Human Cheek Cell DNA extraction


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Human Cheek Cell DNA extraction

  2. 2. <ul><li>My younger brother or sister's genetic make up are related, but not identical at all to me because we're not clones.
  3. 3. DNA we get is determined from the egg and sperm that combined to make us.
  4. 4. First, all of our DNA is packaged and stored along with some proteins in our cells as chromosomes. Most of our cells have 23 pairs of chromosomes for a total of 46. One set of 23 comes from mom and the other 23 from dad. </li></li></ul><li>Sperm and eggs end up with the DNA they get through a process called meiosis.<br />However, in meiosis, each new cell ends up with 23. How are the 23 chosen? For each of the 23 pairs, one of the two goes into the sperm or the egg. The choice of which of the pair of each chromosomes is totally random. <br />
  5. 5. Lets talk about gene..<br /><ul><li>OK, let the fun begin! When our mother makes an egg, there is 50% chance the egg will have gene A and 50% chance it will have gene a. When our father makes a sperm, there is a 50% chance the sperm will have gene B and 50% chance it will have gene b. So what are all the possibilities of sperm and egg meeting in this example? They are: A + B = AB A + b = Aba + B = aBa + b = ab
  6. 6. For 23 chromosomes, there are over 10,000,000,000,000 possibilities*
  7. 7. So, there are My yonger brother or sister's genetic makeup are related, but not identical at all to me </li></li></ul><li>Does a liver cell contain the same chromosome as a cheek cell?<br /><ul><li>If the provider of these two cells is the same person, liver cell will contain same chromosome as a check cell. It is because in an individual, almost all cells contain DNA (except Red Blood Cells). That DNA is tightly wound like you would twist a drawstring, and kept tightly coiled as chromosomes.
  8. 8. What makes cheek cells different from liver cells is which genes are turned on and off. Cheek cells have different genes turned on compared to liver cells.</li></li></ul><li><ul><li>The gene for the stomach protein could be found in the cheek cells because all cells have all the genetic information for the whole body. All human cells (except erythrocytes) contain DNA which is always the same.
  9. 9. Since chromosomes can be found in a cheek cell, a liver cell (hepatocyte), and almost all other cells, they all contain the same chromosomes, which inevitably have the same genes.</li></li></ul><li>Schematic image of cheek cell<br />
  10. 10. Transcription and Translation<br />An intermediate, mRNA is needed to copy the information from the genomic DNA to traslated into proteins.<br />
  11. 11. Why intermediate (mRNA) is needed?<br />The order of amino acids in polypeptide is determined by the sequence of 3-letteer codes in mRNA. <br />
  12. 12. RESULT<br />
  13. 13. <ul><li>First step in DNA isolation - collection of cell
  14. 14. Types of other molecules:
  15. 15. ATP
  16. 16. RNA
  17. 17. amino acids
  18. 18. proteins including enzymes lipids
  19. 19. carbohydrates including sugars
  20. 20. Agent used to break up unwanted:
  21. 21. Soap or detergent
  22. 22. Alcohol /protease /phenol/chloroform </li></li></ul><li>Protease<br />Function : Break down the peptide bonds <br /> between the amino acids of <br /> proteins in the cell.<br /><ul><li>Protease can function optimally at 50˚C.
  23. 23. It is doubtful that a protease that works best at 50˚C would be found in a bacterium that lives at typical body temperature.
  24. 24. Therefore, this kind of protease is not obtained from human body. It is obtained from E. coli bacteria at the thermal area which live in temperature 50˚ C.</li></li></ul><li>Everyone has had the experienced of trying to eat meat that is just too tough.<br />Meat tenderizers are proteolyticenzymes or proteases, enzymes specialized in breaking the peptide bonds between amino acids found in complex proteins. <br />Meat is held together by a complex protein called collagen, and aside from mechanical tenderization and cooking, enzymes are the only other available meat tenderizers.<br />
  25. 25. Meat is often tenderized before cooking, to make it less tough and more suitable for consumption.<br />Meat tenderizers often come in a powdered form that can be sprinkled directly on the meat. Meat tenderizers dissolve some of the sinewy connections within the meat at room temperature.<br />If meat tenderizers are allowed to act for too long, the meat can become squishy and lose its special texture.<br />
  26. 26.
  27. 27. CONCLUSION<br />Collect the cells<br />Dissolve cell membrane<br />Break down proteins<br />Precipitate the DNA<br />Make DNA less soluble in water<br />
  28. 28. Reference<br /><br />