Japanese Government


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Japanese Government

  1. 1. Japanese Government By Ian, Alex, Jaime and Ryan
  2. 2. Executive Branch <ul><li>The cabinet oversees the nation (through legal action, budgetary means etc...similar to our executive branch) </li></ul><ul><li>The cabinet consists of the Prime minister (the “chief”) and 20 ministers of state </li></ul><ul><li>The executive branch reports to the Diet. </li></ul><ul><li>The Prime Minister is selected by both houses of the Diet </li></ul><ul><li>The Emperor formally appoints the Prime Minister to office </li></ul>Prime Minister Yasuo Fukuda
  3. 3. <ul><li>The Emperor has no powers related to government </li></ul><ul><li>He has few duties which are closely regulated by the Constitution. </li></ul><ul><li>i.e. he formally appoints the Prime Minister to office, but the Constitution requires him to appoint the candidate &quot;designated by the Diet” </li></ul><ul><li>His additional duties only apply with the consent of the Cabinet. </li></ul>The Emperor Emperor Akihito Tsugu-no-miya
  4. 4. The Legislature <ul><li>The National Diet of Japan </li></ul><ul><li>2 parts: House of Representatives and the House of Councilors </li></ul><ul><li>The House of Rep. is more powerful and can overrule the House of Councilors </li></ul><ul><li>The “highest organ of state power” </li></ul><ul><li>Pass legislation, control budget decisions, regulate treaties and control the cabinet and the </li></ul><ul><li>prime minister </li></ul>
  5. 5. Judicial Branch <ul><li>Independent of the other two branches </li></ul><ul><li>It is comprised of multiple levels of courts </li></ul><ul><li>The Supreme Court has the ultimate judicial authority </li></ul><ul><li>The Supreme Court consists of a chief justice and 14 other justices </li></ul><ul><li>Most cases are handled by district courts </li></ul><ul><li>Summary courts deal with traffic violations, etc. </li></ul><ul><li>Constitution incorporates a bill of rights </li></ul><ul><li>The Supreme Court has the right of judicial review </li></ul><ul><li>Their courts do NOT use a jury structure </li></ul>
  6. 6. Constitution of 1947 <ul><li>Set up during the Allied Occupation after World War II </li></ul><ul><li>Instates a parliamentary system </li></ul><ul><li>Takes all power away from the Emperor of Japan excepting that he is a figure-head (as stated in the Constitution, he is only a “…symbol of the State and of the unity of the people…”) </li></ul><ul><li>The Constitution is divided into 103 articles, which are in eleven chapters </li></ul><ul><li>Thirty-one articles are devoted to basic human rights (included in Article 13 of the Japanese Constitution is a guarantee to “life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness”) </li></ul>
  7. 7. Elections <ul><li>A system of democracy is used (just like the United States) </li></ul><ul><li>The voting age is twenty years </li></ul><ul><li>Japan has a multi-party system with parties including the “Democratic Party of Japan”, “Liberal Democratic Party”, “Japanese Communist Party”, etc. </li></ul><ul><li>Candidates gain support via Kôenkai , which are personal support groups </li></ul><ul><li>Campaigns are only 12 days long, and involve strict restrictions (such as a limited amount of printed material allowed, only one campaigning car is allowed, etc) </li></ul>
  8. 8. Local Governments <ul><li>Local Autonomy Law (1947): established local gov’ts </li></ul><ul><li>Divided into 47 prefectures </li></ul><ul><li>Prefecture: a sub-national gov’t </li></ul><ul><li>Led by an elected governor and a single chamber parliament </li></ul><ul><li>Smaller forms of gov’t are cities, towns, rural districts and villages which are headed by an elected governor and an assembly or council </li></ul>