Reproductive%20 System[1]


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Reproductive%20 System[1]

  1. 1. Nurses Publication by: REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM
  2. 2. Functions of the Reproductive System
  3. 3. <ul><li>The male reproductive system performs </li></ul><ul><li>the following functions : </li></ul><ul><li>Production of sperm cells. </li></ul><ul><li>Sustaining and transfer of the sperm cells </li></ul><ul><li>to the female. </li></ul><ul><li>3. Production of male sex hormones. </li></ul>
  4. 4. <ul><li>The female reproductive system performs </li></ul><ul><li>the following functions: </li></ul><ul><li>Production of female sex cells. </li></ul><ul><li>Reception of sperm cells from the male. </li></ul><ul><li>Nurturing the development of and providing </li></ul><ul><li>nourishment for the new individual. </li></ul><ul><li>4.Production of female sex hormones. </li></ul>
  5. 5. Reproductive System Overview
  6. 6. <ul><li>Reproductive system </li></ul><ul><li>Gonads – primary sex organs </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Testes in males </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ovaries in females </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Gonads produce gametes (sex cells) and secrete </li></ul><ul><li>hormones </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sperm – male gametes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ova (eggs) – female gametes </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. <ul><li>Male Reproductive System </li></ul><ul><li>Testes </li></ul><ul><li>Duct system </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Epididymis </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ductus deferens </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Urethra </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Accessory organs </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Seminal vesicle </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Prostate gland </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Bulbourethral gland </li></ul></ul><ul><li>External genitalia </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Penis </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Scrotum </li></ul></ul>MALE REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM OVERVIEW ANIMATION
  8. 8. Sagittal View of the Male Pelvis
  9. 9. <ul><li>TESTES </li></ul><ul><li>The two testes (sing. testis) are suspended outside the </li></ul><ul><li>abdominal cavity in a Sacramento called scrotum. The </li></ul><ul><li>scrotum is made of actin and smooth muscles known </li></ul><ul><li>as the dartos muscle. </li></ul><ul><li>In the embryo, the testes lie in the abdominal cavity near </li></ul><ul><li>the kidneys about two months before birth: the testes </li></ul><ul><li>descend through the inguinal canal into the scortum. The </li></ul><ul><li>descent is due to the effect or the hormone of testosterone. </li></ul><ul><li>The seminiferous tubules are lined by stratified epithelium </li></ul><ul><li>composed of two types of cells: supporting cells and </li></ul><ul><li>the spermatogenic cells. Sertoli cells provide mechanical </li></ul><ul><li>support and protection to the developing germ cells. </li></ul>
  10. 10. <ul><li>Coverings of the testes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Tunica albuginea – capsule that surrounds each testis </li></ul></ul>Septa – extensions of the capsule that extend into the testis and divide it into lobules
  11. 11. <ul><li>Each lobule contains one to four seminiferous tubules </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Tightly coiled structures </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Function as sperm-forming factories </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Empty sperm into the rete testis </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Sperm travels through the rete testis to the epididymis </li></ul><ul><li>Interstitial cells produce androgens such as testosterone </li></ul>
  12. 12. <ul><li>DUCT SYSTEM </li></ul><ul><li>EPIDIDYMIS </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Comma-shaped, tightly coiled tube </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Found on the superior part of the testis and along the posterior lateral side </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Functions to mature and store sperm cells (at least 20 days) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Expels sperm with the contraction of muscles in the epididymis walls to the vas deferens </li></ul></ul>
  13. 13. <ul><li>DUCTUS DEFERENS (Vas Deferens) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Carries sperm from the epididymis to the ejaculatory duct </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Passes through the inguinal canal and over the bladder </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Moves sperm by peristalsis </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Spermatic cord – ductus deferens, blood vessels, and nerves in a connective tissue sheath </li></ul></ul><ul><li> - Ends in the ejaculatory duct which unites with the urethra </li></ul><ul><li>Vasectomy – cutting of the ductus deferens at the level of the testes to prevent transportation of sperm </li></ul>
  14. 14. Regions of the urethra Prostatic urethra –surrounded by prostate Membranous urethra – from prostatic urethra to penis Spongy (penile) urethra – runs the length of the penis <ul><li>URETHRA </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Extends from the base of the urinary bladder to the tip </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>of the penis </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Carries both urine and sperm </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sperm enters from the ejaculatory duct </li></ul></ul>
  15. 15. <ul><li>ACCESSORY ORGANS </li></ul><ul><li>SEMINAL VESICLE </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Located at the base of the bladder </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Produces a thick, yellowish secretion (60% of semen) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fructose (sugar) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Vitamin C </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Prostaglandins </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Other substances that nourish and activate sperm </li></ul></ul><ul><li>PROSTATE GLAND </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Surrounds the proximal part of the male urethra as it </li></ul></ul><ul><li>emerges from the urinary bladder </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Secretion of prostate gland is thin, opalescent liquid with </li></ul></ul><ul><li>a slightly acid reaction. Itcontains proteolytic enzymes </li></ul><ul><li>and fibrinolysin. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Secretes a milky fluid </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Helps to activate sperm </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Enters the urethra through several small ducts </li></ul></ul>
  16. 16. <ul><li>BULBO-URETHRAL GLANDS </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Largest among the male reproductive accessory glands. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pea-sized gland inferior to the prostate </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Produces a thick, clear mucus </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cleanses the urethra of acidic urine </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Serves as a lubricant during sexual intercourse </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Secreted into the penile urethra </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Semen </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Mixture of sperm and accessory gland secretions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Advantages of accessory gland secretions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fructose provides energy for sperm cells </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Alkalinity of semen helps neutralize the acidic </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>environment of vagina </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Semen inhibits bacterial multiplication </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Elements of semen enhance sperm motility </li></ul></ul>
  17. 17. <ul><li>EXTERNAL GENITALIA </li></ul><ul><li>PENIS </li></ul><ul><ul><li>External genital organ through which the urethra passes. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>This is known as the main organ of copulation. </li></ul><ul><li>The two corpora cavernosa lie in the posterior surface </li></ul><ul><li>while the corpus spongiosum is on the anterior surface. </li></ul><ul><li>The distal end of the penis expands into the glands penis. </li></ul><ul><li>A fold of the skin covers the gland called prepuce which is </li></ul><ul><li>removed during circumcision. </li></ul><ul><li>Internally there are three areas of spongy erectile tissue </li></ul><ul><li>around the urethra </li></ul>
  18. 18. <ul><li>SCROTUM </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Divided sac of skin outside the abdomen </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Maintains testes at 3°C lower than normal body temperature to protect sperm viability </li></ul></ul>
  19. 19. <ul><li>ORGAN </li></ul><ul><li>Testis </li></ul><ul><li>Seminiferous tubules </li></ul><ul><li>Interstitial cells </li></ul><ul><li>Epididymis </li></ul><ul><li>Vas deferens </li></ul><ul><li>Seminal vesicle </li></ul><ul><li>Prostate gland </li></ul><ul><li>Bulbourethral gland </li></ul><ul><li>Scrotum </li></ul><ul><li>Penis </li></ul><ul><li>FUNCTION </li></ul><ul><li>Produce sperm cells </li></ul><ul><li>Produce and secrete male sex hormones </li></ul><ul><li>Stores sperm cells undergoing maturation, conveys sperm cells to vas deferens </li></ul><ul><li>Conveys sperm cells to ejaculatory duct </li></ul><ul><li>Secretes an alkaline fluid containing nutrients and prostaglandins that helps neutralize the acidic components of semen </li></ul><ul><li>Secretes an alkaline fluid that helps neutralize semen’s acidity and enhances sperm cell motijity </li></ul><ul><li>Secretes fluid that lubricates end of penis </li></ul><ul><li>Encloses, protects, and regulates temperature of testes </li></ul><ul><li>Conveys semen into vagina during sexual intercourse; glans penis is richly supplied with sensory nerve endings associated with feelings of pleasure during sexual stimulation </li></ul>Summary of the functions of Male Reproductive Organs
  20. 20. <ul><li>Spermatogenesis </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Production of sperm cells </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Begins at puberty and continues throughout life </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Occurs in the seminiferous tubules </li></ul></ul>
  21. 21. <ul><li>Processes of Spermatogenesis </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Spermatogonia (stem cells) undergo rapid mitosis to </li></ul></ul><ul><li>produce more stem cells before puberty </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) modifies spermatogonia </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>division </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>One cell produced is a stem cell </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The other cell produced becomes a primary </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>spermatocyte </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Primary spermatocytes undergo meiosis </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Haploid spermatids are produced </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Spermiogenesis </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Late spermatids are produced with distinct regions </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Head – contains DNA covered by the acrosome </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Midpiece </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Tail </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Sperm cells result after maturing of spermatids </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Spermatogenesis takes 64 to 72 days </li></ul></ul>
  22. 22. Processes of Spermatogenesis
  23. 23. Anatomy of a Mature Sperm Cell <ul><li>The only human flagellated cell </li></ul><ul><li>DNA is found in the head </li></ul>
  24. 24. Testosterone Production <ul><li>The most important hormone of the testes </li></ul><ul><li>Produced in interstitial cells </li></ul><ul><li>Functions of testosterone </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Stimulates reproductive organ development </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Underlies sex drive </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Causes secondary sex characteristics </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Deepening of voice </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Increased hair growth </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Enlargement of skeletal muscles </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Thickening of bones </li></ul></ul></ul>
  25. 25. Regulation of Male Androgens (Sex Hormones)
  26. 26. FEMALE REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM <ul><li>Ovaries </li></ul><ul><li>Duct System </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Uterine tubes (fallopian tubes) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Uterus </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Vagina </li></ul></ul><ul><li>External genitalia </li></ul>FEMALE REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM OVERVIEW ANIMATION
  27. 27. Sagittal View of the Female Pelvis
  28. 28. OVARIES <ul><li>Germinal and endocrine glands of the female. </li></ul><ul><li>Small organs suspended in the pelvic cavity by ligaments </li></ul><ul><li>Suspensory ligaments – secure ovary to lateral walls of the pelvis </li></ul><ul><li>Ovarian ligaments – attach to uterus </li></ul><ul><li>Broad ligament – a fold of the peritoneum, encloses suspensory ligament </li></ul><ul><li>Upper ends are intimately attached with the fimbriated ends of the fallopian tubes. </li></ul><ul><li>Outer layer is made up of single layer epithelium. Beaneath this layer the ova are produced. </li></ul><ul><li>This ova begin maturation process, which takes place in small fluid clusters of cell called ovarian follicles (sac-like structure) </li></ul><ul><li>Structure of an ovarian follicle </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Oocyte </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Follicular cells </li></ul></ul>
  29. 29. Stucture of the Ovary
  30. 30. Ovarian Follicle Stages <ul><li>Primary follicle – contains an immature oocyte </li></ul><ul><li>Graafian (vesicular) follicle – growing follicle with a maturing oocyte </li></ul><ul><li>Ovulation – when the egg is mature the follicle ruptures </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Occurs about every 28 days </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The ruptured follicle is transformed into a corpus luteum </li></ul>
  31. 31. Frontal View of Female Reproductive Organs
  32. 32. FALLOPIAN TUBES (OVIDUCTS/UTERINE TUBES) <ul><li>Each tube is about 10 centimeters long and passes medially to the uterus, penetrates its wall, and opens into the uterine cavity </li></ul><ul><li>Receive the ovulated oocyte </li></ul><ul><li>Provide a site for fertilization </li></ul><ul><li>Does not physically attach to the ovary </li></ul><ul><li>Supported by the broad ligament </li></ul>
  33. 33. Uterine Tube Function <ul><li>Fimbriae – finger-like projections at the distal end that receive the oocyte </li></ul><ul><li>Cilia inside the uterine tube slowly move the oocyte towards the uterus (takes 3–4 days) </li></ul><ul><li>Fertilization occurs inside the uterine tube </li></ul>
  34. 34. UTERUS <ul><li>Located between the urinary bladder and rectum </li></ul><ul><li>Hollow muscular organ shaped like an inverted pear </li></ul><ul><li>Size change greatly during pregnancy </li></ul><ul><li>nonpregnant, adult state – 7 cm long, 5 cm wide </li></ul><ul><li> and 2.5 cm in diameter </li></ul><ul><li>The upper two-thirds, or body of the uterus has a dome shaped top </li></ul><ul><li>Functions of the uterus </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Receives a fertilized egg </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Retains the fertilized egg </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Nourishes the fertilized egg </li></ul></ul>
  35. 35. Support for the Uterus <ul><li>Broad ligament – attached to the pelvis </li></ul><ul><li>Round ligament – anchored interiorly </li></ul><ul><li>Uterosacral ligaments – anchored posteriorly </li></ul>
  36. 36. Regions of the Uterus <ul><li>Body – main portion </li></ul><ul><li>Fundus – area where uterine tube enters </li></ul><ul><li>Cervix – narrow outlet that protrudes into the vagina </li></ul>
  37. 37. Walls of the Uterus <ul><li>Endometrium </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Inner layer </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Covered with columnar epithelium and contains abundant tubular gland </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Allows for implantation of a fertilized egg </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sloughs off if no pregnancy occurs (menses) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Myometrium </li></ul><ul><li> – thick, middle, muscular layer consists largely bundles of smooth muscle fibers </li></ul><ul><li>Perimetrium </li></ul><ul><li>– outer serosal layer that covers the body of the uterus and part of the cervix </li></ul>During pregnancy, the uterus expands to 500 times its normal size
  38. 38. VAGINA <ul><li>Fibromuscular tube, about 9 cm long </li></ul><ul><li>Extends from cervix to exterior of body </li></ul><ul><li>Behind bladder and in front of rectum </li></ul><ul><li>Serves as the birth canal </li></ul><ul><li>Receives the penis during sexual intercourse </li></ul><ul><li>Hymen – partially closes the vagina until it is ruptured </li></ul>
  39. 39. <ul><li>The vaginal walls has three layers </li></ul><ul><li>Inner mucosal layer – stratified squamous epithelium, lacks mucous glands. </li></ul><ul><li>Middle muscular layer – consistsmainly of smooth muscle fibers. A voluntary muscle ( bulbospongiosus ) is primarily responsible for closing this orifice. </li></ul><ul><li>Outer fibrous layer – consists of dense connective tissue interlaced with elastic fibers. It attaches the vagina to surrounding organs. </li></ul>
  40. 40. External Genitalia (Vulva)
  41. 41. <ul><li>MONS PUBIS </li></ul><ul><li>Fatty area overlying the pubic symphysis </li></ul><ul><li>Covered with pubic hair after puberty </li></ul><ul><li>LABIA MAJORA </li></ul><ul><li>Folds of skin from mons pubis to pudendal cleft containing subcutaneous adipose tissueand smooth muscle. The skin of the outer surface is pigmented and set with hair </li></ul><ul><li>Sebaceous and swest glands are numerous in the outer and inner surface. </li></ul><ul><li>LABIA MINORA </li></ul><ul><li>Two small folds between the labia majora surrounding the vaginal orifice. </li></ul>
  42. 42. <ul><li>CLITORIS </li></ul><ul><li>Corresponds embryologically to the dorsal part of the penis It consist s of erectile tissues. </li></ul><ul><li>Located about 1 inch anterior to the urethral opening. </li></ul><ul><li>Serves as guiding parting locating the urethra when performing catheterization. . </li></ul><ul><li>VESTIBULE </li></ul><ul><li>Dorsal to the clitoris and between the two folds of the labia minora. </li></ul><ul><li>Has several openings: urethral and vaginal, found behind the urethra and ducts of the vestibular glands. </li></ul><ul><li>The hymen is a membrane of variable size,partly blocking the vaginal opening in the virgin. </li></ul>
  43. 43. <ul><li>ORGAN </li></ul><ul><li>Ovary </li></ul><ul><li>Uterine tube </li></ul><ul><li>Uterus </li></ul><ul><li>Vagina </li></ul><ul><li>Labia majora </li></ul><ul><li>Labia minora </li></ul><ul><li>Clitoris </li></ul><ul><li>Vestibule </li></ul><ul><li>Vestibular glands </li></ul><ul><li>FUNCTION </li></ul><ul><li>Produces oocytes and female sex hormones </li></ul><ul><li>Conveys secondary oocyte toward uterus; site of fertilization; conveys developing embryo to uterus </li></ul><ul><li>Protects and sustains embryo during pregnancy </li></ul><ul><li>Conveys uterine secretions to outside of body; receives erect penis during sexual intercourse; provides open channel for offspring during birth process </li></ul><ul><li>Enclose and protect other external reproductive organs </li></ul><ul><li>Form margins of vestibule; protect openings of vagina and urethra </li></ul><ul><li>Produces feelings of pleasure during sexual stimulation due to abundant sensory nerve endings in glans </li></ul><ul><li>Space between labia minora that contains vaginal and urethral openings </li></ul><ul><li>Secrete fluid that moistens and lubricates vestibule </li></ul>Summary of the functions of Female Reproductive Organs
  44. 44. OOGENESIS <ul><li>Process of egg cell formation </li></ul><ul><li>Oogonia – female stem cells found in a developing fetus </li></ul><ul><li>Oogonia undergo mitosis to produce primary oocytes </li></ul><ul><li>Primary oocytes are surrounded by cells that form primary follicles in the ovary </li></ul><ul><li>Oogonia no longer exist by the time of birth </li></ul>
  45. 45. <ul><li>Primary oocytes are inactive until puberty </li></ul><ul><li>Follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) causes some primary follicles to mature </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Meiosis starts inside maturing follicle </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Produces a secondary oocyte and the first polar body </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Meiosis is completed after ovulation only if sperm penetrates </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Two additional polar bodies are produced </li></ul></ul></ul>
  46. 47. Menstrual (Uterine) Cycle <ul><li>Cyclic changes of the endometrium </li></ul><ul><li>Regulated by cyclic production of estrogens and progesterone </li></ul><ul><li>Stages of the menstrual cycle </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Menses – functional layer of the endometrium is sloughed </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Proliferative stage – regeneration of functional layer </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Secretory stage – endometrium increases in size and readies for implantation </li></ul></ul>
  47. 48. Hormonal Control of the Ovarian and Uterine Cycle
  48. 49. <ul><li>MAJOR EVENTS IN A REPRODUCTIVE CYCLE </li></ul><ul><li>Anterior pituitary gland secretes follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH). </li></ul><ul><li>FSH stimulates maturation of a follicle. </li></ul><ul><li>Follicular cell cells produce and secrete estrogens. </li></ul><ul><li>Anterior pituitary releases a surge of LH, which stimulates ovulation. </li></ul><ul><li>Follicular cells become corpus luteum cells which secrete estrogen and progesterone. </li></ul><ul><li>If the egg cell is not fertilized, the corpus luteum degenerates and no longer secretes estrogen and progesterone. </li></ul><ul><li>As concentration of estrogen and progesterone decline, blood vessels in the uterine lining constrict. </li></ul><ul><li>Uterine lining disintigrates and slough off, producing menstrual flow. </li></ul><ul><li>Anterior pituitary no longer inhibited and again secretes FSH and LH. </li></ul><ul><li>The reproductive cycle repeats. </li></ul>
  49. 50. Hormone Production by the Ovaries <ul><li>Estrogens </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Produced by follicle cells </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cause secondary sex characteristics </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Enlargement of accessory organs </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Development of breasts </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Appearance of pubic hair </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Increase in fat beneath the skin </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Widening and lightening of the pelvis </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Onset of menses </li></ul></ul></ul>
  50. 51. <ul><li>Progesterone </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Produced by the corpus luteum </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Production continues until LH diminishes in the blood </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Helps maintain pregnancy </li></ul></ul>
  51. 52. Menopause <ul><ul><li>termination of reproductive cycles due to aging of the ovaries . </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>reduced concentration of estrogens and lack of progesterone may cause regressive changes in female secondary sex characteristics. </li></ul></ul>
  52. 53. MAMMARY GLANDS <ul><li>Accessory organs of the female reproductive system that are specialized to secrete milk following pregnancy </li></ul><ul><li>Present in both sexes, but only function in females </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Modified sweat glands </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Composed of lobes that contain glands and duct </li></ul><ul><li>Dense connective and adipose tissues separate the lobes </li></ul><ul><li>Ovarian hormones stimulate female breast development </li></ul><ul><li> - Alveolar glands and ducts enlarge </li></ul><ul><li> - Fat is deposited around and within the breasts </li></ul>
  53. 54. Anatomy of the Breast
  54. 55. <ul><li>Areola – central pigmented area </li></ul><ul><li>Nipple – protruding central area of areola </li></ul><ul><li>Lobes – internal structures that radiate around nipple </li></ul><ul><li>Alveolar glands – clusters of milk producing glands within lobules </li></ul><ul><li>Lactiferous ducts – connect alveolar glands to nipple </li></ul>
  55. 56. Clinical Terms Related to the Reproductive Systems <ul><li>amenorrhea – abscence of menstrual flow, usually due to a disturbance in hormonal concentrations. </li></ul><ul><li>conization – surgical removal of a cone of tissue from the cervix for examination. </li></ul><ul><li>curettage – surgical procedure in which the cervix is dilated and the endometrium of the uterus is scraped. </li></ul><ul><li>dysmenorrhea – painful menstruation. </li></ul><ul><li>endometriosis – tissue similar to the inner lining of the uterus occuring within the pelvic cavity. </li></ul><ul><li>endometritis – inflammation of the uterine lining. </li></ul><ul><li>epididymitis – inflammation of the epididymis. </li></ul><ul><li>hematometra – accumulation of menstrual blood within the uterine cavity. </li></ul>
  56. 57. <ul><li>hysterectomy – surgical removal of the uterus. </li></ul><ul><li>mastitis – inflammation of the mammary gland. </li></ul><ul><li>oophorectomy – surgical removal of an ovary. </li></ul><ul><li>oophoritis – inflammation of an ovary. </li></ul><ul><li>orchiectomy – surgical removal of a testis. </li></ul><ul><li>orchitis – inflammation of a testis. </li></ul><ul><li>prostatectomy – surgical removal of a portion of the prostate gland. </li></ul><ul><li>prostatitis – inflammation of the prostate gland. </li></ul><ul><li>salpingectomy – surgical removal of a uterine tube. </li></ul><ul><li>vaginitis – inflammation of the vaginal lining. </li></ul><ul><li>varicocele – distension of the veins within the spermatic cord. </li></ul>