Common Sexually Transmitted Diseases
Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) or  Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS)
Agent:   Retrovirus- Human T-Cell  Lymphotrophic Virus 3 (HTLV-3) Carriers or Susceptable hosts: Males, homosexuals or bis...
Incubation Period:   Variable; development of detectable antibody is generally 1-3 months, the time from HIV infection to ...
<ul><li>Mode of Transmission: </li></ul><ul><li>Sexual contact </li></ul><ul><li>Blood transfusion </li></ul><ul><li>Conta...
<ul><li>Signs and Symptoms (physical): </li></ul><ul><li>Maculopapular rash </li></ul><ul><li>Anorexia; Weight loss </li><...
<ul><li>Signs and Symptoms (mental): </li></ul><ul><li>Early Stage </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Forgetfulness </li></ul></ul><ul>...
 
 
Management: 1.  Reduce risk of infection Observe signs for opportunistic infections. Monitor vital signs with strict I/O N...
<ul><li>3.  Provide physical and psychological support </li></ul><ul><li>Oral care </li></ul><ul><li>Cooling bath </li></u...
5.  Prevention Monogamous relationship Avoid promiscuous sexual contact Sterilize needles, syringes and instruments used f...
Gonorrhea (GC, Clap, Drip)
Agent:   Neisseria gonorrheae Mode of Transmission: Direct contact between infectious mucous  membrane Mouth of one person...
 
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Common Sexually Transmitted Diseases

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Common Sexually Transmitted Diseases

  1. 1. Common Sexually Transmitted Diseases
  2. 2. Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) or Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS)
  3. 3. Agent: Retrovirus- Human T-Cell Lymphotrophic Virus 3 (HTLV-3) Carriers or Susceptable hosts: Males, homosexuals or bisexual Intravenous substance users Hemophiliacs and multiple transfusion recipients Sexual partners of persons with HIV Infants of HIV infected women
  4. 4. Incubation Period: Variable; development of detectable antibody is generally 1-3 months, the time from HIV infection to diagnosis has an observable range of < 1 year to 15 years or longer. Diagnostic Tests: ELISA- presumptive test Western Blot- confirmatory test
  5. 5. <ul><li>Mode of Transmission: </li></ul><ul><li>Sexual contact </li></ul><ul><li>Blood transfusion </li></ul><ul><li>Contaminated syringe, needle, nipper, razor blades, etc. </li></ul><ul><li>Direct contact of open wound/mucous membrane with contaminated blood, body fluids, semen and vaginal discharges </li></ul>
  6. 6. <ul><li>Signs and Symptoms (physical): </li></ul><ul><li>Maculopapular rash </li></ul><ul><li>Anorexia; Weight loss </li></ul><ul><li>Fever with unknown origin </li></ul><ul><li>Malaise </li></ul><ul><li>Persistent diarrhea </li></ul><ul><li>Tuberculosis (localized and disseminated) </li></ul><ul><li>Esophageal candidiasis </li></ul><ul><li>Kaposi’s sarcoma </li></ul><ul><li>Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia </li></ul><ul><li>Gaunt-looking, apprehensive </li></ul>
  7. 7. <ul><li>Signs and Symptoms (mental): </li></ul><ul><li>Early Stage </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Forgetfulness </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Loss of concentration </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Loss of libido </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Apathy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Psychomotor retardation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Withdrawal </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Later Stage </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Confusion </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Disorientation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Seizures </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mutism </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Loss of memory </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Coma </li></ul></ul>
  8. 10. Management: 1. Reduce risk of infection Observe signs for opportunistic infections. Monitor vital signs with strict I/O Note secretions for changes in color, consistency and odor High calorie, high nutrient, low bulk diet, Vit. B complex and Vit. C zidovudine (Retrovir), acyclovir (Zovirax) 2. Prevent spread of disease Handwashing, even after wearing of gloves Avoid exposure to blood and body fluids Wear gloves and gowns Proper disposal of needles and IV catheters
  9. 11. <ul><li>3. Provide physical and psychological support </li></ul><ul><li>Oral care </li></ul><ul><li>Cooling bath </li></ul><ul><li>- 1:10 concentration of isopropyl alcohol in tepid water </li></ul><ul><li>Verbalization of fears and concerns without condemnation </li></ul><ul><li>Determine status of support network; arrange contact with support group </li></ul><ul><li>Observe for severe emotional symptoms of suicidal tendencies </li></ul><ul><li>4. Health teachings </li></ul><ul><li>Avoid environmental sources of infection (bird cages, tub baths). </li></ul><ul><li>Precautions following discharges </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Risk-reducing behavior </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Latex condom </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Avoid exposure to blood or semen during sex </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Family counseling </li></ul><ul><li>Stress reduction techniques </li></ul><ul><li>Expected side effects of drug therapy; good compliance </li></ul>
  10. 12. 5. Prevention Monogamous relationship Avoid promiscuous sexual contact Sterilize needles, syringes and instruments used for cutting operations Screening of blood donors Rigid examination of blood and other products for transfusion Avoid oral, anal contact and swallowing contact Condoms and other protective device
  11. 13. Gonorrhea (GC, Clap, Drip)
  12. 14. Agent: Neisseria gonorrheae Mode of Transmission: Direct contact between infectious mucous membrane Mouth of one person with mucous membrane of another Contaminated fingers can pass the organism from infected mucous membranes to the eyes
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