“ Don’t Touch My Code!” Copyright for Fun and Profit by Rey Muradaz, JD Muradaz & Associates
Why We’re Doing This <ul><li>To clarify misconceptions about copyright. </li></ul><ul><li>To help you understand your righ...
What We’re Going To Cover <ul><li>What Copyright Isn't  </li></ul><ul><li>What Copyright Is (and some Exceptions) </li></u...
What Copyright Isn’t—Patent <ul><li>Covers inventions/processes (utility) or ornamental designs (design) </li></ul><ul><li...
What Copyright Isn’t—Trademark <ul><li>Words, names, symbols or devices used to identify goods and services </li></ul><ul>...
What Copyright Isn’t—Other <ul><li>Things Copyright Doesn’t Cover: </li></ul><ul><li>Ideas </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ideas can...
What Copyright Is—Rights <ul><li>Copyright is the right assigned to the creator of a work to control the use, reproduction...
What Copyright Is—Protection <ul><li>Triggered when work is fixed in a tangible medium of expression.  </li></ul><ul><li>I...
What Copyright Is—Term <ul><li>Works created by an individual post-1/1/78 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Life of the author plus  5...
Exceptions to Copyright <ul><li>Works put into the Public Domain </li></ul><ul><li>Fair Use </li></ul><ul><li>Derivative W...
Exceptions to Copyright—Public Domain <ul><li>Several ways works become Public Domain: </li></ul><ul><li>Copyright expires...
Exceptions to Copyright—Public Domain <ul><li>Works DO NOT become Public Domain simply by being published, EVEN IF NO COPY...
Exceptions to Copyright—Fair Use <ul><li>Under the Fair Use Doctrine, you: </li></ul><ul><li>CAN reproduce part (and in so...
Exceptions to Copyright—Fair Use <ul><li>Fair Use is a four-part test (17 USC  § 107): </li></ul><ul><li>The purpose and c...
Exceptions to Copyright—Derivative Works <ul><li>A “work” is a “derivative work” if it is based upon one or more preexisti...
Side Issue—Who Owns the Copyright? <ul><li>The author normally owns copyright, in absence of assignment. </li></ul><ul><li...
What Copyright Means <ul><li>You (as an author) have the sole right to determine what happens to the works you create. </l...
What Is A License? <ul><li>A license is the specific language used to explain the terms under which the copyright holder’s...
Two Licensing Considerations <ul><li>What you want people to do with your code (modify or not, keep your notices intact) <...
Licensing Alternatives <ul><li>Licenses can run the gamut from very liberal grants of rights and reuse to very restrictive...
Licensing Alternatives Continued <ul><li>Middle Ground alternatives: </li></ul><ul><li>Do anything you want to the code, b...
Example License Language <ul><li>OSI MIT License </li></ul><ul><li>GNU GPL </li></ul><ul><li>FuseQ  License </li></ul>
A Simple Software License <ul><li>Simple Software License </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Fusedoc  text to incorporate </li></ul></ul>
Reality Check <ul><li>Practically speaking, copyright may be difficult to enforce. </li></ul><ul><li>But, license language...
Links for More Information <ul><li>US Copyright Office, Copyright Basics:  http://lcweb.loc.gov/copyright/circs/circ1.html...
Conclusion <ul><li>Remember two key points: </li></ul><ul><li>If you’re distributing code, MAKE YOUR INTENTIONS CLEAR. </l...
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香港六合彩

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连香港六合彩都累了,今天就到这吧,大不了明天再练啊!凌晨炫大声冲香港六合彩挥挥手,一脸誓死休息的表情。是啊!连炫都这么说了!香港六合彩要走了啦!台下有了凌晨炫的支持,变得更大胆了,几个人已经走出队伍拿书包,其香港六合彩人也早已离开自己的位置,三五成群地讨论接下来的节目望着台下熙熙攘攘的人群,香港六合彩勉强挤出了一丝微笑:那今天就到这吧!大家都累了,回家好好休息,另外请记住今天的下面的人像是突然被提速,一眨眼工夫整个操场已经空空荡荡了晚上回到家,香港六合彩郁闷地趴在书桌上。照这样下去,这次团体操比赛崇阳非输给明德不可了!呜香港六合彩的心情好复杂!虽然觉得崇阳输给明德一点都不难过,可是一想到又要输给金月夜,香港六合彩就头皮直发炸!!而且如果这次输了,也会影响到香港六合彩在崇阳学生中的人气吧呜呼!不行!无论如何这次比赛都不能输!!香港六合彩振作起精神,拿起纸笔,开始研究接下来的作战计划了。铃铃铃铃!铃铃铃铃!喂?香港六合彩是苏佑慧!香港六合彩有气无力地掏出口袋里的手机。喂!佑慧!香港六合彩是苏姬啊!哦干吗啊咦?你怎么有气无力的?今天训练团体操不顺利吗?还好啦对了,明德训练的情况怎么样?很好啊!没想到金月夜还真有一手呢!很快就把大家的积极性都调动起来了,而且整个训练安排得井井有条,超顺利呢!呜是这样吗当然,所以佑慧你得加油,可不能让崇阳的人看扁!香港六合彩对你有信心!呵呵!那那是当然的啊!香港六合彩是谁啊!哦呵呵呵!香港六合彩也是这样想的!虽然说这次团体操比赛香港六合彩希望明德能赢,不过香港六合彩肯定还是力挺佑慧你的!嗯,香港六合彩会加油的!呵呵呵呵呜呜呜呜!完了!这下输定了!团体操这种项目本来就是明德的拿手好戏!听苏姬刚刚那样说,今天明德的训练远比崇阳成功!再这样下去,崇阳就输定了啦!不对!是香港六合彩输定了!怎么办?!怎么办?!香港六合彩为什么偏偏要被弄到崇阳来负责这种事情!呜呜呜呜Two时间就像蜗牛一样,慢慢地爬过了一天又一天。连续几天的训练下来,香港六合彩的感觉就是度日如年。好不容易到了中场休息的时候,香港六合彩已经累得说不出话。虽然大家每天一大早就准时到了操场,并且把十二节体操练得滚瓜烂熟。但是整体练习起来,不是分不清站位就是动作不协调,整个场面一片混乱,让站在主席台的香港六合彩感到严重的挫败感。香港六合彩的心里总是不停地浮现出明德严整的队列。照这样下去,肯定是必输无疑,那岂不是会被那群死猴子嘲笑呜呜呜,不要啊还好吗?就在香港六合彩快抓狂的时候,眼前突然出现一瓶水,这个熟悉的声音是李哲羽!你做的很好了,只是这毕竟不是明德,你和香港六合彩还需要磨合。可是不知道是哪里出了问题,好像从苏姬的谈话后,香港六合彩和李哲羽的相处让香港六合彩开始变得无比紧张。团体操一向都是崇阳的弱项,崇阳人自香港六合彩意识很强,所以大家配合相对比较困难。经过训练,过一阵就会好转的。香港六合彩在安慰香港六合彩香港六合彩转过头看向李哲羽。香港六合彩正仰头喝着水,平时服帖的头发有一点凌乱,阳光透过透明的水瓶,让香港六合彩眼前一阵闪耀。给自己一些时间,你一定可以的仿佛是自言自语,仿佛又是在安慰香港六合彩,看不到香港六合彩的表情,但心里的不安却奇迹般平复也许真

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香港六合彩

  1. 1. “ Don’t Touch My Code!” Copyright for Fun and Profit by Rey Muradaz, JD Muradaz & Associates
  2. 2. Why We’re Doing This <ul><li>To clarify misconceptions about copyright. </li></ul><ul><li>To help you understand your rights and obligations when it comes to code-sharing. </li></ul><ul><li>To show you how to clearly convey what you’re allowing others to do with your code. </li></ul><ul><li>Two Key Takeaways: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>If you're making code available to others, MAKE YOUR INTENTIONS CLEAR. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>If you want to build on the work of others, ASSUME YOU NEED PERMISSION. </li></ul></ul>
  3. 3. What We’re Going To Cover <ul><li>What Copyright Isn't </li></ul><ul><li>What Copyright Is (and some Exceptions) </li></ul><ul><li>What Copyright Means </li></ul><ul><li>What A License Is </li></ul><ul><li>Licensing Alternatives and Considerations </li></ul><ul><li>Example License Language </li></ul><ul><li>A Simple Software License </li></ul><ul><li>Links for More Information </li></ul>
  4. 4. What Copyright Isn’t—Patent <ul><li>Covers inventions/processes (utility) or ornamental designs (design) </li></ul><ul><li>For utility patent, invention must be novel, useful and non-obvious </li></ul><ul><li>Period of protection: 14/17/20 years </li></ul><ul><li>Patent application must be filed to receive protection </li></ul>
  5. 5. What Copyright Isn’t—Trademark <ul><li>Words, names, symbols or devices used to identify goods and services </li></ul><ul><li>Must distinguish the owner’s goods or services </li></ul><ul><li>Registration not required, but unregistered trademark has limited protection </li></ul><ul><li>Law protects the mark itself as well as any similar uses which might cause confusion </li></ul>
  6. 6. What Copyright Isn’t—Other <ul><li>Things Copyright Doesn’t Cover: </li></ul><ul><li>Ideas </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ideas cannot be copyrighted, only the concrete expression of the idea. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Facts </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Can’t copyright facts, but unique compilations or recitations of facts can be protected (like phone books or newspaper stories). </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. What Copyright Is—Rights <ul><li>Copyright is the right assigned to the creator of a work to control the use, reproduction and dissemination of that work as well as the creation of “derivative works”. </li></ul><ul><li>Five rights: Reproduction, modification, distribution, public performance and public display. </li></ul><ul><li>Of these, we’re most concerned with the first three. </li></ul>
  8. 8. What Copyright Is—Protection <ul><li>Triggered when work is fixed in a tangible medium of expression. </li></ul><ul><li>It attaches instantly and immediately. </li></ul><ul><li>Registration is no longer required. </li></ul><ul><li>Definition of Fixed: “. . . perceptible either directly or with the aid of a machine or device.” USCO FAQ. </li></ul><ul><li>Fixed—momentary presence in RAM has been considered to be ‘fixed’, though some scholars take issue with that interpretation. </li></ul>
  9. 9. What Copyright Is—Term <ul><li>Works created by an individual post-1/1/78 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Life of the author plus 50 70 years. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Work for hire (owned by a corporation) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>75 95 years from the date of publication or 100 120 years from the date of creation, whichever is shorter. </li></ul></ul>
  10. 10. Exceptions to Copyright <ul><li>Works put into the Public Domain </li></ul><ul><li>Fair Use </li></ul><ul><li>Derivative Works (not technically an exception) </li></ul>
  11. 11. Exceptions to Copyright—Public Domain <ul><li>Several ways works become Public Domain: </li></ul><ul><li>Copyright expires (e.g., pre-1/1/78 works published more than 95 years ago). </li></ul><ul><li>Improper renewal of copyright or improper use of notice (for pre-3/1/89 works only). </li></ul><ul><li>Works created by FEDERAL government employees and officers as part of their jobs (does NOT apply to STATE government materials). </li></ul><ul><li>Author explicitly places the work in the public domain. </li></ul>
  12. 12. Exceptions to Copyright—Public Domain <ul><li>Works DO NOT become Public Domain simply by being published, EVEN IF NO COPYRIGHT IS EXPLICITLY ASSERTED. </li></ul>
  13. 13. Exceptions to Copyright—Fair Use <ul><li>Under the Fair Use Doctrine, you: </li></ul><ul><li>CAN reproduce part (and in some cases all) of a work as the basis for comment, criticism, parody, illustration or education. </li></ul><ul><li>CANNOT simply distribute or modify a copyrighted work (whether or not for profit) without the express permission of the author of the work. </li></ul>
  14. 14. Exceptions to Copyright—Fair Use <ul><li>Fair Use is a four-part test (17 USC § 107): </li></ul><ul><li>The purpose and character of the use, including whether such use is of a commercial nature or is for nonprofit educational purposes; </li></ul><ul><li>The nature of the copyrighted work; </li></ul><ul><li>The amount and substantiality of the portion used in relation to the copyrighted work as a whole; and </li></ul><ul><li>The effect of the use on the potential market for or value of the copyrighted work. </li></ul>
  15. 15. Exceptions to Copyright—Derivative Works <ul><li>A “work” is a “derivative work” if it is based upon one or more preexisting works with such modifications as to constitute an “original work of authorship” (17 USC § 101). </li></ul><ul><li>Derivative works are independently copyrightable. </li></ul><ul><li>Derivative work cannot be published by a different author without the permission of the underlying copyright holder. </li></ul>
  16. 16. Side Issue—Who Owns the Copyright? <ul><li>The author normally owns copyright, in absence of assignment. </li></ul><ul><li>For a Derivative Work, each author owns the copyright for his/her original work. </li></ul><ul><li>If you’re an employee, the employer owns the copyright as a “work made for hire.” </li></ul><ul><li>***BUT*** If you’re an independent contractor, YOU own the copyright to your work. To give it to the contracting party, you must specifically assign it in writing. </li></ul>
  17. 17. What Copyright Means <ul><li>You (as an author) have the sole right to determine what happens to the works you create. </li></ul><ul><li>You (as a consumer) can’t use someone else’s work without some kind of permission, except in limited circumstances. </li></ul><ul><li>Copyright holder gets to set the licensing terms. </li></ul>
  18. 18. What Is A License? <ul><li>A license is the specific language used to explain the terms under which the copyright holder’s work can be used. </li></ul>
  19. 19. Two Licensing Considerations <ul><li>What you want people to do with your code (modify or not, keep your notices intact) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Accomplished through Use terms </li></ul></ul><ul><li>What you DON’T want people to do to you (sue for damages) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Accomplished through Warranty/Disclaimer language </li></ul></ul>
  20. 20. Licensing Alternatives <ul><li>Licenses can run the gamut from very liberal grants of rights and reuse to very restrictive. </li></ul><ul><li>Least restrictive: Public Domain </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Any subsequent use cannot be restricted by the author </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Can’t rescind the grant once it’s made </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Most restrictive: “Use But Don’t Touch” </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Most EULA or shrinkwrap licenses on software today (no modifications, no reverse-engineering, etc.) </li></ul></ul>
  21. 21. Licensing Alternatives Continued <ul><li>Middle Ground alternatives: </li></ul><ul><li>Do anything you want to the code, but preserve my copyright notice (OSI MIT License). </li></ul><ul><li>Any modified version must be made available under the same terms as the original was (GNU GPL). </li></ul><ul><li>You can use the code as-is, but no modifications are allowed (FuseQ License). </li></ul>
  22. 22. Example License Language <ul><li>OSI MIT License </li></ul><ul><li>GNU GPL </li></ul><ul><li>FuseQ License </li></ul>
  23. 23. A Simple Software License <ul><li>Simple Software License </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Fusedoc text to incorporate </li></ul></ul>
  24. 24. Reality Check <ul><li>Practically speaking, copyright may be difficult to enforce. </li></ul><ul><li>But, license language provides useful guidance (and deterrence). </li></ul>
  25. 25. Links for More Information <ul><li>US Copyright Office, Copyright Basics: http://lcweb.loc.gov/copyright/circs/circ1.html </li></ul><ul><li>US Copyright Office, FAQ: http://lcweb.loc.gov/copyright/faq.html </li></ul><ul><li>Oppedahl & Larson Web Law FAQ: http://www.patents.com/weblaw.sht </li></ul><ul><li>MegaLaw Intellectual Property Links: http://www.megalaw.com/top/intellectual.php </li></ul><ul><li>Legal Information Institute (source material): http://www.law.cornell.edu/topics/copyright.html </li></ul><ul><li>Ladera Press--Internet Law and Business Handbook: http://www.laderapress.com </li></ul>
  26. 26. Conclusion <ul><li>Remember two key points: </li></ul><ul><li>If you’re distributing code, MAKE YOUR INTENTIONS CLEAR. </li></ul><ul><li>If you want to use someone else’s code, and they failed to follow Step 1, ASK FOR PERMISSION. </li></ul><ul><li>Thanks for coming—hope you found this useful! For more information, contact me at [email_address] . </li></ul>

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