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Ontology and the Lexicon: week.2
Ontology and the Lexicon: week.2
Ontology and the Lexicon: week.2
Ontology and the Lexicon: week.2
Ontology and the Lexicon: week.2
Ontology and the Lexicon: week.2
Ontology and the Lexicon: week.2
Ontology and the Lexicon: week.2
Ontology and the Lexicon: week.2
Ontology and the Lexicon: week.2
Ontology and the Lexicon: week.2
Ontology and the Lexicon: week.2
Ontology and the Lexicon: week.2
Ontology and the Lexicon: week.2
Ontology and the Lexicon: week.2
Ontology and the Lexicon: week.2
Ontology and the Lexicon: week.2
Ontology and the Lexicon: week.2
Ontology and the Lexicon: week.2
Ontology and the Lexicon: week.2
Ontology and the Lexicon: week.2
Ontology and the Lexicon: week.2
Ontology and the Lexicon: week.2
Ontology and the Lexicon: week.2
Ontology and the Lexicon: week.2
Ontology and the Lexicon: week.2
Ontology and the Lexicon: week.2
Ontology and the Lexicon: week.2
Ontology and the Lexicon: week.2
Ontology and the Lexicon: week.2
Ontology and the Lexicon: week.2
Ontology and the Lexicon: week.2
Ontology and the Lexicon: week.2
Ontology and the Lexicon: week.2
Ontology and the Lexicon: week.2
Ontology and the Lexicon: week.2
Ontology and the Lexicon: week.2
Ontology and the Lexicon: week.2
Ontology and the Lexicon: week.2
Ontology and the Lexicon: week.2
Ontology and the Lexicon: week.2
Ontology and the Lexicon: week.2
Ontology and the Lexicon: week.2
Ontology and the Lexicon: week.2
Ontology and the Lexicon: week.2
Ontology and the Lexicon: week.2
Ontology and the Lexicon: week.2
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Ontology and the Lexicon: week.2

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lecture slides of the 'Ontology and the Lexicon' course at National Taiwan University. 2014.

lecture slides of the 'Ontology and the Lexicon' course at National Taiwan University. 2014.

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  • 1. Background of the OntoLex Research ........ .. ....................... OntoLex Resources Lab Ontology and the Lexicon Week 2: An Introduction Shu-Kai Hsieh Lab of Ontologies, Language Processing and e-Humanities GIL, National Taiwan University February 26, 2014 .. Ontology and the Lexicon . .. . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. . .. . .. . .. . .. Shu-Kai Hsieh .
  • 2. Background of the OntoLex Research ........ .. ....................... OntoLex Resources Lab 1 Background of the OntoLex Research . Semantic Web What is Ontology Ontology for Linguistics 2 OntoLex Resources . 3 Lab . .. Ontology and the Lexicon . .. . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. . .. . .. . .. . .. Shu-Kai Hsieh .
  • 3. Background of the OntoLex Research ........ .. ....................... Semantic Web OntoLex Resources Lab 1 Background of the OntoLex Research . Semantic Web What is Ontology Ontology for Linguistics 2 OntoLex Resources . 3 Lab . .. Ontology and the Lexicon . .. . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. . .. . .. . .. . .. Shu-Kai Hsieh .
  • 4. Background of the OntoLex Research ........ .. ....................... Semantic Web OntoLex Resources Lab Semantic Web and Web Semantics .. Ontology and the Lexicon . .. . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. . .. . .. . .. . .. Shu-Kai Hsieh .
  • 5. Background of the OntoLex Research ........ .. ....................... Semantic Web OntoLex Resources Lab The Need and Trend of Shared Semantics .. Ontology and the Lexicon . .. . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. . .. . .. . .. . .. Shu-Kai Hsieh .
  • 6. Background of the OntoLex Research ........ .. ....................... Semantic Web OntoLex Resources Lab Your Agent or Enemy needs this .. Ontology and the Lexicon . .. . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. . .. . .. . .. . .. Shu-Kai Hsieh .
  • 7. Background of the OntoLex Research ........ .. ....................... Semantic Web OntoLex Resources Lab Ontology-based Applications We need a shared and common understanding (of a domain) that can be communicated across people and machines (applications), and it will play a major role in supporting information exchange and discovery, we well as many applications: • e-Government, e-Health, e-Commerce,.. • open data integration and interoperability. • ontology-backboned search engine .. Ontology and the Lexicon . .. . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. . .. . .. . .. . .. Shu-Kai Hsieh .
  • 8. Background of the OntoLex Research ........ .. ....................... Semantic Web OntoLex Resources Lab Languages representing Ontologies .. Ontology and the Lexicon . .. . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. . .. . .. . .. . .. Shu-Kai Hsieh .
  • 9. Background of the OntoLex Research ........ .. ....................... Semantic Web OntoLex Resources Lab Languages representing Ontologies Can we use Glossaries, Terminologies, Meta data or other Controlled Vocabulary instead? No: they are just not precise enough to capture linguistic and cognitive complexity. .. Ontology and the Lexicon . .. . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. . .. . .. . .. . .. Shu-Kai Hsieh .
  • 10. Background of the OntoLex Research ........ .. ....................... Semantic Web OntoLex Resources Lab Ontological Precison (Bechhofer, 2011) .. Ontology and the Lexicon . .. . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. . .. . .. . .. . .. Shu-Kai Hsieh .
  • 11. Background of the OntoLex Research ........ .. ....................... Semantic Web OntoLex Resources Lab Why do we need Linguists for Ontology? • ambiguity, polysemy, underspecification,...OH, 沒有語言學的 介入,知識整理工作好無趣也無頭緒。 .. Ontology and the Lexicon . .. . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. . .. . .. . .. . .. Shu-Kai Hsieh .
  • 12. Background of the OntoLex Research ........ .. ....................... What is Ontology OntoLex Resources Lab 1 Background of the OntoLex Research . Semantic Web What is Ontology Ontology for Linguistics 2 OntoLex Resources . 3 Lab . Ontology and the Lexicon .. . .. . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. . .. . .. . .. . .. Shu-Kai Hsieh .
  • 13. Background of the OntoLex Research ........ .. ....................... What is Ontology OntoLex Resources Lab What is Ontology • In Philosophy (dating back to Artistotle), → Ontos (that which exists) + logos (knowledge of). • In Computer Science, → ”an explicit specification of a conceptualization (Gruber (1995))”, ”an engineering artefact that represents the shared conceptualisation of objects in a domain of interest”. explicit specification : Written in logic, as a set of axioms. conceptualization : the set of objects and relations in a domain. <Objects,Relations,Functions> .. Ontology and the Lexicon . .. . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. . .. . .. . .. . .. Shu-Kai Hsieh .
  • 14. Background of the OntoLex Research ........ .. ....................... What is Ontology OntoLex Resources Lab What is Ontological Representation • Not what it is (ontology) but how it is represented (ontological representation). • There are many ways to represent ontologies (recall that it is an engineering artefact) → that at best approximate our real concepts and conceptualisations, even we don’t quite understand what we are approximating. • The evaluation of an engineering artefact turns out to be whether it is fit for purpose or not. .. Ontology and the Lexicon . .. . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. . .. . .. . .. . .. Shu-Kai Hsieh .
  • 15. Background of the OntoLex Research ........ .. ....................... Ontology for Linguistics OntoLex Resources Lab 1 Background of the OntoLex Research . Semantic Web What is Ontology Ontology for Linguistics 2 OntoLex Resources . 3 Lab . Ontology and the Lexicon .. . .. . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. . .. . .. . .. . .. Shu-Kai Hsieh .
  • 16. Background of the OntoLex Research ........ .. ....................... Ontology for Linguistics OntoLex Resources Lab Cognitive-Functional Take Linguistic meaning is ultimately a matter of conceptualizing the things we talk about: when we put things into words, we are not just giving a one-to-one mapping of what the world is like - we make a choice by putting things in the particular way we do. [2]. .. Ontology and the Lexicon . .. . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. . .. . .. . .. . .. Shu-Kai Hsieh .
  • 17. Background of the OntoLex Research ........ .. ....................... Ontology for Linguistics OntoLex Resources Lab Empirical Epistimological Stance • OntoLex (Lexicalized Ontology) is exclusively concerned with the ”conceptual meanings” of lexical units (that can be empirically represented), NOT with the those of actions or phenomena. .. Ontology and the Lexicon . .. . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. . .. . .. . .. . .. Shu-Kai Hsieh .
  • 18. Background of the OntoLex Research ........ .. ....................... Ontology for Linguistics OntoLex Resources Lab Language, Meaning and Reality • [單位-意義] 可以切割出來觀察嗎? .. Ontology and the Lexicon . .. . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. . .. . .. . .. . .. Shu-Kai Hsieh .
  • 19. Background of the OntoLex Research ........ .. ....................... Ontology for Linguistics OntoLex Resources Lab Language, Meaning and Reality 跨語言觀察可能更接近 .. Ontology and the Lexicon . .. . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. . .. . .. . .. . .. Shu-Kai Hsieh .
  • 20. Background of the OntoLex Research ........ .. ....................... Ontology for Linguistics OntoLex Resources Lab Meaning(s) • Meaning has many readings! • 他的意思應該是如果不給他意思一下就很沒有意思 .. Ontology and the Lexicon . .. . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. . .. . .. . .. . .. Shu-Kai Hsieh .
  • 21. Background of the OntoLex Research ........ .. ....................... Ontology for Linguistics OntoLex Resources Lab Meaning(s): levels Linguistic approach to meaning requires us to break down the notion of meaning into different levels at which we interprete linguistic expressions [2]. expression level the meaning of a simple or complex expression taken in isolation. utterance level the meaning of an expression when used in a given context of utterance resulting from fixing reference. communication level the meaning of an utterance as a communicative act in a given social setting. .. Ontology and the Lexicon . .. . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. . .. . .. . .. . .. Shu-Kai Hsieh .
  • 22. Background of the OntoLex Research ........ .. ....................... Ontology for Linguistics OntoLex Resources Lab Meaning(s): levels Example I don’t need your bicyle. .. Ontology and the Lexicon . .. . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. . .. . .. . .. . .. Shu-Kai Hsieh .
  • 23. Background of the OntoLex Research ........ .. ....................... Ontology for Linguistics OntoLex Resources Lab Meaning(s): dimensions [2] provides three dimensions of meaning: • descriptive dimension: propositional meaning; related to reference and truth. • social dimension: related to honorifics. • expressive dimension: conventionally serves the expression of subjective sensations, emotions, affections, evaluations or attitudes. .. Ontology and the Lexicon . .. . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. . .. . .. . .. . .. Shu-Kai Hsieh .
  • 24. Background of the OntoLex Research ........ .. ....................... Ontology for Linguistics OntoLex Resources Lab A clear boundary in the Study of Meaning? • Lexical Semantics: the investigation of expression meanings stored in the mental lexicon. • Semantics vs. Pragmatics: Semantics ends where contextual knowledge comes in? (i.e., utterance meaning and communicative meaning are beyond semantics?) • Meanings are Concepts? .. Ontology and the Lexicon . .. . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. . .. . .. . .. . .. Shu-Kai Hsieh .
  • 25. Background of the OntoLex Research ........ .. ....................... Ontology for Linguistics OntoLex Resources Lab 為什麼我們相信詞意 (word meaning; sense) "不是" 詞彙概念 (concept)? e.g.,http://lope.linguistics.ntu.edu.tw/cwnvis_beta/index.php/senses?lid=066992 .. Ontology and the Lexicon . .. . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. . .. . .. . .. . .. Shu-Kai Hsieh .
  • 26. Background of the OntoLex Research ........ .. ....................... Ontology for Linguistics OntoLex Resources Lab For the sake of communication, we perceive the world (entities, events, relations) linguistically via sound and/or orthographic form, which trigger our MENTAL SOMETHING for further processing and production. • A Concept is a general mental description of something that is stored in our mental lexicon. • Word Sense is the instantiation and differentiation of Concept in varied contexts. .. Ontology and the Lexicon . .. . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. . .. . .. . .. . .. Shu-Kai Hsieh .
  • 27. Background of the OntoLex Research ........ .. ....................... Ontology for Linguistics OntoLex Resources Lab From Meanings to Concepts and Back usage-based exercise 我小時候養了 13 條狗; 狗是人類的好朋友;她看到狗就 怕;狗仔隊毀了這個社會的善良風俗 .. Ontology and the Lexicon . .. . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. . .. . .. . .. . .. Shu-Kai Hsieh .
  • 28. Background of the OntoLex Research ........ .. ....................... Ontology for Linguistics OntoLex Resources Lab From Semantics to Cognitive Semantics, and Back? .. Ontology and the Lexicon . .. . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. . .. . .. . .. . .. Shu-Kai Hsieh .
  • 29. Background of the OntoLex Research ........ .. ....................... Ontology for Linguistics OntoLex Resources Lab Exercise What can be opened? (Searle, 1983) Example a. John opened the window. b. John opened his mouth. c. John opened his book. d. John opened his briefcase. e. John opened the curtains. f. The carpenter opened the wall. g. The surgeon opened the wound. h. The sapper opened the dam. .. Ontology and the Lexicon . .. . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. . .. . .. . .. . .. Shu-Kai Hsieh .
  • 30. Background of the OntoLex Research ........ .. ....................... Ontology for Linguistics OntoLex Resources Lab Underspecified Meanings: Exercise What can be opened? more figurative ... (Evans, 2009) Example a. The discussant opened the conversation. b. John opened a bank account. c. John opened the meeting. d. John opened a dialogue. e. John opened the curtains. f. The Germans opened hostilities against the Allies in 1940. g. The skies opened. h. He opened his mind to a new way of thinking. g. He finally opened up to her. .. Ontology and the Lexicon . .. . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. . .. . .. . .. . .. Shu-Kai Hsieh .
  • 31. Background of the OntoLex Research ........ .. ....................... Ontology for Linguistics OntoLex Resources Lab Underspecified Meanings: Exercise What can be opened again, in Chinese? .. Ontology and the Lexicon . .. . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. . .. . .. . .. . .. Shu-Kai Hsieh .
  • 32. Background of the OntoLex Research ........ .. ....................... Ontology for Linguistics OntoLex Resources Lab Underspecified Meanings: Exercise My two cents .. Example 車,穴,店,窗,會,視野,燈,口,頭,花,槍,心,源,天,門,箱,戶,工,瓶,國,同學 會,隧道,玩笑... Each relates to distinct sorts of actions, events, and situations. .. Ontology and the Lexicon . .. . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. . .. . .. . .. . .. Shu-Kai Hsieh .
  • 33. Background of the OntoLex Research ........ .. ....................... Ontology for Linguistics OntoLex Resources Lab In sum, open appears to be a function of (1) (sentential) context which guides the (2) encyclopedic and conceptual knowledge (ontology) to which open relates in a given instance of use. (word meaning) .. Ontology and the Lexicon . .. . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. . .. . .. . .. . .. Shu-Kai Hsieh .
  • 34. Background of the OntoLex Research ........ .. ....................... Ontology for Linguistics OntoLex Resources Lab In the Context of Cognitive Science ... Cognitive linguistics practice can be divided approximately into two areas: (Evans, 2009) 1 . Cognitive semantics: the study of semantic representation, the human conceptual system,and meaning construction processes as revealed by language. 2 . Cognitive (approaches) to grammar: the study of the symbolic linguistic units that comprise language, and their principles of organization. .. Ontology and the Lexicon . .. . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. . .. . .. . .. . .. Shu-Kai Hsieh .
  • 35. Background of the OntoLex Research ........ .. ....................... Ontology for Linguistics OntoLex Resources Lab Cognitive Lexical Semantics To develop a cognitive linguistic account of 1 . lexical concept: the linguistic knowledge that word encode. 2 . cognitive model: the conceptual system, i.e., the non-linguistic knowledge that words facilitate access to. → This provides a level of non-linguistic knowledge which is specialized for being accessed via lexical concepts. .. Ontology and the Lexicon . .. . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. . .. . .. . .. . .. Shu-Kai Hsieh .
  • 36. Background of the OntoLex Research ........ .. ....................... Ontology for Linguistics OntoLex Resources Lab Ontology-based Linguistic Studies [1] A variety of polysemy that gets a fair amount of linguistic attention is regular (or systematic) polysemy. This refers to word senses that are distinct, but which follow a general pattern or rule in the language. • container/contents: I put some sand into a box/bottle/tin/canister. I dumped the whole box/bottle/tin/canister onto the floor. • location/government/inhabitants:city • physical object/information: book • ....... .. Ontology and the Lexicon . .. . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. . .. . .. . .. . .. Shu-Kai Hsieh .
  • 37. Background of the OntoLex Research ........ .. ....................... Ontology for Linguistics OntoLex Resources Lab Ontology-based Linguistic Studies [2] Example (組合的概念痕跡) schoolboy (小中学校の)男子生徒 a boy attending school. schoolmate 学校の友達 a person who attends or attended the same school as oneself. schoolhouse 校舍 a building used as a school, especially in a small community or village. .. Ontology and the Lexicon . .. . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. . .. . .. . .. . .. Shu-Kai Hsieh .
  • 38. Background of the OntoLex Research ........ .. ....................... Ontology for Linguistics OntoLex Resources Lab Non-hierarchical Ontologies: Qualia Structure Pustejovsky (1995,p76,85-86): qualia as information about ”four essential aspects of a word’s meaning”, should enter into individual items’ meaning representations. These are: • Formal: the basic category which distinguishes it within a larger domain; • Constitutive: the relation between an object and its constituent parts; • Telic: its purpose and function; • Agentive: factors involved in its origin or ”bringing it about”. .. Ontology and the Lexicon . .. . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. . .. . .. . .. . .. Shu-Kai Hsieh .
  • 39. Background of the OntoLex Research ........ .. ....................... OntoLex Resources Lab 1 Background of the OntoLex Research . Semantic Web What is Ontology Ontology for Linguistics 2 OntoLex Resources . 3 Lab . Ontology and the Lexicon .. . .. . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. . .. . .. . .. . .. Shu-Kai Hsieh .
  • 40. Background of the OntoLex Research ........ .. ....................... OntoLex Resources Lab OntoLex Resources • Wiki Family (today) • Lexical Resources • Ontological Resources .. Ontology and the Lexicon . .. . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. . .. . .. . .. . .. Shu-Kai Hsieh .
  • 41. Background of the OntoLex Research ........ .. ....................... OntoLex Resources Lab Wiki: its role • A good review of current state-of-arts can be found in [1]. • Resolving the Knowledge acquisition bottleneck: The creation of very large knowledge bases has been made possible by the availability of collaboratively-curated online resources such as Wikipedia and Wiktionary. • structured, semi-structured, unstructured resources. • what are the advantages and disadvantages, respectively? .. Ontology and the Lexicon . .. . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. . .. . .. . .. . .. Shu-Kai Hsieh .
  • 42. Background of the OntoLex Research ........ .. ....................... OntoLex Resources Lab Wiki as semi-structured content for Ontologies • Transforming Wikipedia into machine-readable knowledge • Acquiring related terms: thesaurus extraction • Relation extraction • Leitmotif: generating semantics by exploiting the shallow structure found in Wikipedia. • Building and enriching ontologies from Wikipedia: YAGO, WikiNet and BabelNet. .. Ontology and the Lexicon . .. . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. . .. . .. . .. . .. Shu-Kai Hsieh .
  • 43. Background of the OntoLex Research ........ .. ....................... OntoLex Resources Lab Multilingual case of collaboratively-generated semi-structured resources .. Ontology and the Lexicon . .. . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. . .. . .. . .. . .. Shu-Kai Hsieh .
  • 44. Background of the OntoLex Research ........ .. ....................... OntoLex Resources Lab • WikiTaxonomy (Ponzetto and Strube, 2007; Ponzetto and Strube, 2011)(100k is-a relations) • WikiNet: (Nas- tase et al., 2010; Nastase and Strube, 2013) is a project which heuristically exploits different aspects of Wikipedia to obtain a multilingual concept network by deriving not only is-a relations, but also other types of relations. • MENTA (de Melo and Weikum, 2010), creates one of the largest multilingual lexical knowledge bases by interconnecting more than 13M articles in 271 languages. .. Ontology and the Lexicon . .. . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. . .. . .. . .. . .. Shu-Kai Hsieh .
  • 45. Background of the OntoLex Research ........ .. ....................... OntoLex Resources Lab 1 Background of the OntoLex Research . Semantic Web What is Ontology Ontology for Linguistics 2 OntoLex Resources . 3 Lab . Ontology and the Lexicon .. . .. . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. . .. . .. . .. . .. Shu-Kai Hsieh .
  • 46. Background of the OntoLex Research ........ .. ....................... OntoLex Resources Lab Homework • Install Protégé http://protege.stanford.edu/, and • Read the tutorials Next class: Creating your first (Pizza) ontology following http:// protegewiki.stanford.edu/wiki/Protege4Pizzas10Minutes .. Ontology and the Lexicon . .. . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. . .. . .. . .. . .. Shu-Kai Hsieh .
  • 47. Background of the OntoLex Research ........ .. ....................... OntoLex Resources Lab Eduard Hovy, Roberto Navigli, and Simone Paolo Ponzetto. Collaboratively built semi-structured content and artificial intelligence: The story so far. Artificial Intelligence, 194:2–27, 2013. Sebastian Löbner. Understanding semantics. Routledge, 2013. .. Ontology and the Lexicon . .. . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. . .. . .. . .. . .. Shu-Kai Hsieh .

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