of people.• Community private cloud:It is similar to virtual private cloud except that it serves a specific and a limited group of different organizations.
Current Solutions and Providers:1. Open source solutions Example: Open-Nebula.2. Proprietary solutions: Example: Amazon Virtual Private Cloud (VPC), VMWare private cloud.
Open Nebula•OpenNebula is a distributed virtual machinemanager which allows virtualization of theinfrastructure. It also features an integralmanagement of virtual services, includingnetworking and image management.•OpenNebula is principally a middleware that isplaced between the infrastructure layer andservice layer.•The OpenNebula supports private, public andhybrid cloud. Fig (2)
Amazon Virtual Private Cloud (VPC)Amazon Virtual Private Cloud is a solution offered by Amazon which enables private cloud establishment in Amazon EC2 (Elastic Compute Cloud) cloud environment. Through gateways on both ends, a secure connection is setup enabling connection between two clouds. This can also be referred as public private cloud. This solution opens new possibilities of cloud extension such as:• Cloud burst: ability to add extra capacity to a private cloud without having to add more hardware.• Lab cloud: using VPC for conducting tests• Business continuity cloud: business continuity for failure mitigation private cloud.
Advantages of private cloud• Reduce IT and personal costs.• Better efficiency in getting IT needs setup.• Can help with some security concerns.• Time savings.• Cost savings.
Hybrid cloud• A hybrid cloud is a cloud computing environment in which an organization provides and manages some resources in-house and has others provided externally.• For example, an organization might use a public cloud service for archived data but continue to maintain in-house storage for operational customer data.• The hybrid approach allows a business to take advantage of the scalability and cost-effectiveness that a public cloud computing environment offers without exposing mission-critical applications and data to third-party vulnerabilities.
Cloud Service Models Software as a Platform as a Infrastructure as a Service (SaaS) Service (PaaS) Service (IaaS)19 Adopted from: Effectively and Securely Using the Cloud Computing Paradigm by peter Mell, Tim Grance
Infrastructure-as-a-Service (IaaS)• Definition– Provision model in which an organization outsources the equipment used to support operations, including storage, hardware, servers and networking components.– Also known as Hardware as a Service (HaaS).– Service provider owns the equipment; responsible for housing, running and maintaining it.– Client typically pays on a per-use basis. 20
Characteristics of Infrastructure-as-a-Service (IaaS)• Utility computing and billing model• Automation of administrative tasks• Dynamic scaling• Desktop virtualization• Policy-based services• Internet connectivity 21
Where Iaas makes Sense• Where demand is very volatile – any time there are significant spikes and troughs in terms of demand on the infrastructure.• For new organizations to invest without the capital in hardware.• Where an organization is growing rapidly and scaling hardware would be problematic.• Pressure on the organization to limit expenditure on capital and move on to operating expenditure.• Trial or temporary infrastructural needs for specific line of business.
IaaS Providers– Amazon Web Services– Bluelock– CSC– Go Grid– IBM– OpenStack– Rackspace– Savvis– Terremark.
Platform as a Service (PaaS)• Allows businesses to build and run web based application in an on demand fashion.• Includes web application design, app hosting and app development.
Types of Platform as a Service• Stand Alone Business Application Platforms• Social Application Development Platforms• Web based Application Add-On Platforms• Open-Computing Platforms
PaaS: Characteristics & Service Providers• Multi-tenant Efficient• Cloud Services• AbstractionService Providers• Saleforce’s Force.com • Microsoft Azure• Engine Yard• Google App Engine.
Software as a Service(SaaS)• Sometimes called as “On demand Software”• Software Delivery Model• Hosted on the cloud by vendor and made available to customers through network.Features• Scalable• Multi Tenant Efficient• Configurable and Customizable
SaaS: Architecture & Service providers• Multi Tenant Architecture• Single Tenant ArchitectureService Providers• iCloud• Google Apps• Salesforce.com
Advantages of Saas and Paas• Less Initial Investment• Low Maintenance Costs• Speed of Deployment• Immediate updates and new features• Global Accessibility• Support more agile and quick implementation.
IN PARALLEL THERE HAS BEEN BACKLASH AGAINSTCLOUD COMPUTING: ETHICS AND POTENTIAL RISKS • Use of cloud computing means dependence on others and that could possibly limit flexibility and innovation: The others are likely become the bigger Internet companies like Google and IBM, who may monopolise the market. Some argue that this use of supercomputers is a return to the time of mainframe computing that the PC was a reaction against.
Risks and Ethical issues Contd. • Security could prove to be a big issue: It is still unclear how safe out-sourced data is and when using these services ownership of data is not always clear. • There are also issues relating to policy and access: If your data is stored abroad whose policy do you adhere to? What happens if the remote server goes down? How will you then access files? There have been cases of users being locked out of accounts and losing access to data.
Futuristic trends in Cloud Computing• Mobile Cloud Computing• Social Software• Low-power processor and Green IT• Faster Interconnects• Hybrid Cloud Computing