TYPES OF EGO STATES
AIM OF TA
NEED FOR GAMES
IMPORTANCE OF TA
ANALYSIS OF SOCIAL
SOCIAL TRANSACTION -
STUDY OF MOVES
PEOPLE MAKE IN
• PEOPLE THINK, LIKE THEY DO
• PEOPLE ACT, LIKE THEY DO
• INTERACTION WITH OTHERS
A MODEL FOR
WHY AND HOW:
4. PROFOUNDER- ERIC
• ACCORDING TO HIM -
• DETERMINES WHAT
WE THINK AND HOW
• IT CONSISTS OF
• ACTS LIKE A TAPE
5. SELF AWARENESS
Self is core of personality pattern which provides
Joseph Luft and Harrington Ingham - Johari window
6. JOHARI WINDOW
7. EGO STATES
8. PERSONALITY IS CONTROLLED AND SHAPED BY
THE EGO WHICH DOMINATES THE PERSON
9. TYPES OF EGO STATE
10. PARENT EGO STATE
• It incorporates the attitude,
behaviours of all
people who serve as parent
figure when individual was
• Values and behaviour
recorded becomes basic
values of the personality.
• Nurturing parent ego – nurturing
behaviour , very caring, very
compromising, loving, Sympathetic ,
• Critical Parent Ego-A punishing
personality, criticise , prejudice, finds
• Each individual has mixture of both
nurturing and critical parent ego states.
12. CHARACTERSTICS OF PARENT
Upright (always right)
References to rules and laws,
Dos and Don‟t
Reliance on the ways that were successful in the
13. CHILD EGO STATE
14. THE NEGATIVE ASPECT OF THE ADAPTED CHILD INVOLVES OVERADAPTING
WHEREIN WE GIVE UP OUR POWER AND DISCOUNT OUR VALUE, WORTH, AND
THE POSITIVE ASPECT OF THE ADAPTED CHILD IS THAT WE RESPOND
APPROPRIATELY IN SOCIAL SITUATIONS.
THE NEGATIVE ASPECT OF THE NATURAL CHILD IS TO BE IMPULSIVE TO THE
DEGREE OUR SAFETY IS COMPROMISED.
THE POSITIVE ASPECTS OF THE NATURAL CHILD ARE THE SPONTANEOUS,
EVER SO LOVABLE, LOVING AND CHARMING PARTS OF ALL OF US.
TYPES OF CHILD
15. CHARACTERISTICS OF
16. ADULT-EGO STATE
• Based on reasoning, seeking
• View people as equal, worthy
• Updates the parent data
regarding what is valid and
what is not
• Updates child data to
determine which feelings
should be expressed and which
17. CHARACTERISTICS OF
18. Parent is our 'Taught'
concept of life
Adult is our 'Thought'
concept of life
Child is our 'Felt' concept
In Simple Words:
19. AIM OF TA
A major focus of TA is determining which
ego state(s) a person is using.
The theory outlines how we have
developed and treat ourselves.
Thus, TA is a social psychology and a
method to improve communication.
20. LIFE POSITIONS
Are windows on the world or the glasses through which we
see the world.
He thinks there are four possible life positions
I‟m not OK, You‟re OK
I‟m not OK, You‟re not OK
I‟m OK, You‟re not OK
I‟m OK, You‟re OK
21. Berne believes that everyone is born in the
same Life Position
I‟m not OK, You‟re OK
The reason you are not OK when you are born
is because you are dependent on others for all
your needs. They are OK, because they have
the ability to satisfy their own needs and your
I AM NOT OK, YOU ARE
22. I AM NOT OK, YOU ARE
Life, which in the first year had some
comforts, now has none. By the end of the first
year something significant has happened to the
child. He is walking. He no longer has to be
picked up. It means that his 'babying' days are
over. The stroking ceases entirely.
In addition punishments come harder and more
23. I AM OK , YOU ARE NOT OK
It is the position of people who project their
problems onto others and blame them, put
them down, and criticize them.
Results when a person is ignored too much as
Lack trust, confidence, talent.
24. I AM OK, YOU ARE
Occurs when person has ok feelings.
Feels life as worth living,
This position is characterized by an attitude of
trust and openness, a willingness to give and take,
and an acceptance of others as they are.
People are close to themselves and to others.
There are no losers, only winners.
WHEN PEOPLE INTERACT WITH EACH OTHER.
ULTERIOR TRANSACTIONS -
BOTH PERSONS ARE OPERATING FROM
THE SAME EGO STATE (CHILD:CHILD) OR
FROM COMPLEMENTARY EGO STATES
(PARENT:CHILD OR ADULT:PARENT).
COMMUNICATION LINES ARE PARALLEL.
SMOOTH TYPE OF INTERACTION
28. CROSSED TRANSACTION
AN INAPPROPRIATE EGO STATE IS
ACTIVATED, PRODUCING AN UNEXPECTED
CROSSED TRANSACTIONS HURT.
WHEN THEY OCCUR, PEOPLE TEND TO
WITHDRAW FROM EACH OTHER OR SWITCH
LINES ARE CROSSED.
DOUBLE MEANING INTERACTIONS.
MOST COMPLEX AND SUBTLE.
TWO MESSAGES ARE SENT, ONE OVERT, THE
OTHER IMPLIED AND UNSPOKEN.
31. ANGULAR TRANSACTION
32. DUPLEX TRANSACTION
You are wearing a nice
Thanks. Its LEVIS
A stroke is any act of recognition or source of
Verbal or physical recognition for certain
Strokes result in the collection of either good or
bad feelings, known as stamps.
When enough stamps are collected, they cash them
in on behaviour.
Healthy people give and receive positive strokes
34. TYPES OF STROKES
35. Conditional strokes say “I will like you if and when you are a certain
way”; they are received for doing something.
Unconditional strokes say “I am willing to accept you for who you
are and for being who you are, and we can negotiate our
Positive strokes say “I like you,” and they may be expressed by
warm physical touches, accepting words, appreciation, a smile, and
Negative strokes say “I don’t like you,” and they too can be
expressed both verbally and nonverbally.
Interestingly, negative strokes are considered preferable to no
strokes at all—that is, to being ignored.
36. Berne felt that people in the life position “I‟m not
OK, You‟re OK” or “I‟m not OK, You‟re not OK”
were people with low self esteem.
He felt that these people find it hard to interact with
people in a straightforward way so they play
Game is an interaction with a hidden motive where
one of the participants is gaining something.
37. HOW DO WE KNOW WE ARE
PLAYING A GAME?
Repetitive- It “happens to us”
over and over again, often with
different game partners
Predictable - The outcome is
predictable, both for game
players and “audience”
Ulterior transactions - We are
not saying what is really going
on, or what is really important
to us at that moment
Negative payoff - We don‟t
feel OK at the end of the game
Outside Adult consciousness -
Games are played between
Parent and/or Child ego states.
The Adult ego state is not
Switch - At some point in the
Game there is a switch in
communication, which brings
38. CHARACTERS OF GAMES
position is: I
am OK, you
are not OK
is: I am OK,
you are not
is: I am not
OK, you are
39. NEED FOR GAMES
TO GET STROKES.
TO STRENGTHEN PSYCHOLOGICAL
TO AVOID OR CONTROL INTIMACY
40. IMPORTANCE OF TA
DEVELOPING POSITIVE THINKING