Thinking Critically: New Literacies Mississauga Field Office March 26, 2013
Minds-on… What texts have you been exposed to in the last 24 hours? What impact have those texts had on you?
QuoteStudents today experience a constant stream of ideas and information – online, in print, and through electronic games and mass media. As they move into the junior grades, they encounter an ever-widening range of texts. They need skills to determine where to direct their attention and how to interpret messages and use them appropriately.”(Ontario Ministry of Education, 2004, p. 9)
Concepts About TextsAll texts are constructions.What is written is the product of many decisions and determining factors. Much of our view of reality is based on messages that have been constructed in this way, with the author’s attitudes, interpretations and conclusions already built into the text.
Concepts About TextsAll texts contain belief and value messages.Whether oral, print or visual media, texts contain messages which reflect the biases and opinions of their authors/creators; whether intentionally manipulative or not, this means that no text can be neutral or value free.
Concepts About TextsEach person interprets messages differently.Demographic factors such as age, culture, gender and socio- economic status as well as prior experience and knowledge play a role in how we interpret a message.
Concepts About TextsTexts serve different interests.Most media messages are created for profit or to persuade, but all texts are produced intentionally for a purpose. These interests can be commercial, ideological or political.
Concepts About TextsEach medium develops its own “language” in order to position readers/viewers in certain ways.Whether TV program, website or novel, each medium creates meaning differently and each has distinctive techniques, conventions and aesthetics.
What is Critical Literacy Critical Literacy is an instructional approach, that advocates the adoption of "critical" perspectives toward text. Allan Luke refers to as a “a new basic” for navigating a text- and media-saturated world.
Dr. Frank Serafini’s Four Roles Of The Visual LearnerINTERPRETER NAVIGATORWhat is the producer of this image / What elements do I see in this imagetext trying communicate to me? / text? (e.g., line, shape, pattern,Based on my experiences, what texture, colour)connections can I make to the image/ text to better understand themessage? How will I interpret themessage?DESIGNER INTEROGATOR (previouslyHow can I use the structures of visual Critical Analyst)grammar (composition, perspective & What social, political or historicalvisual symbols to communicate a issues might be presented ormessage or idea? interpreted through this image text? What is the “big idea” presented in this image / text?
Why is Critical Literacy Important? Critical literacy encourages readers to actively analyze texts and offers strategies for what proponents describe as uncovering underlying messages
Critical Literacy is: Looking closely at texts of all kinds Looking for big ideas Questioning text to analyze text Examining our own attitudes, beliefs and values
Critical Literacy is: Identifying solutions, missing voices or alternate points of view Realizing that there is more than one version of the text available Thinking about how the text impacts our lives Creating texts for various audiences and purposes
Social Practices Disrupt the Consider Multiple Commonplace ViewpointsFocus on the Socio- Take Action to political Promote Social Justice
Questioning the TextThere are several models of questioning the text. The 5 Ws The Three Levels of Questions Q-chart Bloom’s Taxonomy
The 5 Ws Who is in the photograph? What is happening in the photograph? Where (location) is the photograph showing? When was the photograph taken? Why did someone take the photograph? (purpose)
Three Levels of Questioning Literal/Perceptual/Noticings What do you see/ hear? Inferential/ Interpretive What could it mean? Evaluative/ Ideological/Implications: What are the intentions of this text? How would the message change if some element were different?
Looking Closely at a Text What do I see? What could it mean? What could the author be trying to tell us? What idea might be represented? How would the text be different if an element were changed? What if…? How would the message/ tone of the text be different if we changed something?
Time to Apply…
Problem Posing ModelProblem Posing is a critical literacy strategy that can be used with a variety of texts. After exposure to the text, we engage in critical literacy using questions such as: Who is in the text/ picture/situation? Who is missing? Whose voice(s) is/ are represented? Whose voices are marginalized or discounted? What are the intentions of the author/ creator of the text? What does the author want us to think or feel? What would an alternative text say or suggest? How can we use this information to promote action or equity?
JuxtaposingJuxtaposing is a strategy where two texts on a similar topic are compared. Point of view and persuasive tactics can be determined. Editorials Pictures Website Advertisements Informational texts Anything…
SwitchingSwitching is an effective strategy for getting students to consider the impact of alternative perspectives and to identify present and missing voices. Gender Body-style Theme Clothes Ethnic/culture Emotion Relationship Setting Language
Instructional Strategies to Promote Critical Literacy De Bono’s Six Thinking Hats PMI EBS Four Corners Value Line Inside/ Outside Circles