Peripheral Nervous System
Cranial nerves and spinal nerves:
• Somatic Nervous System: nerves that
connect CNS to skin and skeletal muscles
• Autonomic Nervous System: nerves that
connect CNS to viscera, smooth muscle nad
Epineurium: outer layer of connective tissue
Perineurium: sleeve of looser connective tissue surrounding a fascicle
Endoneurium: loose connective tissue surrounding each nerve fibers
• Twelve pairs of nerves which originate from brain stem and cerebrum
• Pass through foramen magnum in the skull
• Mixed nerves and special senses; some motor nerves
• I: Olfactory: sense of smell
• II: Optic: sense of vision
• III: Oculomotor: eye movement, focusing
• IV: Trochlear: eye movement
• V: Trigeminal: mixed nerve - ophthalmic: sensory: accessory eye structures
- maxillary: sensory: teeth, gum, lip, face
- mandibular: sensory: scalp, jaw, teeth, lip
• VI: Abducens: eye movement
• VII: Facial: mixed: taste, facial expression
• VIII: Vestibulocochlear - vestibular branch: sense of equilibrium
- cochlear branch: sense of hearing
• IX: Glosspharyngeal: mixed: pharynx
• X: Vagus: mixed: speech, swallowing, autonomic nervous system to viscera
• XI: Accessory: - cranial branch: motor to pharynx and larynx
- spinal branch: motor to neck and back
• XII: Hypoglossal: tongue movement
Thirty-one pairs of 2-inch long mixed nerves which
originate from the spinal cord and provide communication
between the spinal cord and the peripheral nerves which
transport impulses to the periphery of the human
• Ventral (anterior) root: motor
• Dorsal (posterior) root: sensory; dorsal root ganglion =
cell bodies of sensory nerves
PNS - Autonomic Nervous System
• Functions independently, involuntary / subconscious control
• Controls visceral activities by regulating smooth and cardiac
muscles and glands
• Regulates heart rate, blood pressure, breathing, body temperature
and other homeostatic mechanisms
• Responds to stress
Note: nerve cells are neurons. Note the spelling !!!
Also note the pathway that the impulse travels !
Sympathetic Division of Motor Nerves
Fig. 11.37 – note the dorsal and ventral roots.
Fig. 11.36 – note the meninges, dorsal and ventral roots.
Note that the spinal nerves are mixed function nerves [AM-PS].
Parasympathetic Division of Motor Nerves
• The vagus nerve (X) carries 75% of the
• Postganglionic fibers travel to specific muscles
Neurotransmitters (Tab. 11.10)
Acetylcholine functions to maintain homeostasis.
Preganglionic fibers are cholinergic and secrete acetylcholine:
• Preganglionic sympathetic fibers of the ANS arise from the thoracic and lumbar
regions of the spinal cord.
• Preganglionic parasympathetic fibers of the ANS arise from the brain and sacral
region of the spinal cord.
Postganglionic parasympathetic and sympathetic fibers of sweat glands are also
Norepinephrine and epinephrine function to
respond to stress
All other postganglionic sympathetic fibers are adrenergic and secrete norepinephrine
• Acetylcholine binds to two cholinergic
– muscarinic receptors: effector cells at
parasympathetic postganglionic terminals
– nicotinic receptors: synapses between pre- and
postganglionic fibers and at neuromuscular
junctions of skeletal muscles
• Epinephrine and norepinephrine bind to two
- alpha and beta receptors, which give different
responses at the target organ
Fig. 11.40 – note that most sympathetic fibers in the thoracic and lumbar regions are
adrenergic and secrete norepinephrine / epinephrine
A particular slide catching your eye?
Clipping is a handy way to collect important slides you want to go back to later.