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4.instructuional design theories

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Fourth session of the series that introduces you to basics of instructional design.

Fourth session of the series that introduces you to basics of instructional design.

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  • 1. Instructional Designfor DummiesA short course that explains the basics of Instructional Design Session 4: Instructional Design Theories Start
  • 2. Topics Below are the topics covered in this session:Bloom’s TaxonomyGagne’s Nine Events of InstructionKirkpatricks four levels of training evaluation Start
  • 3. ObjectivesAfter completing this session you will be able to:Apply the following Instructional Design theories in your learningdesign: Bloom’s Taxonomy Gagne’s Nine Events of Instruction Kirkpatricks four levels of training evaluation Start
  • 4. Topics Below are the topics covered in this session:Bloom’s TaxonomyGagne’s Nine Events of InstructionKirkpatricks four levels of training evaluation Start
  • 5. What is Blooms Taxonomy? Hierarchy of educational objectives established by B. S. Bloom and his co-workers. Attempts to divide cognitive objectives into subdivisions ranging from the simplest behavior to the most complex. The divisions outlined are not absolutes and that other systems or hierarchies have been devised However, Blooms taxonomy is easily understood and widely applied
  • 6. Cognitive Objectives Evaluation Synthesis Analysis Application Comprehension KnowledgeAttempts to divide cognitive objectives into subdivisions ranging fromthe simplest behavior to the most complex.
  • 7. Knowledge Knowledge is defined as remembering previously learned material This may involve recalling of a wide range of material, from specific facts to complete theories All that is required is the bringing to mind of the appropriate information Knowledge represents the lowest level of learning outcomes in the cognitive domain
  • 8. Knowledge Level Description Examples VerbsKnowledge - Knowledge is defined as • Know common terms, know list remembering previously learned specific facts, know methods and define material. procedures, know basic concepts, tell know principles. describe - This may involve recalling of a identify wide range of material, from Observation and recall of show specific facts to complete theories, information label but all that is required is the collect bringing to mind of the Knowledge of dates, events, examine appropriate information. places tabulate quote - Knowledge represents the lowest Knowledge of major ideas name level of learning outcomes in the who cognitive domain. Mastery of subject matter when where Examples: - Recite a policy. - Quote prices from memory to a customer. - Knows the safety rules.
  • 9. Comprehension Comprehension is defined as the ability to grasp the meaning of material This may be shown by Translating material from one form to another (words to numbers) Interpreting material (explaining or summarizing) Estimating future trends (predicting consequences or effects) These learning outcomes go one step beyond the simple remembering of material
  • 10. Comprehension Level Description Examples VerbsComprehension - Comprehension is defined as the ability Understand facts and principles summarize to grasp the meaning of material. Interpret verbal material describe - This may be shown by Interpret charts and graphs interpret Translate verbal material to contrast - Translating material from one form to mathematical formulae predict another (words to numbers), Estimate the future consequences associate - Interpreting material (explaining or implied in data distinguish summarizing), and Justify methods and procedures. estimate - Estimating future trends (predicting Understanding information differentiate consequences or effects). - Grasp meaning discuss - These learning outcomes go one step Translate knowledge into new extend beyond the simple remembering of context material, and represent the lowest level of Interpret facts, compare, contrast understanding. order, group, infer causes Predict consequences Examples: - Rewrites the principles of test writing. - Explain in ones own words the steps for performing a complex task. - Translates an equation into a computer spreadsheet.
  • 11. Application Application refers to the ability to use learned material in new and concrete situations This may include the application of such things as rules, methods, concepts, principles, laws, and theories Learning outcomes in this area require a higher level of understanding than those under comprehension
  • 12. Application Level Description Examples VerbsApplication - Application refers to the ability to Apply concepts and principles to new situations apply use learned material in new and Apply laws and theories to practical situations, demonstrate concrete situations. solve mathematical problems calculate Construct graphs and charts complete - This may include the application of Demonstrate the correct usage of a method or illustrate such things as rules, methods, procedure show concepts, principles, laws, and Use information solve theories. Use methods, concepts, theories in new examine situations modify - Learning outcomes in this area Solve problems using required skills or relate require a higher level of knowledge change understanding than those under classify comprehension. Examples: experiment - Use a manual to calculate an employee’s discover vacation time. - Apply laws of statistics to evaluate the reliability of a written test.
  • 13. Analysis Analysis refers to the ability to break down material into its component parts so that its organizational structure may be understood This may include the identification of parts, analysis of the relationship between parts, and recognition of the organizational principles involved Learning outcomes here represent a higher intellectual level than comprehension and application because they require an understanding of both the content and the structural form of the material
  • 14. Analysis Level Description Examples VerbsAnalysis Analysis refers to the ability to break down Recognize unstated assumptions, analyze material into its component parts so that its Recognizes logical fallacies in reasoning, separate organizational structure may be understood. Distinguish between facts and inferences, order . Evaluate the relevancy of data, explain This may include the identification of parts, Analyze the organizational structure of a connect analysis of the relationship between parts, and work (art, music, and writing). classify recognition of the organizational principles Seeing patterns arrange involved. Organization of parts divide Recognition of hidden meanings compare Learning outcomes here represent a higher Identification of components select intellectual level than comprehension and Examples: explain application because they require an understanding - Troubleshoot a piece of equipment by infer of both the content and the structural form of the using logical deduction. material. - Recognize logical fallacies in reasoning. - Gathers information from a department and selects the required tasks for training.
  • 15. Synthesis Synthesis refers to the ability to put parts together to form a new whole This may involve the production of a unique communication - theme or speech, a plan of operations -research proposal, or a set of abstract relations - scheme for classifying information Learning outcomes in this area stress creative behaviors, with major emphasis on the formulation of new patterns or structure
  • 16. Synthesis Level Description Examples VerbsSynthesis Synthesis refers to the ability to put parts together to form Write a well organized theme, give a well Combine a new whole. organized speech, write a creative short integrate story (or poem or music), propose a modify rearrange This may involve the production of a unique plan for an experiment, integrate substitute communication - theme or speech, a plan of operations - learning from different areas into a plan plan research proposal, or a set of abstract relations - scheme for solving a problem, formulate a new create for classifying information. scheme for classifying objects (or design invent events, or ideas). what it? Learning outcomes in this area stress creative behaviors, compose with major emphasis on the formulation of new patterns or Use old ideas to create new ones formulate structure. Generalize from given facts prepare Relate knowledge from several areas generalize Predict, draw conclusions rewrite Examples: - Write a company operations or process manual. - Design a machine to perform a specific task. - Integrates training from several sources to solve a problem. - Revises and processes to improve the outcome.
  • 17. Evaluation Evaluation is concerned with the ability to judge the value of material (statement, novel, poem, research report) for a given purpose The judgments are to be based on definite criteria These may be internal criteria (organization) or external criteria (relevance to the purpose) and the student may determine the criteria or be given them Learning outcomes in this area are highest in the cognitive hierarchy It is because they contain elements of all the other categories, plus conscious value judgments based on clearly defined criteria
  • 18. Evaluation Level Description Examples VerbsEvaluation Evaluation is concerned with the ability to judge the - Judge the logical consistency of assess value of material (statement, novel, poem, research written material, decide report) for a given purpose. - Judge the adequacy with which rank conclusions are supported by data, grade The judgments are to be based on definite criteria. - Judge the value of a work (art, music, test writing) by the use of internal criteria, measure These may be internal criteria (organization) or - Judge the value of a work (art, music, recommend external criteria (relevance to the purpose) and the and writing) by use of external convince student may determine the criteria or be given them. standards of excellence. select Compare and discriminate between judge Learning outcomes in this area are highest in the ideas explain cognitive hierarchy because they contain elements of Assess value of theories, discriminate all the other categories, plus conscious value presentations support judgments based on clearly defined criteria. Make choices based on reasoned conclude argument compare Verify value of evidence summarize Recognize subjectivity Examples: - Select the most effective solution. - Hire the most qualified candidate. - Explain and justify a new budget.
  • 19. Topics Below are the topics covered in this session:Bloom’s TaxonomyGagne’s Nine Events of InstructionKirkpatricks four levels of training evaluation Start
  • 20. Gagnes Nine Events of Instruction
  • 21. Nine Events 9.Enhance retention 8.Assess performance 7.Provide feedback 6.Elicit performance 5.Provide "learning guidance" 4.Present the content 3.Recall of prior learning 2.Inform learners of objectives 1.Gain attention
  • 22. Gain Attention In order for any learning to take place, you must first capture the attention of the student A multimedia program that begins with an animated title screen sequence accompanied by sound effects or music startles the senses with auditory or visual stimuli An even better way to capture students attention is to start each lesson with a thought-provoking question or interesting fact Curiosity motivates students to learn That is AWESOME!
  • 23. Inform Learners of Objectives Early in each lesson students should encounter a list of learning objectives This initiates the internal process of expectancy and helps motivate the learner to complete the lesson These objectives should form the basis for assessment and possible certification as well Typically, learning objectives are presented in the form of "Upon completing this lesson you will be able to. . . ."
  • 24. Stimulate Recall of Prior Learning Associating new information with prior knowledge can facilitate the learning process It is easier for learners to encode and store information in long-term memory when there are links to personal experience and knowledge A simple way to stimulate recall is to ask questions about previous experiences, an understanding of previous concepts, or a body of content
  • 25. Present the Content This event of instruction is where the new content is actually presented to the learner Content should be chunked and organized meaningfully, and typically is explained and then demonstrated To appeal to different learning modalities, a variety of media should be used if possible, including text, graphics, audio narration, and video
  • 26. Provide “Learning Guidance" To help learners encode information for long- term storage, additional guidance should be provided along with the presentation of new content Guidance strategies include the use of examples, non-examples, case studies, graphical representations, mnemonics, and analogies
  • 27. Elicit performance (Practice) In this event of instruction, the learner is required to practice the new skill or behavior Eliciting performance provides an opportunity for learners to confirm their correct understanding, and the repetition further increases the likelihood of retention
  • 28. Provide Feedback AwesomeAs learners practice new behavior it is important toprovide specific and immediate feedback of their You rock!performanceUnlike questions in a post-test, exercises withintutorials should be used for comprehension andencoding purposes, not for formal scoringAdditional guidance and answers provided at thisstage are called formative feedback
  • 29. Assess Performance Upon completing instructional modules, students should be given the opportunity to take (or be required to take) a post-test or final assessment This assessment should be completed without the ability to receive additional coaching, feedback, or hints Mastery of material, or certification, is typically granted after achieving a certain score or percent correct A commonly accepted level of mastery is 80% to 90% correct
  • 30. Enhance, Retention and Transfer to the JobDetermining whether or not the skills learned from a training program are ever appliedback on the job often remains a mystery to training managers - and a source ofconsternation for senior executivesEffective training programs have a "performance" focus, incorporating design andmedia that facilitate retention and transfer to the jobThe repetition of learned concepts is a tried and true means of aiding retention,although often disliked by students
  • 31. Topics Below are the topics covered in this session:Bloom’s TaxonomyGagne’s Nine Events of InstructionKirkpatricks four levels of training evaluation Start
  • 32. Kirkpatricks Four Levels of TrainingEvaluation Donald Kirkpatricks Four Level Evaluation Model is one of the best known evaluation methodologies for judging learning processes The model that was first published in a series of articles in 1959 in the Journal of American Society of Training Directors
  • 33. The Levels
  • 34. The Levels
  • 35. Reaction: Evaluation Description andCharacteristicsReaction evaluation is how the delegates felt, and their personal reactions to thetraining or learning experience,For example: Did the trainees like and enjoy the training? Did they consider the training relevant? Was it a good use of their time? Did they like the venue, the style, timing, domestics, etc? Level of participation Ease and comfort of experience Level of effort required to make the most of the learning Perceived practicability and potential for applying the learning
  • 36. Examples of Evaluation Tools and Methods Some of the tools and methods are: ‘Happy sheets or feedback forms based on subjective personal reaction to the training experience Verbal reaction which can be noted and analysed Post-training surveys or questionnaires Online evaluation or grading by delegates Subsequent verbal or written reports given by delegates to managers back at their jobs
  • 37. Relevance and Practicability Can be done immediately the training ends Very easy to obtain reaction feedback Feedback is not expensive to gather or to analyze for groups Important to know that people were not upset or disappointedImportant that people give a positive impression when relating their experience toothers who might be deciding whether to experience same
  • 38. The Levels
  • 39. Learning : Evaluation Description andCharacteristicsLearning evaluation is the measurement of theincrease in knowledge or intellectual capabilityfrom before to after the learning experience: Did the trainees learn what intended to be taught? Did the trainee experience what was intended for them to experience? What is the extent of advancement or change in the trainees after the training, in the direction or area that was intended?
  • 40. Examples of Evaluation Tools and Methods Typically assessments or tests before and after the training Interview or observation can be used before and after although this is time- consuming and can be inconsistent Methods of assessment need to be closely related to the aims of the learning Measurement and analysis is possible and easy on a group scale Reliable, clear scoring and measurements need to be established, so as to limit the risk of inconsistent assessment Hard-copy, electronic, online or interview style assessments are all possible
  • 41. Relevance and Practicability Relatively simple to set up, but more investment and thought required than reaction evaluation Highly relevant and clear-cut for certain training such as quantifiable or technical skills Less easy for more complex learning such as attitudinal development, which is famously difficult to assess Cost escalates if systems are poorly designed, which increases work required to measure and analyze
  • 42. The Levels
  • 43. Behavior: Evaluation Description andCharacteristics Behavior evaluation is the extent to which the trainees applied the learning and changed their behavior This can be immediately and several months after the training, depending on the situation: Did the trainees put their learning into effect when back on the job? Were the relevant skills and knowledge used Was there noticeable and measurable change in the activity and performance of the trainees when back in their roles? Was the change in behavior and new level of knowledge sustained? Would the trainee be able to transfer their learning to another person? Is the trainee aware of their change in behavior, knowledge, skill level?
  • 44. Examples of Evaluation Tools and Methods Observation and interview over time are required to assess change, relevance of change,and sustainability of change Assessments need to be subtle and ongoing, and then transferred to a suitable analysistool Assessments need to be designed to reduce subjective judgment of the observer or interviewer, which is a variable factor that can affect reliability and consistency of measurements The opinion of the trainee, which is a relevant indicator, is also subjective and unreliable, and so needs to be measured in a consistent defined way 360-degree feedback is useful method and need not be used before training, because respondents can make a judgment as to change after training, and this can be analyzed for groups of respondents and trainees Assessments can be designed around relevant performance scenarios, and specific key performance indicators or criteria Online and electronic assessments are more difficult to incorporate - assessments tend to be more successful when integrated within existing management and coaching protocols Self-assessment can be useful, using carefully designed criteria and measurements
  • 45. The Levels
  • 46. Results : Evaluation Description andCharacteristics Results evaluation is the effect on the business or environment resulting from the improved performance of the trainee - it is the acid test Measures would typically be business or organizational key performance indicators, such as: Volumes, values, percentages, timescales, return on investment Other quantifiable aspects of organizational performance, for instance: numbers of complaints, staff turnover, attrition, failures, wastage, non- compliance, quality ratings, achievement of standards and accreditations, growth, retention, etc.
  • 47. Examples of Evaluation Tools and Methods It is possible that many of these measures are already in place via normal management systems and reporting The challenge is to identify which and how relate to to the trainees input and influence Therefore it is important to identify and agree accountability and relevance with the trainee at the start of the training, so they understand what is to be measured This process overlays normal good management practice - it simply needs linking to the training input Failure to link to training input type and timing will greatly reduce the ease by which results can be attributed to the training For senior people particularly, annual appraisals and ongoing agreement of key business objectives are integral to measuring business results derived from training
  • 48. Relevance and Practicability Individually, results evaluation is not particularly difficult However, across an entire organization it becomes very much more challenging, Reliance on line-management, and the frequency and scale of changing structures, responsibilities and roles, which complicates the process of attributing clear accountability Also, external factors greatly affect organizational and business performance, which cloud the true cause of good or poor results
  • 49. SummaryIn this session we learned that: Bloom’s taxonomy Attempts to divide cognitive objectives into subdivisions ranging from the simplest behavior to the most complex These levels are knowledge, comprehension, application, analysis, evaluation and synthesis Robert Gagne created a nine-step process called the events of instruction, which correlate to and address the conditions of learning These events are gain attention, inform leaner of the objective, recall of prior learning, present content, provide learning guidance, elicit performance, provide feedback, assess performance and enhance retention Donald Kirkpatricks Four Level Evaluation Model is one of the best known evaluation methodologies for judging learning processes The four levels are reactions, learning, behavior and results
  • 50. Thank YouShyamanta Baruah (Sam)www.shyamantab.comconversations@shyamantab.com

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