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  • 2. • Letters are the most important means of written communication.• Modern information technology has not diminished their importance.
  • 3. • ADVANTAGES:• Provide a permanent record that can be filed & referred to in the future.• Can be reread & studied, which is important if a letter is long, is complex, or has been written in anger.• Can be revised & edited to ensure they adhere to the principles of business communication.• Can have legal value.
  • 4. • The number and location depends on the format you have chosen.• Most letters have 7 standard parts.• 1-HEADING• Letter head or return address• Date• Business organisations should use LETTER HEAD• Personal business messages may prefer to use a return address and dateline rather than create their own letterhead.
  • 5. • LETTERHEAD CONTAINS..• 1 Name of the organisation & complete mailing address.• 2 Phone number.• 3 A fax number.• 4 An e-mail address.• 5 A web (URL).• 6 An organisation slogan.• 7 Emblem or logo.• 8 Other information.
  • 6. • DATE• Day• The month (The month should be spelled in full)• The year• Dates should be in the following manner• JULY 6,200..• 6 JULY 200..(THE PUNCTUATION IS OMITTED WHEN THE DAY APPEARS BEFORE THE MONTH IN THE DATELINE)• Placing the day first is the preferred style for International & Military use
  • 7. • When the return address is keyed at a Personal letter, the dateline is keyed on the line below it.• When the return address appears below the page signature block of a Personal business letter the date is placed between lines 10 & 15 from the top of the page.
  • 8. • CONTUATION PAGE• Letterhead stationary is used only in the first page of a letter.• Stationary of the same colour & quality , but without the letterhead is used for the continuation pages.• The heading on each additional page begins on the line seven, leaving a top margin of 1 inch.• The continuation heading should contain the first line of the inside address, the page number, and the date• Example:• 1-Mr Rakesh Mohan 2 JULY 20, 200….• 2- Mr Rakesh Mohan• Page 2• July 20, 200….
  • 9. • CONTINUATION PAGE ( BODY)• The body of the letter continues a double space, (leave 2 blank lines below the above Example)• At least 1 complete paragraph of the letter should be carried to a continuation page.• Divide a paragraph only if you can leave at least 2 lines on the preceding page and carry over at least 2 lines to the following page.• Leave at least a one inch margin at the bottom of the 1st page.•
  • 10. • INSIDE ADDRESS• Qs after the date• 1- Receiver’s courtesy title:• Ms- Unmarried or marital status not known)• Mrs- as per the individual’s preference• Mr- all men• Professional: Professor, Dr, Captain, Justice, Brigadier, etc• Firm: Messers ( messers Gulab and Company)• Dignitaries (President, Prime Minister, Governor, chancellor, religious head, Royalty): His/Her Exellency, His/Her highness, His?Her Holiness, (as the case may be)• Limited Company: Designation of the officer concerned ( The General manager, Bharat Petroleum Limited)• Firms with name element (Sardar Jaswant Singh & sons): No Title
  • 11. • 2- Receiver’s name• 3- Receiver’s professional title• 4- Departments name• 5- company’s name• 6- Receiver’s street address (or other specific mailing designation such as post office box number)• 7- City• 8- State & pin code• 9- Abbreviate state addresses (eg., Ave. Avenue, Rd. Road) only when necessary to achieve balanced display.
  • 12. • SALUTATION• Double space after the inside address or the attention line• The salutation is omitted in the simplified format.• Is the greeting that begins the message.• The content of the salutation depends on the first line of the inside address.• When a letter is addressed to a company & contains an attention line, the salutation is directed to the company & not to the person named in the attention line.• If the 1st line of the inside address is singular, the salutation must be singular, if the 1st line is plural the salutation must be plural.
  • 13. • Members of our family we write- “My dear….( Father, mother, brother, etc)• To friends we write. “My dear….(Susan, Michelle etc)• To acquaintances we may address. “Dear Bhandari” etc.• To officials & those not well-acquainted, we write. “Dear Sir”.• To editors of the newspapers may be addressed, “Sir”.• Open punctuation: no punctuation after the salutation• Mixed punctuation: colon after the salutation
  • 14. • Salutation depends on the relationship between the sender & the receiver.• If you met the person or persons face to face use Ms for a female receiver unless she specifies another title.• If you do not know gender of the addressce use the receiver’s full name without a courtesy title (Dear M. L. Bansal) or use the simplified letter style .
  • 15. • Correct INCORRECT• Dear Ms Sharma Dear Ms Rita Sha• Dear Rita Dear Ms Rita• Dear Mr & Mrs Chaturvedi Dear Chaturvedi• Dear Vishesh & Abha Dear Sharmas• Dear customers: Dear Gentlemen:• Ladies & Gentlemen: Dear Ladies & G
  • 16. • If your letter is addressed to an organisation of only women or only men, use----Dear Sirs, Dear Ladies, Dear Mesdames (plural form of MADAME; pronounced as /mei’da;m, ‘dam/• Gentlemen• Ladies
  • 17. • BODY• Double• Space below the salutation• The body is the message section of the letter.• It begins a double space below the salutation.• The body is single spaced within paragraphs & double spaced between paragraphs.• The body of the letter starts straight in a very polite language, eg. I shall be grateful (or obliged) if you…..• Please refer to your letter no. ( if any) dated ….• We beg to invite your kind attention to…• Your kind attention is invited to…..
  • 18. • COMPLIMENTARY CLOSE• Double space below the last line of the body.• The complementary close ends the message.• The word(s) used in the close should match the formality or the message.• Formal Business Correspondence…(Respectfully, Very truly yours, Sincerely yours.)• General Business Correspondence….(Sincerely, Sincerely yours)• Informal Business Correspondence…( Sincerely, Sincerely yours, Cordially yours)• To relatives we write: Yours affectionately”.• To friends, “Yours sincerely”• To strangers & officials , “Yours faithfully”.• To editors of newspapers, “Yours truly”• Sometimes we write ‘ Yours very sincerely’, Yours very truly’, Sincerely yours , ’ Yours loving son’, etc.
  • 19. • Only the first character of the word in the complimentary close is capitalised.• The closing should be punctuated using the style (mixed or open) as was used with the salutation.• The simplified letter format omits the complementary close.
  • 20. • SIGNATURE BLOCK:• Four spaces below the complimentary close.• Writer’s signed name, keyed name , & title.• A courtesy title is optional in the signature block.• It may be included with or without parentheses (marked off by bracket, dashes etc) when the gender of the writer is unclear lines, whichever creates the more balanced display.• If the name 7 the title are on the same line, a comma separates them.• The sender of the messages signs the letter in the space between the complementary close 7 the keyed name.• The signature does not include the courtesy title even if it is keyed in signature block.
  • 21. • REFERENCE INITIALS:• Shows who keyed the letter.• When the letter is keyed by someone else then the person who wrote it , the key boarder includes his or her initials in the document.• The initials of the writer may also be included, but they are not required.• When the writer is someone other than the person who signs the letter, display the writer’s initials with those of the keyboarder.• The writer ‘s initials should be upper case letters : the keyboarder’s, lower case.• The sets of initials may be separated by either a colon or a diagonal.• Place the reference initials flush with the margin a double space below the sender’s title.• Example: ev ( keyboarder’s initials)• NRE:pd (writer’s initials: keyboarder’s initials)• JHT/ras (writers initials/keyboarder’s initials)
  • 22. • ATTENTION LINE• Double space below the last line of the inside address is more traditional.• When a company name is used as the first line of the inside address, the attention line can be used to direct the letter to a person, position title, or department within the company.• Using a person’s name in the first line of the inside address is preferred over using an attention line.• The trend is to place the attention line beneath the company name in the inside address; the same format is used on the envelope.• It should be capitalised.• The word attention should not be abbreviated.• Placing a colon after the word ATTENTION is optional.• The salutation agrees with the 1st line of the address & not the attention line.
  • 23. • Attention line placement is as following:• College Station Medical Center ATTENTION: RADIOLOGY 1064 Rock Prairie Road College Station, TX 77842-1437 Ladies & Gentlemen: College Station Medical Centre 1604 Rock Priarie Road College Station, TX77842-1437 Attention: Beth Ek, Nurse Manager Ladies & Gentlemen:
  • 24. • SUBJECT LINE:• Identifies the topic of the letter.• It is considered part of the body of the letter.• The subject line should be short- less than one line- & should not be a complete sentence.• If a letter contains both an attention line & a subject line, use the same format for both.
  • 25. • COMPANY NAME IN SIGNATURE BLOCK:• The name of the company may be keyed in uppercase letters a double space below the complimentary close.• The company name is placed in the signature block when the letter is contractual in nature or when the letter is printed on a plain paper rather than on letterhead stationary.• The 1st character of the company name is aligned with the 1st character of the complimentary close.• Example: FALCON ACCOUNTING Jammie falcon ( MS) Jammie Falcon, President
  • 26. • ENCLOSURE or ATTACHMENT NOTATION:• Any item sent with the letter, such as a check, invoice, photograph, is considered as enclosure.• Single or double space.• Writer may list the items enclosed or merely indicate the number as part of the notation.• When items are attached then use ATTACHMENT OR att. In place of enclosure notation.
  • 27. • Example:• 1-Enclosure or enc.• Cheque enclosed• Enclosures 3• 3 enc• 2- Attachment or att.• Attachment: Reimbursement form• Attachments (2)• Att.2
  • 28. • COPY NOTATION:• Is used when a copy of a letter is being sent to someone else than the addressee.• The copy notation may appear as cc for courtesy copy or c for copy.• Double space below the reference initials (or enclosure notation, if used)• Examples:• 1-CC: Tim Miller• CC: Tim Miller, Sne , Manos• C:Accounting• 2- C: Ms Chin Ding• 112 West Elm Street• Shokel, 1L 6067-2726
  • 29. • BLIND COPY NOTATION:• Is used when it is unnecessary on inappropriate for an addressee to know that a copy of the letter is being sent to other individuals.• The blind copy notation should appear only on copies not on the original.• Place the blind copy notation where the regular copy notation normally appears.• Example:• bcc: Burt La Blanc• bcc: Mrs Joan Yang, CPA
  • 30. • CLASSIFICATION OF LETTERS• Formal letter• a) Official letter ( officials, for requests or complaints. Letters to Editors Application letters i.e. job applications also fall in this category.)• b) Commercial letter ( business letters, they serve as a means to reach to people not only within the locality and neighbourhood but also in other cities and countries)• c) Demi official letters (written by officials to another officials, senior or junior public person may also write a• D. O. to an official.• Informal letter ( explained further)
  • 32. Margins TopWhen you begin keying a 2”-2.5”business letter, first setthe correct margins: Left 1” •2” or 2.5” top margin depending on the length of the letterhead •1” side margins •1” bottom margins File, Page Setup in Word 97- 2003 Right 1” Page Layout tab-Margins Bottom icon in Word 2007 1”
  • 33. StyleLetters can be keyed using two styles: block style and modified block style. Block style: all letter parts are keyed at the left Modified Block style: the date, margin. There will be nothing indented with complimentary closing, and writer’s name tabs or the tab key. and title are indented to 3.25”. (You will learn more about modified block in a later assignment)
  • 34. PunctuationLetters can use two types of punctuation: open or mixed. Open punctuation: no colon after Mixed punctuation: a colon is keyed the salutation and no comma after after the salutation and a comma is the complimentary closing. keyed after the complimentary closing.
  • 35. DatelineThe dateline the is firstpart of the letter.It should be typed withthe month spelled outand the full year as notedin the sample.The dateline shouldreflect the date the letteris prepared and signed.Quadruple space afterthe dateline.
  • 36. Inside AddressThe inside address is thesecond part of thebusiness letter.The inside address is theaddress of the personreceiving the letter.The inside address shouldinclude the name, streetaddress and city, stateand zip code of therecipient.Double space after theinside address.
  • 37. SalutationAlso known as thegreeting, the salutation isthe hello part of thebusiness letter.Salutations shouldinclude a greeting word,recipients title and lastname.Open Punctuation: nopunctuation after thesalutationMixed Punctuation:colon after the salutationDouble space after thesalutation.
  • 38. BodyThe body of the letter isthe message in paragraphform.Most letter bodies consistof three paragraphs:statement of purpose,information/facts, call foraction.Double space betweenthe paragraphs and singlespace between them.Double space after thebody.
  • 39. Complimentary CloseThe complimentary closeis the goodbye of thebusiness letter.Complimentary closescan vary and includewords and phrases suchas Sincerely, Yours Truly,Thank you.Open Punctuation: nopunctuation after thecomplimentary closeMixed Punctuation:colon after thecomplimentary closeQuadruple space afterthe complimentary close.
  • 40. Signature BlockThe signature block is thewriters typed name andtitle.There will always be aquadruple space beforethe signature block toallow for the writer tohand sign their name.Double space after thesignature block.
  • 41. Reference InitialsReference initials are thetypist initials.Reference initials areused when the writer ofthe letter and the typistof the letter are differentpeople.Reference initials arelowercase and have nopunctuation or spaces.Double space afterreference initials.
  • 42. Enclosure NotationAn enclosure notation isused when something isenclosed (included)within the envelope withthe letter.Enclosures can includeanything from a form to apicture to a check.Double space after theenclosure notation.
  • 43. • SEMI- BLOCK STYLE• This resembles MODIFIED – BLOCK style except that the start of each paragraph is indented, i.e. each paragraph of the message starts a few spaces away from the margin.• This style makes the letter somewhat clumsy & has gone out of date.
  • 44. • SIMPLIFIED STYLE• This style is often used when a letter is addressed to a company rather than as individual• When the gender is unknown• Marital status of a female is unknown.
  • 45. • In this style , the salutation & complimentary close are eliminated.• A subject line, displayed in uppercase letters without the word subject, replaces the salutation.• The writer’s keyed signature & the title is displayed in one line using uppercase.• Example:• Writer’s name &title: Amy Elam• ALAM ELAM, TRAINING SPECIALIST
  • 46. • PERSONAL BUSINESS LETTERS• Is written by an individual when conducting business of a personal nature.• An application for employment,• A request for information,• Comment about services received.• FULL BLOCK STYLE or MODIFIED BLOCK STYLE with open or mixed punctuation is suitable.
  • 47. • Return address of the sender should be placed 2 inches from the top edge of the paper.• The date should be keyed below the return address (the date is not considered a part of the return address)• The SIMPLIFIED BLOCK is not recommended for application letters because many individuals interpret the lack of salutation as being impersonal.
  • 48. • INFORMAL LETTER• Are also known as friendly or personal letters.• The are written to relations & friends in an easy & conventional style.• They are informal & free & easy as compared to formal letters.• Take care of the grammar, spelling & punctuation.
  • 49. • Form of address in INFORMAL LETTER:• In friendly letters to relations & intimate friends, the proper form of address is• The name( without title) of the person to whom you are writing, prefixed by such qualifying term as Dear, My Dear, Dearest, etc• Example: Dear Father, Dear Mother, Dear Brother, Dearest Sister, Dear Archit, My Dear Kushagra etc.
  • 50. • If you are writing to an ordinary friend who is much older than you are, or of superior rank it is respectful to use the title “shri”;• e.g. My dear shri Agarwal.• Students writing friendly letters to their teachers or professors should always address them thus.
  • 51. • COMPLIMENTARY CLOSE (Informal letter)• In letters to relatives & near friends• Yours affectionately,• Your affectionate son or brother or friend• Your loving son• Yours very sincerely (to friends)
  • 52. • To family members & close friends• Love• Love from• Lots of love• To friends & acquaintances• Best wishes• Al l the best• Take care•
  • 53. • APPLICATIONS• Address & the date are not given at the beginning.• Instead the Address ( Name, Roll No., name of the class etc.) is given at the end below:• “Yours faithfully,” “Yours faithfully,”( To the principal , teacher etc)• The date is written on the left hand against signature of the writer.