Next-Generation Vaccine Delivery
RNCOS Insight
Effective vaccine development and delivery is a never-ending challenge in t...
Next-Generation Vaccine Delivery - RNCOS Insight
There is robust ongoing research
and development for more efficient vacci...
Vaccine Type
Live
attenuated
vaccine
Inactivated
vaccine
Subunit
vaccine
Toxoid
vaccine
Conjugate
vaccines
DNA
vaccines
Re...
Researchers and industry players
are striking novelty in vaccines
towards needle- free delivery.
Alternate routes of vacci...
Miniaturization has made its way
majorly into vaccine delivery.
Microneedle delivery, consisting
of micron-scale needles o...
Looking for an in-depth study
Our Proposition
RNCOS is a leading Business Consultancy firm helping its clients to enter ne...
For more information on how we can work
with you
Contact
VARTIKA SEHGAL
Sr. Research Specialist
RNCOS
E mail: vartika.sehg...
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Next-Generation Vaccine Delivery - RNCOS Insight - June'13

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Transcript of "Next-Generation Vaccine Delivery - RNCOS Insight - June'13"

  1. 1. Next-Generation Vaccine Delivery RNCOS Insight Effective vaccine development and delivery is a never-ending challenge in the global biotechnology industry. From traditional methods to efficient systems, the vaccine industry has evolved greatly but there is still some time before it can be safely called – The Next-Generation for Vaccines
  2. 2. Next-Generation Vaccine Delivery - RNCOS Insight There is robust ongoing research and development for more efficient vaccine delivery systems that could dynamically change the way vaccines are administered. • There are several kinds of vaccines being developed in the market and research is aiming to overcome limitations posed by traditional techniques. • Novel vaccine delivery systems will address both basic vaccine administration issues while improving dose efficacy. • Nanotechnology in particular carries great hope for high-throughput vaccine delivery systems. • The parallelism between market players and researchers will largely determine the reshaping of the vaccine industry. Effective vaccine development and delivery is a never-ending challenge in the global biotechnology industry. From traditional methods to efficient systems, the vaccine industry has evolved greatly and but there is still some time before it can be safely called – The Next-Generation for Vaccines. Traditional vaccine delivery has limitations which are now being challenged by new technologies with the aim to address basic issues such as lack of trained personnel for administration, storage issues, cold chain problem, variability in the follow of norms such as reuse, disposal, expiry of products etc. Research is also focusing on technical aspects of increasing effectiveness of vaccine by enhancing immune response, reducing the number of doses and improving the scalability and manufacture of vaccines. The market today is reveling in a phase of novel vaccine development and delivery systems which allow presentation of antigens that activate an entire spectrum of immune response in the right composition besides providing a wide range of vaccines to choose from. Current Types Historically, there have been several vaccine types being developed based on the fundamental principle of microbe infecting the person. Broadly vaccines can be classified as live attenuated, inactivated, subunit, toxoid, conjugate, DNA and recombinant vector vaccines.
  3. 3. Vaccine Type Live attenuated vaccine Inactivated vaccine Subunit vaccine Toxoid vaccine Conjugate vaccines DNA vaccines Recombinant vector vaccines Figure 1: Classification of Vaccines by Type Live, attenuated vaccines are relatively easy to create for certain viruses but difficult for bacteria and also pose the threat of getting mutated and turning virulent. Inactivated vaccines on the other hand offer a more stable and safer option than live vaccines. However, these vaccines have a limitation of stimulating a weaker immune system response than live vaccines, hence requiring additional doses. Sub- unit vaccines, although causing lesser adverse events, have led to a common belief of them being insufficiently immunogenic apart from having a cumbersome process of identifying key sub unit. Toxoid vaccines are effective solutions but are limited to cases where toxoid production is the main cause of disease. Conjugate vaccines are expected to overcome most of the problems inherent in the polysaccharide vaccine. DNA Vaccines and recombinant vector vaccine are still in experimental stages and have revealed some very promising outcomes. However, both need more research to gain sufficient understanding on their overall effects. Current Vaccine Delivery Routes The most common vaccine delivery route has been parenteral, based on needle injection that spreads the vaccine through body fluids to various organs and induces antibody response. Parenteral administration can be done in an intra-muscular and a subcutaneous fashion. Currently licensed formulations such as gardasil for HPV, hepatitis A, rabies and influenza vaccines are prominent examples of intra- muscular delivery while MMR, meningococcal, Source: NIAID Last Updated April 03, 2012 - Contains live and weakened strains of microbes. - Trains immune system to elicit strong cellular and antibody response on actual microbial attack. - Examples include vaccines for chicken pox, measles etc. - Produced by killing the disease-causing microbe with chemicals, heat, or radiation. - Upon administration, activated antibody already present in blood starts body’s defense. - Examples include vaccines for influenza, rabies etc. - Contains the specific part of the antigen, instead of the entire microbe, that can best elicit immune response. - Subunit vaccines can contain anywhere from 1 to 20 or more antigens - Examples include Recombinant Hepatitis B Vaccine amongst others. - Used when disease is caused by harmful toxins known as toxoids released by bacteria. - Contains the inactivated toxoid against which the body gets trained to develop immune response. - Examples include vaccines against diphtheria and tetanus. - A special type of subunit vaccine that contains recognizable antigens or toxoids from a microbe linked to the bacterial polysaccharides. - Linkage helps immature immune system react to polysaccharide coatings. - Examples include Haemophilus influenzae type B (Hib) vaccine. - Contains segments of key microbial genes that cause infection - Some cells take up the antigen - producing DNA and train body to elicit immune response. - Vaccine in experimental stages - Use attenuated virus or bacterium known as vector, to introduce microbial DNA to cells of the body. - Some cells take up the antigen - producing DNA and train body to elicit immune response. - Vaccine in experimental stages
  4. 4. Researchers and industry players are striking novelty in vaccines towards needle- free delivery. Alternate routes of vaccine delivery remains a quest with research proving efficacy of alternate routes such as sublingual, intradermal etc. Aerosol immunizations and inhalable vaccines to challenge traditional vaccine delivery systems. and varicella vaccines are delivered subcutaneously. Non-invasive vaccine delivery routes have also emerged successful in recent times. Mucosal vaccines in particular, comprising of oral, nasal, vaginal and rectal vaccines are gaining presence. Mucosal surfaces are enormous surface areas that are prone to infection by pathogens and immune responses can be effectively induced by administrating vaccines onto such mucosal surfaces. Sabin oral polio and the rotavirus vaccines are the two currently licensed oral vaccines available while live FluMist against influenza is the only nasal delivery option available. Vaginal and rectal vaccination routes, though still under research, will offer tremendous results to overcome sexually transmitted diseases. Research is being conducted to discover alternate routes of vaccine delivery that aids in generating more specific and heightened response to eliminate pathogens at the entry point itself. Novelty in Vaccine Delivery - The New Paradigm Delivery systems have experienced modifications from traditional syringes to throughput systems of multi-dose needle-free injectors and prefilled devices. Needle free delivery has become an urgent priority in this regard and scientists are also intensely studying alternate and modified routes of vaccine delivery such as sublingual and intradermal routes amongst others. Researchers recently identified an efficient sublingual route for delivering vaccines capable of inducing mucosal as well as systemic immune responses against a lethal genital papillomavirus. Aerosol Immunization and inhalable vaccines are aiding to eliminate traditional limitations and have been implemented in diseases such as measles and influenza respectively. Delivery systems such as Jet nebulizers and Ultrasonic nebulizer are being evaluated to control doses of vaccines delivered in such cases. Microneedle vaccine delivery is a new concept in vaccine administration that has already shown promising outcomes. These delivery systems are basically patches containing micron-scale needles that carry skin-dissolvable vaccines. Aimed at reducing pain of syringes and simplifying immunization, these systems have the potential to allow self-administration of vaccine during pandemics and greatly disinvolve large-scale immunization programs in developing nations. In a recent development, researchers from the Georgia Institute of Technology and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention demonstrated that the measles vaccine remains effective for at least 30 days when placed onto microneedles. Nanotechnology is one field that has revolutionized the development of novel vaccine delivery systems. Nanoparticles have achieved such high standards of specificity by enabling the delivery of antigens to not only the desired site but to the relevant antigen presenting cells. Innovations such as the needle-free nanopatch vaccine delivery system has thousands of small projections to deliver vaccines to abundant immune cells in the skin, doing away with needles plunged into muscle where fewer immune cells are present.
  5. 5. Miniaturization has made its way majorly into vaccine delivery. Microneedle delivery, consisting of micron-scale needles on skin patches is showing promising outcomes for vaccine administration. Nanotechnology is being actively explored especially for nano-scale skin patches. Unique techniques are also being explored such as the use of pollen grains for delivering oral vaccines. Technology too is in no way behind to create robust delivery systems. PRINT (Particle Replication in Non-wetting Templates) technology is currently gaining highlight as a powerful nano-molding technique that enables the fabrication of particles with precise control over the shape, size, composition, and surface functionality. Apart from this, scientists are on a constant mission to extract more interesting and capable vaccine delivery systems. For example, A research project at the U.S. Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) is looking at turning pollen grains into a delivery system for oral vaccines for creating a vaccine that is easy to transport and easy to take and requiring no specialist medical training. This is expected to be particularly important for troops deployed in remote areas and for people living in areas where medical support is slacking. Next-Generation Vaccine Delivery Systems - Revolution Impending RNCOS feels that the way vaccines will be administered in the future would solely depend on the research outcomes of studies being conducted. However, it can be said with certainty that the Global vaccine industry in near times will witness a dynamic shift from a syringe and a vial to tech-savvy gadgets and miniaturized delivery systems. Efficient vaccine delivery systems and scale ups would mean faster eradication of diseases and an era of equitable health. Achieving this, however, will be at the discretion of market players and manufacturers who ideally should be in absolute coherence with ongoing research to convert R&D into marketable products.
  6. 6. Looking for an in-depth study Our Proposition RNCOS is a leading Business Consultancy firm helping its clients to enter new geographies and in attaining growth by developing market strategies for them. Critical questions that businesses need to address: • Where should you set up your business? • Who should be your distributors? • What is the current market structure & size? • Who should be your customers? We understand your immediate needs and your long-term goals and objective and work with you on how to accomplish them. RNCOS blends the best of strategy consulting with the best of market research to provide organizations with accurate, succinct answers to their most important business questions. Our offerings Market Insights • What is the market size • Structure of the market • Who are buyers • Buyers’ buying behavior • Expectations from the product Identification • Most suitable distributors and channels for your business. • Analyzing their strength, credibility, scale of operations. • Assisting in distributor selection Product Segments • Similar products in the market • Features, attributes & market share of these products • Customer preferences • Price range of these products Competitive Assessment • Financial & strategic analysis of existing competition • Acceptance level among customers • Emerging competitors • New market entrants GROWTH PARTNER We help you make informed decisions through the practical application of research, hand holding you to your success…
  7. 7. For more information on how we can work with you Contact VARTIKA SEHGAL Sr. Research Specialist RNCOS E mail: vartika.sehgal@rncos.com Website: www.rncos.com Phone: +91 120 4224700 /01 / 02/ 03 Address: B 129, Sector 6, Noida, Uttar Pradesh India - 201301

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