India's Favourite Brand Cadbury

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  • 1. 1 PROJECT REPORT ON STUDY OF THE YOUNG INDIA’s FAVORITE BRAND: CADBURY’s Submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the award of the degree of Bachelor of Business Administration (BBA) To Guru Gobind Singh Indraprastha University, Delhi Submitted to: Submitted by: Mr. Vipul Singh S.M. Shujauddin-12821401711 (Assistant Professor) Aman Panwar - 12921401711 Neha Mathpal- 13121401711 JAGANNATH INTERNATIONAL MANAGEMENT SCHOOL, VASANT KUNJ, NEW DELHI- 110070 BATCH (2011-14)
  • 2. 2 CERTIFICATE This is to certify that the major project report titled ―A study of the young India’s favorite brand: Cadbury’s‖ is an academic work done by S.M. Shujauddin: 12821401711, Aman Panwar: 12921401711, Neha Mathpal: 13121401711 submitted in the partial fulfillment of the requirement for the award of the degree of Bachelors of Business Administration from Jagannath International Management School (GGSIPU), New Delhi, under my guidance and direction. To the best of my knowledge and beliefs the data and information by them in the project has not been submitted earlier. 29th April, 2014 Mr. Vipul Singh (Asst Professor)
  • 3. 3 ACKNOWLEDGEMENT The report bears the imprints of many people. There are many helping hands to which I owe my sense of gratitude. Firstly we would like to thank Mr. Vipul Singh who gave us this project and guided us throughout the time period. Also, we would like to express our gratitude towards Mrs. Gauri Dhingra, our class coordinator who helped us wherever we needed the help and support. The youngsters who gave their valuable time to provide us with the data should get appreciated. S M Shujauddin Aman Panwar Neha Mathpal
  • 4. 4 EXECUTIVE SUMMARY The story of Cadbury Dairy Milk started way back in 1905 at Bournville, U.K., but the journey with chocolate lovers in India began in 1948. Currently Cadbury India operates in five categories, which are Chocolate Confectionery, Milk Food Drinks, Candy, Gum and Snacks category. In the Chocolate Confectionery business, Cadbury has maintained its undisputed leadership over the years. Some of the key brands are Cadbury Dairy Milk, 5 Star, Perk, Éclairs, Celebrations, Temptations and Gems. Cadbury enjoys a value market share of over 70% - the highest Cadbury brand share in the world! Their flagship brand Cadbury Dairy Milk is considered the "gold standard" for chocolates in India. The pure taste of CDM defines the chocolate taste for the Indian consumer. Earlier Cadbury Dairy Milk had positioned itself as a chocolate for kids. Later it was repositioned as a chocolate meant for all age groups emphasizing on the children hidden in us. The model that we have used is Customer Based Brand Equity Model and with the help of this model we have analyzed that how Cadbury Dairy milk has evolved since years and its perception has changed in the minds of consumer overtime. Cadbury Dairy Milk has done this perception evolving process with the help of aggressive advertising and they have been very successful in achieving their target.
  • 5. 5 TABLE OF CONTENTS CHAPTERS CONTENTS PAGE NO. 1 Introduction 2 Literature Review 3 Research Methodology 4 Data Analysis 5 Findings 6 Conclusion Limitations 7 Annexure 7.1 Questionnaire 7.2 References
  • 6. 6 CHAPTER-1 INTRODUCTION 1.1 INTRODUCTION TO BRAND AND BRAND EQUITY. ―Brands are intangible assets, assets that produces added benefits for the business. This is the domain of strategic brand management: how to create value with proper brand management.‖ - Jean Noël Kapferer, The New Strategic Brand Management A brand is a name or symbol used to identify the source of a product. When developing a new product, branding is an important decision. A brand can add significant value when it is well recognized and has positive associations in the mind of the consumer. This concept is referred to as brand equity. There is no universally accepted definition of brand equity. The term means different things for different companies and products. However, there are several common characteristics of the many definitions that are used today. From the following examples it is clear that brand equity is multi-dimensional. There are several stakeholders concerned with brand equity, including the firm, the consumer, the channel, and some would even argue the financial markets. But ultimately, it is the consumer that is the most critical component in defining brand equity. Some researchers in the field of marketing have defined brand equity as follows:  Lance Leuthesser (1995) writes that ―… brand equity represents the value (to a consumer) of a product, above that which would result for an otherwise identical product without the brand’s name. In other words, brand equity represents the degree to which a brand’s name alone contributes value to the offering (again, from the perspective of the consumer).‖  The Marketing Science Institute (1988) defines brand equity as, ―The set of associations and behaviors on the part of the brand’s customers, channel members, and parent corporations that permit the brand to earn greater volume or greater margins than it could without the brand name and that gives the brand a strong, sustainable, and differentiated advantage over competitors.‖
  • 7. 7 Brand equity may also be defined as a set of elements such as brand associations, market fundamentals and marketing assets that help distinguish one brand from another. In other words brand equity is the measurable value derived from marketing and other strategic and management efforts attributable to a brand. The brand is viewed from the perspective of the customers, an individual or an organization. The power of the brand lies in what customers have seen, read, heard, learned and thought about the product over time. A brand is said to have positive customer brand equity when consumers react favorably to the product. Brand equity helps to enable the buying decisions, builds customers loyalty which further helps in building the market share of the brand and protecting it whenever required. It also helps in command higher prices and creates a halo effect that assists business expansion which ultimately increases the market value of the company or the brand. The following are the considerations and action-steps while measuring the intangibility: 1. Clarify Brand Equity Perspective Brand equity can be viewed from several different perspectives. The hard-line perspective is that of financial outcomes which examine price premium. That is, how much more will a consumer pay for a product or service that is branded over a product or service that is generic? A softer perspective is that of brand extension where consideration is given to the value that a brand lends to the introduction of other products, or considers the reverse dynamic of the impact of a new product or service on the existing brand. This following steps address a third perspective - customer-based. 2. Determine Brand Equity Research Goals Brand equity market research falls into one of three camps: Tracking, exploring change, and/or extending brand power. Market research that focuses on tracking makes comparison among competitive brands or products against a benchmark. When exploring change is the research goal, customer brand attitude is tapped regarding branding decisions that might result in repositioning or renaming products or services. A deeper examination of extending brand power is carried out when substantive additions to a brand are considered. Each of these research goals requires a different tact. 3. Understand Customer Brand Attitude A customer-based perspective in the measurement of brand equity focuses on the experiences that consumers have with a brand. The stronger the brand, the stronger the customer's attitude toward the products or services associated with the brand. When
  • 8. 8 customers experience a product or service, they gauge overall brand quality and tend to infer certain brand attributes. If these experience measures are positive and endure over time, brand loyalty typically results. Today, customers can -- and do -- easily communicate the strength of their brand attitude to others. 4. Identify Brand Equity Components to Measure Brand awareness, brand reach, and brand image association are aspects of brand equity that may not be closely associated with consumer experience. These measures of brand equity may reflect the impact of traditional advertising campaigns, and the influence of social or interactive media. Brand awareness is an indicator of how branding efforts spotlight a product or service. Brand reach indicates how far and wide that spotlight shines. And brand image association reveals what the brand promises and what it stands for in the eyes of consumers. 5. Measure Perceived Brand Differentiation Product differentiation is a lynchpin for brand loyalty, confidence in a brand, and the potential for brand switching. Customer perceptions about brand differentiation tend to be strongest when actual product or service experience has occurred, but certainly brand differentiation is not immune to the influence of advertising. Differentiation may float on product or brand recommendations in social media rather than any personal experiences with a brand. Because differentiation is so susceptible to social influence, it lends itself to measurement across multiple media channels. 6. Qualitative and Quantitative Approaches to Brand Equity Data Ideally, brand equity measurement will include both qualitative and quantitative approaches. Focus groups can provide a good forum for exploring customer perceptions and motivation. Conjoint analysis can reveal key consumer decision-making processes. Effective measurement of brand equity is critical to the development of brand strategy and ultimately supports return-on-investment analysis. Which brings us full circle, back to the financial outcomes perspective on brand equity. Building a strong brand has been shown to provide numerous financial rewards to firms, and has become a top priority for many organizations. Author Keller outlines the CUSTOMER-BASED BRAND EQUITY (CBBE) model to assist management in their brand building efforts. According to the model, building a strong brand involves four steps: 1. Establishing the proper brand identity, that is, establishing breadth and depth of brand awareness, 2. Creating the appropriate brand meaning through strong, favorable, and unique brand associations,
  • 9. 9 3. Eliciting positive, accessible brand responses, and 4. Forging brand relationships with customers that are characterized by intense, active loyalty. Achieving these four steps, in turn, involves establishing six brand-building blocks: brand salience, brand performance, brand imagery, brand judgments, brand feelings, and brand resonance. The most valuable brand-building block, brand resonance, occurs when all the other brand-building blocks are established. With true brand resonance, customers express a high degree of loyalty to the brand such that they actively seek means to interact with the brand and share their experiences with others. Firms that are able to achieve brand resonance should reap a host of benefits, for example, greater price premiums and more efficient and effective marketing programs.
  • 10. 10 1.2 THE CHOCOLATE INDUSTRY: Chocolate…rich in history. For centuries, chocolate has been an intricate part of the history of many countries. Historically, Chocolate has been used as both a type of currency and also as an indulgent drink affordable only to royalty. Today, chocolate is enjoyed by all in a variety of forms and continues to be an important part of many cultures. ORIGIN OF COCOA (FROM CACAO TREES) Chocolate has been prepared as a drink for nearly all of its history. On the Pacific coast of Chiapas, Mexico, a Mo kaya archaeological site provides evidence of cacao beverages dating even earlier, to 1900 BC. The residues and the kind of vessel they were found in indicate the initial use of cacao was not simply as a beverage, but that the white pulp around the cacao beans was likely used as a source of fermentable sugars for an alcoholic drink. EVOLUTION OF COCOA: 1. 7th century A.D. Cocoa Beans as a Monetary Unit: Archeologists have discovered that Mayans cultivated these wild trees in the 7th century A.D in the Yucatan region of Central America. The first cocoa trees grew wild in the tropical rainforests of the Amazon and Orinoco basins over 4,000 years ago. Archeologists have discovered that Mayans cultivated these wild trees in the 7th century A.D in the Yucatan region of Central America. Historians have found proof that cocoa beans were used as a form of payment as well as a unit of calculation around 1000 A.D. In fact, following that period, all taxes were paid in cocoa beans to Feudal Aztecs. Over the centuries, the people that would become known as "Indians" brewed cocoa from a dense paste made with roasted cocoa beans. With the addition of water and various spices (vanilla and cinnamon, but also pepper and other strong condiments) it became an expensive yet very popular beverage enjoyed by Kings, while the poorest used it sparingly to flavor a boiled corn mixture. Cocoa - a divine drink Under the Aztec Emperor Montezuma, the drink made of cocoa beans was reserved for the male elite. "The divine drink, which builds up resistance and fights fatigue. A cup of this precious drink
  • 11. 11 permits a man to walk for a whole day without food." - Aztec Emperor Montezuma (circa 1480 - 1520) In 1502 Christopher Columbus was the first European to discover Cocoa beans upon landing in Nicaragua on his fourth voyage. While the natives used cocoa beans as currency and also as a delightful drink, there was no interest by Columbus and his entourage who were still searching for the sea route to India. 2. 1500s: A beverage fit for a king Hernan Cortez, who conquered part of Mexico in 1519, was intrigued by the idea cocoa as a means of payment, and establishes a cocoa plantation in the name of the Spanish crown to cultivate this new "money". Later, Cortez took xocolatl, a drink made from cocoa beans, to Charles V's court in 1520. Cane sugar, in addition to or in place of traditional spices made cocoa a beverage that was sweet and agreeable to drink and caught the addition of the Spanish King. Word of the drink quickly spread throughout Spain. 3. 1600s & 1700s: From Spain to France In 1615, the French became aware of the use of cocoa, a century after the first discovery of the chocolate drink by the Spanish court. Spanish princess Anna of Austria married French King Louis XIII who introduced, among other Spanish customs, the drinking of chocolate at the French court. News of the drink spread throughout Europe in the 17th century by Italian and French merchants. The first chocolate-houses open In 1657 the first chocolate-house was opened in London by a Frenchman, popularizing the consumption of chocolate among many classes. As early as 1720, several coffee-houses of Florence and Venice are offering chocolate whose reputation reaches far beyond the country's borders. Italian chocolatiers, now famous for the art of making chocolate, are becoming known throughout Europe for this new art form. During this time, gianduja (hazelnut paste) becomes a popular sweet chocolate variation. Chocolate as cure: During the 18th century, chocolate was used more for therapeutic qualities, such as prevention of stomach aches.
  • 12. 12 Introduction of chocolate to the United States did not occur until 1765 when John Hanan brought cocoa beans from the West Indies to Dorchester, Massachusetts, thinking that it might be useful for medicinal purposes. Together with Dr. James Baker, they start the first chocolate factory in North America, at first to manufacture remedies for illnesses. (Baker's chocolate still exists as a baking chocolate variety). During the first half of the 19th century, several technological advances made chocolate easier to produce and more available to the masses. 4. 1800s: Invention of the cocoa press In 1828, Dutchman Hendrick Van Houten invented the cocoa press. This invention helped reduce the prices of cocoa even further and helped to improve the quality of the beverage by squeezing out part of the cocoa butter, (fat that naturally occurs in cocoa beans) and allowed the cocoa to be grounded more finely. From then on, drinking chocolate had more of the smooth consistency and the pleasing flavor it has today. Today, this process is known as "Dutching." The final product, Dutch chocolate, has a dark color and a mild taste. The first chocolate bar In 1847, Fry's chocolate factory in Bristol, England molded the first chocolate bar that was suitable for general consumption. Milk chocolate was invented in 1879 by the Swiss Henri Nestlé and Daniel Peter 5. 1900s: Industrialization The industrialization of chocolate reduced the production costs and allowed all levels of society to enjoy chocolate. Children rapidly became a great market for chocolate makers. This started a trend of novelties with the 1923 launch of the Milky Way in by the American Frank Mars while his son invented the namesake bars, the Mars bar. At the same time, Milton Hershey, another American chocolate producer vastly expanded his chocolate sales through clever marketing and capitalizing on impulse purchases of chocolate in main street grocery stores. Hershey was called the "Henry Ford" of chocolate because he mass-produced a quality chocolate bar at a price everyone could afford.
  • 13. 13 6. Today: The chocolate industry has grown to a worldwide industry topping $50 Billion in retail sales worldwide and continues to show healthy growth. Recently, there has been an increasing trend towards high quality chocolates such as chocolates with high cocoa content and or chocolates flavored with natural flavors and rich spices.
  • 14. 14 1.3 CADBURY INDIA Cadbury India has been in India for over 60 years, having started in 1948 as an importer of chocolates. The chocolate industry in India as it stands today is dominated by two companies, both multinationals: Cadbury and the Nestle. The market leader is Cadbury with a lion's share of 70 percent while Nestle has only 25 percent share. The company's brands (Five Star, Gems, Eclairs, Perk, Dairy Milk) are leaders their segments. The Cadbury’s Inc has taken the opportunity to offer us a broader view of chocolate category. The Cadbury’s India’s no. 1 chocolate is able to share with their market insights based upon unparalleled breath of chocolate experience. Cadbury has grown from strengths to strengths with new technologies being introduced to make the Cadbury confectionary business, one of the most efficient in the world. This report studies about the young India’s favorite brand- Cadbury. In a chocolate confectionary business, Cadbury has maintained its undisputed leadership over the years. Some of the key brands are Cadbury Dairy Milk, 5 Star, Perk, Éclairs, Celebrations, Temptations and Gems. Cadbury enjoys a value market share of over 70%- the highest Cadbury brand share in the world! Their flagship brand Cadbury Dairy Milk is considered the ―gold standard‖ for chocolates in India. The pure taste of Cadbury defines the chocolate taste for the Indian consumer. Earlier Cadbury had positioned itself as a chocolate for kids. Later it was repositioned as a chocolate meant for all age groups emphasizing on the children hidden on us. Cadbury has done this perception evolving process with the help of aggressive advertising and they have been very successful in achieving this target. The model that we have used is young customers based Brand Equity Model and with the help of this model we have analyzed that how Cadbury has evolved since years and its perception has changed in the minds of consumer over time. Cadbury Milestones The Cadbury story is a fascinating study of industrial and social developments. From a one man business in 1824, Cadbury has grown to be one of the world's largest producers of chocolate. A small family business developed into an international company and the high standards of the Cadbury brothers were combined with the most sophisticated technology, skills and innovation.
  • 15. 15 VISION:  The governing objective for Cadbury India is to deliver Superior Shareholder value.  Cadbury in every pocket.  Sustain growth of Cadbury’s market through aggressive product development.  Focusing on cost competitiveness & productivity in operations and innovative utilization of assets.  Investing to develop people. MISSION:  ―To provide customers with a tempting and exquisite taste‖ as enticing treats means a mouthwatering treat which is simply irresistible.  ―Cadbury means quality‖ this is the promise of Cadbury. Its reputation is to build upon quality. Its commitment to continuous improvement will ensure that promise. BRAND ELEMENTS Dairy Milk has been meticulously built around the world by Cadbury. It has been able to sustain a strong position in the market. There are many branding elements which have resulted into consistent result of its success. In India and across the world, the only chocolate wrapped in Purple with the logo of Cadbury written on it. Color of all other products of Cadbury like Gems which is so colorful. Packaging which introduces slight of milk splash shows the relation of milk with Cadbury. Insignia Logo which comes on the packaging in bold vintage Dairy font in white which also shows the relation of milk with the product. Logo Not only the above three, But there are many more elements due to which the consistent Branding of Dairy Milk is so very popular. Its different Advertisements, its punch lines etc… It has always kept a strong association with Milk, with slogans such as ―a glass and half of full cream milk in every half pound.‖ And also advertisement which featured a glass of milk pouring out and forming the Dairy Milk bar. Also the ad campaigns are also the important element of Dairy Milk. It made chocolate an eating habit among the consumers, especially the adults. Long back it was a belief that chocolate is only for kids. But Dairy Milk changed this belief. Also they changed the trend of Sweets (Mithai) during the occasions like Diwali, New Year etc… Dairy Milk brought a new trend that whether any occasion, Dairy Milk is best for all. Tolani
  • 16. 16  It also gave some famous dialogues from the ads which people remember always. They were also the core brand elements of Dairy Milk. Let us see them below: The Real Taste of Life- A girl Dancing on Cricket Field  Khane walo ko Khane ka Bahana Chahiye  Kuch Meetha Ho Jaye  Pappu Paas ho Gaya  Aaj Pehli Tareekh Hai  Shubh Aarambh All these above dialogues were form the very famous and popular ads of Dairy Milk. By this ad they wanted to covey to the people that for eating Dairy Milk they do not have to wait for any occasion. They can just have it. Whether they are happy or Sad, But Dairy Milk can be taken in any of the mood.
  • 17. 17 BRAND MANTRA OF DAIRY MILK Dairy Milk also enjoys a great - Brand Recall value when comes to chocolates with Milk. Dairy Milk has huge command over - its distribution network spanning across India. Certain segment feel that price of innovations with crafted Dairy Milk is high and compared to communication campaign that Amul Milk chocolate is preferred. It offers quality product with Dairy Milk is somewhat lacking in establish a clear and consistent other emerging markets. It has Brand Image over the years. Strong command over its brand image in India and Europe But other places it is lacking. Dairy Milk has been able to the recent acquisition of Cadbury which is a globally established by Kraft Foods may result in brand name known for its somewhat negative effect on the manufacturing competency and brand. CUSTOMER-BASED BRAND EQUITY PYRAMID Rationale of CBBE model: Basic premise: The power of a brand resides in the minds of the customers. The challenge is to ensure that the customers have the right kind of experiences with the products and services and their marketing program to create the right brand knowledge structures i.e. Thoughts Feelings Images
  • 18. 18 Perception & Attitudes Building a strong brand involves a series of steps as part of a ―branding ladder‖. It is characterized by a logically constructed set of brand ―building blocks‖. We need to identify the areas of strength and weakness and to provide guidance to marketing activities.
  • 19. 19 CHAPTER-2 LITERATURE REVIEW HISTORY: Cadbury, the global leader in the chocolate confectionery market, began in 1824 when a young Quaker named John Cadbury opened up a shop in Birmingham. John sold coffee, tea, drinking chocolate and cocoa at his shop. Believing that alcohol was a main cause of poverty, John hoped his products might serve as an alternative. He also sold hops and mustard. Like many Quakers John had high quality standards for all of his products. At that time in England, Quakers were prohibited from attending university, since it was affiliated with the established church, and their pacifist beliefs kept them from joining the military. With few opportunities available, Quakers often went into business-related fields and/or devoted their time to missions of social reform. By 1842 John was selling 11 kinds of cocoa and 16 kinds of drinking chocolate. Soon John’s brother Benjamin joined the company to form Cadbury Brothers of Birmingham. The Cadbury brothers opened an office in London and received a Royal Warrant (one of many) as manufacturers of chocolate and cocoa to Queen Victoria in 1854. Six years later the brothers dissolved their partnership because of John’s failing health and the death of his wife. They left the business to John's sons George and Richard. John devoted the rest of his life to social work and died in 1889. George and Richard continued to expand the product line, and by 1864, they were pulling a profit. Cadbury’s Cocoa Essence, which was advertised as "absolutely pure and therefore best," was an all- natural product made with pure cocoa butter and no starchy ingredients. Cocoa Essence was the beginning of chocolate as we know it today. The brothers soon moved their manufacturing operations to a larger facility four miles south of Birmingham. The factory and area became known as Bournville. With Cadbury’s continued success in chocolate, George and Richard stopped selling tea in 1873. Master confectioner Frederic Kinchelman was appointed to share his recipe and production secrets with Cadbury workers. This resulted in Cadbury producing chocolate covered nougats, bonbons delices, pistache,
  • 20. 20 caramels, avelines and more. Cadbury’s manufactured its first milk chocolate in 1897. Two years later the Bournville factory employed 2,600 people and Cadbury was incorporated as a limited company. During World War I, more than 2,000 of Cadbury’s male employees joined the Armed Forces. Cadbury supported the war effort, sending warm clothing, books and chocolate to the soldiers. Cadbury supplemented the government allowances to the dependents of their workers. When the workers returned, they were able to return to work, take educational courses, and injured or ill employees were looked after in convalescent homes. During this period trade overseas increased, and Cadbury opened its first overseas factory near Hobart, Tasmania. The next year Cadbury merged with JS Fry & Sons, a past market leader in chocolate. Cadbury’s supported the war effort during World War II by converting parts of its factory into workrooms to manufacture equipment like milling machines for rifle factories and parts like pilot seats for Defiant fighter planes. Workers plowed football fields to grow crops, and the Cadbury St. John’s Ambulance unit helped people during air raids. Chocolate was considered essential for the Armed Forces and civilians. Rationing finally ended in 1949. In 1969 Cadbury’s merged with Schweppes to form Cadbury Schweppes. Schweppes was a well-known British brand that manufactured carbonated mineral water and soft drinks. The merged companies would go on to acquire Sunkist, Canada Dry, Typhoo Tea and more. Schweppes Beverages was created, and the manufacture of Cadbury’s confectionery brands was licensed to Hershey. Today Cadbury’s Schweppes is the largest confectionery company in the world, employing more than 70,000 employees. In 2006 the company had over $15 billion in overall sales. In March of 2007, Cadbury’s Schweppes announced that it intends to separate its confectionery and beverage businesses. With almost 200 years in the business, Cadbury’s Schweppes will continue to prosper in the coming decades. LITERATURE AND LORE: "Outside the city of Birmingham is Bournville [sic], a model village maintained by George Cadbury, the famous English Quaker, and the owner of the London Daily News. From that great newspaper all betting news and liquor advertisements have been eliminated. It is the cleanest paper in that respect among all the dailies of Great Britain. In this village of Bournville, the people who work, thousands of them, take their turn to come into a large public hall several mornings in the week, where they have a short praise and
  • 21. 21 prayer service before they go to their work. There is a spirit of goodwill and kindliness and brotherhood in the institution. There is a fine cricket ground for the men; gymnasium for the women; recreation grounds for all. Back of the houses are gardens for fruit and vegetables. It is a sweet, wholesome life of labor, redeemed from the grime of a great city and the drudgery of toil without any of the beauty of life. It is a bit of the Kingdom put into the manual labor of men and it sweetens the lives of thousands of people as they waken in the morning and anticipate the day's work. ..." -- Sheldon, Charles M. Rev. the Rule of the Kingdom. - Fort Wayne, Indiana: The Fort Wayne Sentinel. 18 July 1908. Page 15. "Not long ago the English cocoa firms -- Messrs. Cadbury, Messrs. Fry and Messrs. Rowntree -- and the firm of Messrs. Stollwerck, of Cologne, sent at their own expense a special commissioner to inquire into all the circumstances of the case. The report of this commission, Mr Burtt, has recently been published by them -- a fact which shows that they have not the slightest desire to shirk their responsibilities, but, instead, are the first to recognize them. "If this is not slavery, I know of no word in the English language which correctly characterizes it." This is Mr. Burtt's conclusion. But the cocoa firms in question were not content simply with this report. At present Mr. William Cadbury is in Portuguese West Africa negotiating with the planters and the Government in order to put an end to slavery and to induce the planters to grown their cocoa under conditions of free labor...The leading British cocoa firms, as we have shown, are awake, or are awakening, to their responsibilities. It remains for the British public, and we trust also for the public of the United States, to play their part. They must not let the whole brunt of the battle fall upon the manufacturers. They must let it be known that if needs be they will stand loyally by any and every firm which refuses to use slave-grown cocoa." -- Quote from the London Spectator. In Manitoba Morning Free Press. -Winnipeg, Manitoba. 26 December 1908. Page 4. "Damages of One Farthing for Libel: Birmingham, Dec. 7. Damages of one farthing were granted the heirs of the late Richard Cadbury, the millionaire chocolate manufacturer, in their suit for libel against the London Standard. The litigation grew out of charges relative to the use of alleged slave grown cocoa, from the Island of St. Thomas, a possession of Portugal off the west coast of Africa." -- The Evening Observer. -Dunkirk, New York. Tuesday, 7 December 1909. Page 9.
  • 22. 22 "There is probably no man who is more passionately devoted to cycling that Mr. George Cadbury, the head of the famous Bournville cocoa firm of that name. He himself cycles every day from his home to the works, a distance of a mile and a half, and back again in the evening. Every Sunday morning he rises at six o'clock and cycles into Birmingham, five miles away, to conduct an eight o'clock Sunday morning class for men and youths. Nothing is allowed to interfere with attendance at this class for men and youths, and even in the depth of winter Mr. Cadbury is punctually at his post. Mr. Cadbury is proud of his class, and every member is proud of Mr. Cadbury." -- Column: Personal Gossip that Amuses, Readers of the London Press. Oakland, California. -The Oakland Tribune. Wednesday, 16 February 1910. Evening edition. Page 6. "London, July 23.—During the last week or two a number of identical articles have appeared in a couple of London papers which are controlled by the great cocoa firm of Cadbury, stating that a dynastic crisis was imminent in Portugal and that the boy King Manuel was about to abdicate in favor of his uncle, the duke of Oporto....I am in a position to state that there isn't a word of truth in these statements.....It is interesting to note that both the papers which printed these veiled attacks on the Portuguese monarchy are controlled by a business firm which had a good deal of trouble not long ago with the Portuguese government, over its use of cocoa grown by slaves in Portuguese territory. It was compelled by public opinion to cease the use of this raw material and then tried to throw all the blame on the Portuguese government, which asserted that it was doing all it could to put an end to the system of servile labor, but was hampered by capitalists in close touch with the English cocoa firm." -- [Author unattributed]. -Atlanta, Georgia: The Constitution. Sunday, 24 July 1910. Page 6.
  • 23. 23 CHAPTER-3 RESEARCH METHODOLOGY TITLE: A study of the young India’s favorite brand- Cadbury’s TITLE JUSTIFICATION: This title has been chosen because this project explains the reactions and preferences of Indian youths towards the Cadbury’s; what are the attractive factors of the Cadbury’s and how they lure the Indian youths is studied here. RESEARCH DESIGN: Exploratory research is used and questionnaires are filled. OBJECTIVES: 1. To study the brand equity of Cadbury’s in the Indian youths. 2. To identify why Cadbury is much preferred brand than Nestle or any other brand in India. 3. To analyze the effects of advertisement campaigns in the prospective consumers. DATA COLLECTION METHOD: 1. For primary data questionnaire was formed 2. For secondary data books related to brand equity, magazines, internet and newspapers containing related materials were studied. SAMPLING DESIGN: 1. SAMPLE UNIT: Youths between the age group of 18-25 gave their views to fulfil the questionnaires. 2. SAMPLE SIZE: Sample size mostly taken from college is about 80 students. 3. SAMPLING PROCEDURE: Simple random sampling is employed
  • 24. 24 CHAPTER-4 DATA ANALYSIS Q1. Which product of Cadbury you like the most?  Dairy Milk  Gems  Eclairs  Bornville Attribute Sample size Dairy Milk 36 Gems 22 Eclairs 13 Bournville 9 Interpretation: - Out of 80 student, 36 like Dairy Milk, 22 Gems, 13 Éclairs, and 9 Gems Product Liked Most Dairy Milk Gems Eclairs Bournville
  • 25. 25 Q2. Are you satisfied with the packing of the Cadbury products?  Yes  No Yes 76 NO 4 Interpretation: - Out of 80 student, 76 are satisfied with the packing Satisfied With Packing Yes No
  • 26. 26 Q3. Are you satisfied with the quality, taste and price of the Cadbury products?  Yes  No Yes 68 No 12 Interpretation: - 68 student are satisfied with the price, taste, and quality of Cadbury Product. Satisfied with quality, price and taste Yes No
  • 27. 27 Q4. Which tag line of Cadbury attracted you the most?  Kuch Meetha Hojaye  Rishto ki mithaas  Shubh Arambh Kuch Meetha Hojaye 44 Rishto ki Mithaas 22 Shubh Arambh 14 Interpretation: - 44 people like the tag line of ―Kuch Meetha Hojaye‖ Tag Line Kuch Meetha Hoajye Rishto Ki Mithaas Shubh Arambh
  • 28. 28 Q5. Rank the sub-brands of chocolates according to your preference? (5 for most 1 for least preferred) Cadbury Dairy milk 5 ***** 5 Star 3 *** Perk 2 ** Celebrations 4**** Temptation 1* Nestle KitKat 5***** Bar One 3*** Munch 4**** Milky bar 2** Milk Chocolate 1*
  • 29. 29 Q6. How much importance do you give to the following factors when you purchase a chocolate? Factor Very Important Important Not Important Least Important Flavor 40 Price 5 Quality 20 Packaging 5 Brand 10 Interpretation:- While purchasing the chocolate people look for flavor, quality, and brand rather than price and packaging 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 Flavor Price Quality Packaging Brand Importance to which Factor Importance to which Factor
  • 30. 30 Q 7.. At the time of purchasing do you recall advertisement?  Yes  NO Yes 16 No 64 Interpretation: - While buying 64 people do not recall advertisement Recall Advertisement Yes No
  • 31. 31 Q8. What are the following sources of information in terms of effects, when you purchase a chocolate? Factors More Effect Effect Some what Effect Not Effect Attractive Display Inside Store 30 Advertisement 20 Suggestion from Friends and relatives 15 Brand Ambassador 5 Ingredients 10 Interpretation:- While buying the chocolate people look for attractive display in the store. 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 Information While Purchasing Information While Purchasing
  • 32. 32 Q 9. How frequently do you purchase chocolates? Once in fort night -10 Daily -12 Weekly -32 Monthly -26 Interpretation: - It shows that people prefer to buy chocolates on weekly basis Frequently You Buy Once in fort Night Daily Weekly Monthly
  • 33. 33 Q 10. Which promotional offers attract you most? Free Gifts Price Offer Any Other Free Gifts 36 Price Offer 26 Any Other (extra grams) 18 Interpretation: - People are more concern about free gifts rather than price offer or extra gram given on the product. Promotional Offer Free Gifts Price Offer Any other
  • 34. 34 Q 11. If you prefer brand is not available for repeat purchase then what will you do?  Postpone your purchase -28  Switch over to other brand -44  Go to other shop to search for your preferred brand -8 Interpretation:- Most of the customers would switch over the brand if the preferred brand is not available If brand not available Postpone your purchase Switch Over to other brand Go to other shop
  • 35. 35 Q 12. If another brand of the same product appears in the market, will you prefer to stop buying this brand, buy the new brand?  No. not at all _54_  I may consider _20_  Can’t say _6__ Interpretation: - They would not stop the consumption of the Cadbury’s even if the rivalry brand has taken most of the market share. If other brand available will you buy new brand No. not at all I may consider Can't Say
  • 36. 36 CHAPTER-5 FINDINGS Cadbury’s main product dairy milk is preferred the most in the youths. Majority of the population is highly satisfied with the packing of the products of Cadbury’s The taste, price and quality of Cadbury’s product complements each other and hence they are highly satisfactory. The tagline ―Kuch meetha ho jaaye‖ mostly comes in the mind of youths while thinking of Cadbury’s and its products. Out of dairy milk, 5 star, gems, temptations and celebrations dairy milk rules the chocolate segment. According to the consumers, flavor and quality of the chocolate are the most important factor. After that comes the price which is important, packaging which is less important and brand which is not at all important. The population mostly does not recall the advertisements while purchasing the products of Cadbury’s Majority of the youths buys chocolates on weekly basis Free gifts inside the box or with the box attracts the customers the most while purchasing the products As the audience is not brand loyal, most of them switches their mind if their product is not available in the nearby stores. They would not stop the consumption of the Cadbury’s even if the rivalry brand has taken most of the market share.
  • 37. 37 CHAPTER-6 CONCLUSION After the data analysis from both the sources: primary and secondary data, it can be concluded that in India Cadbury’s is enjoying its success to a great extent besides the fact that other competitors, mainly local, are trying hard to impress the youths of India. Nestle is the biggest competitor of Cadbury’s and they face cut throat competition internationally but in India there is not any such brand that is near to the Cadbury’s when it comes to market share. The advertisements are one of the important factor to attract the customers and Cadbury’s is doing well in it. Its Silk advertisements were so popular that it created more demand than the supply for that product. Also, the price has n number of ranges. From Rs. 5 chocolate to Rs. 500 rich dry fruit collection- mention the price and they have the product of desired range. Cadbury’s surely knows how to bind the customers with their gift boxes. Cadbury’s has 70% share in the Indian market and the reason for this is its continuous innovation and techniques to attract the customers and make them brand loyal. Other brands may take over Cadbury’s one day but not in near future.
  • 38. 38 LIMITATIONS OF THE STUDY Data of only 80 youths is collected, because of scarcity of time Age group of 18-25 is taken. Elders or children may have different opinion about the products of Cadbury’s Lack of response by some youths to provide the data There is scope for further research, and is detailed study can be attempted in this area.
  • 39. 39 ANNEXURE QUESTIONNAIRE: Q 1 Which product of Cadbury you like the most?  Dairy Milk  Gems  Eclairs  Bornville Q 2 Are you satisfied with the packing of the Cadbury products?  Yes  No Q 3 Are you satisfied with the quality, taste and price of the Cadbury products?  Yes  No Q 4 Which tag line of Cadbury attracted you the most?  Kuch Meetha Hojaye  Rishto ki mithaas  Shubh Arambh Q 5 Rank the sub-brands of chocolates according to your preference? (5 for most 1 for least preferred) Cadbury Nestle Dairy milk KitKat 5 Star Munch Perk Milky Bar Celebrations Bar One Temptation Milk Chocolate
  • 40. 40 Q6 How much important do you give to the following factors when you purchase a chocolate? Factor Very Important Important Not Important Least Important Flavor/ Taste Price Quality Packaging Brand Q 7 At the time of purchasing do you recall advertisement?  Yes  NO Q 8 The following sources of information in terms of effects, when you purchase a chocolate? Factors More Effect Effect Some what Effect Not Effect Attractive Display Inside Store Advertisement Suggestion from Friends and relatives Brand Ambassador Ingredients Q 9 How frequently do you purchase chocolates? Once in fort night ____ Daily _____ Weekly ____ Monthly _____ Quaterly ____ Q 10 Which promotional offers attract you most? Free Gifts Price Offer Any Other Q 11 If you prefer brand is not available for repeat purchase then what will you do?  Postpone your purchase ____  Switch over to other brand ____  Go to other shop to search for your preferred brand ____
  • 41. 41 Q 12 If another brand of the same product appears in the market, will you prefer to stop buying this brand, buy the new brand?  No. not at all _____  I may consider _____  No, I shall not _____  Can’t say _____
  • 42. 42 REFERENCES: Fort Wayne, Indiana: The Fort Wayne Sentinel. 18 July 1908. Page 15. Winnipeg, Manitoba. 26 December 1908. Page 4. Dunkirk, New York. Tuesday, 7 December 1909. Page 9. The Oakland Tribune. Wednesday, 16 February 1910. Evening edition. Page 6. Atlanta, Georgia: The Constitution. Sunday, 24 July 1910. Page 6. "Company Profile for Cadbury PLC (CBY)". Retrieved 2008-10-01. Robert Fitzgerald (2005) Products, Firms and Consumption: Cadbury and the Development of Marketing, 1900–1939, Business History, 47:4, 511-531, DOI: 10.1080/00076790500132977 Ascribed to Cadbury plc. (19 January 2010). "A history of Cadbury's sweet success". London: Times Online. Retrieved 30 May 2010. Geoffrey Jones (1984) Multinational Chocolate: Cadbury Overseas, 1918–39, Business History, 26:1, 59-76 Chris Smith; Michael Rowlinson (1990). Reshaping Work: The Cadbury Experience. Cambridge University Press. pp. 78–95. ISBN 978-0-521-32304-8.