Mobile Internet Standards

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This is part of the course given at the Strathmore University Mobile Boot Camp in Nov 2010. …

This is part of the course given at the Strathmore University Mobile Boot Camp in Nov 2010.

Facilitator: Michael Wakahe, Director, Shujaa Solutions Ltd
Date: Nov 18th - 20th, 2010
Venue: Strathmore University Mobile Boot Camp

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  • 1. Strathmore Mobile Boot Camp November 2010 Mobile Website Development Mobile Internet StandardsFacilitated by:Michael WakaheShujaa Solutions Ltd
  • 2. Table of Contents Introduction to Mobile Web Standards Structure Presentation Client Side Scripting MIME Types Standardization Bodies Copyright © Shujaa Solutions Ltd. 2010. All Rights Reserved.
  • 3. Introduction to Mobile Web Standards Copyright © Shujaa Solutions Ltd. 2010. All Rights Reserved.
  • 4. Mobile Web Standards Fundamentally, there is one Web. Its content is standardized markup, styles, scripts, and multimedia viewable using web browsers. Copyright © Shujaa Solutions Ltd. 2010. All Rights Reserved.
  • 5. Mobile Web Standards A standards-based approach to Mobile Web development ensures compliance and usability across mobile browsers & platforms. Knowing all the rules & knowing when to ignore the rules is necessary for success on the Mobile Web. Copyright © Shujaa Solutions Ltd. 2010. All Rights Reserved.
  • 6. Mobile Web Standards Various standards involved in:  Structure  Presentation  Client Side Scripting Copyright © Shujaa Solutions Ltd. 2010. All Rights Reserved.
  • 7. StructureCopyright © Shujaa Solutions Ltd. 2010. All Rights Reserved.
  • 8. Mobile Web Standards XML-formatted markup defines the document structure Handsets may support WML, XHTML, HTML4, HTML5 in varying degrees These XML standards have various versions & derivations Copyright © Shujaa Solutions Ltd. 2010. All Rights Reserved.
  • 9. Mobile Web Standards Previously WML was dominant, now best results with XHTML MP Specifically XHTML MP 1.0 Most modern phones support WAP 2.0, which uses XHTML MP as the primary markup language while WAP 1.0 used WML. Copyright © Shujaa Solutions Ltd. 2010. All Rights Reserved.
  • 10. Mobile Web Standards XHTML-MP (Extensible Hypertext Markup Language - Mobile Profile) is a specialization XHTML designed to incorporate features useful to mobile devices. XHTML-MP 1.0 was defined by the OMA and is an extension of the original W3C-inspired XHTML Basic 1.0. Copyright © Shujaa Solutions Ltd. 2010. All Rights Reserved.
  • 11. Mobile Web Standards Over time, OMA has developed XHTML-MP and now has a proposed 1.2 version of its specification. XHTML-MP comes with a mobile-friendly means of using CSS to separate presentation from the markup, just like on the desktop. Copyright © Shujaa Solutions Ltd. 2010. All Rights Reserved.
  • 12. Mobile Web Standards XHTML-MP 1.0 sets the base tags for mobile markup. XHTML-MP 1.1 adds the <script> tag and support for mobile JavaScript. XHTML-MP 1.2 adds more form tags and text input modes. Currently many mobile browsers do not support XHTML-MP 1.2. Copyright © Shujaa Solutions Ltd. 2010. All Rights Reserved.
  • 13. Mobile Web Standards Mobile Web sites targeting only smartphones can use the full feature set of HTML 4 & in the near future, HTML 5. Using desktop markup also invites transcoders - network appliances designed to optimize the Desktop Web for mobile devices by reformatting markup Copyright © Shujaa Solutions Ltd. 2010. All Rights Reserved.
  • 14. Mobile Web Standards HTML 5 is the next major release of the foundational language of the Web. It is currently a draft recommendation undergoing active revision at the W3C (http://www.w3.org/TR/html5/) HTML 5 will be the next standard for markup and APIs supported in Web browsers. Copyright © Shujaa Solutions Ltd. 2010. All Rights Reserved.
  • 15. PresentationCopyright © Shujaa Solutions Ltd. 2010. All Rights Reserved.
  • 16. Mobile Web Standards Cascading Style Sheets (CSS) control the presentation. Most XHTML-MP mobile browsers support Wireless CSS, CSS Mobile Profile, and/or CSS 2. CSS 3 is new, coming along with HTML5 Copyright © Shujaa Solutions Ltd. 2010. All Rights Reserved.
  • 17. Mobile Web Standards The OMA-managed Wireless CSS standard is a subset of CSS and is also part of the WAP 2.0 specification. Note that Wireless CSS is not backwards compatible with WML. Copyright © Shujaa Solutions Ltd. 2010. All Rights Reserved.
  • 18. Mobile Web Standards Wireless CSS and CSS Mobile Profile are tightly related, but independent mobile subsets of CSS2 used to style XHTML-MP documents. Wireless CSS is a CSS2 subset standardized by the Open Mobile Alliance. Copyright © Shujaa Solutions Ltd. 2010. All Rights Reserved.
  • 19. Mobile Web Standards CSS Mobile Profile is a CSS2 subset—with some features borrowed from CSS3—that is standardized by the W3C. The W3C’s goal is to align CSS Mobile Profile with Wireless CSS as much as possible. Copyright © Shujaa Solutions Ltd. 2010. All Rights Reserved.
  • 20. Mobile Web Standards Overall, Wireless CSS is a more restricted subset and an older standard targeted at Web browsers on resource-limited mobile devices. CSS Mobile Profile adds in much more of the CSS2 standard to enable richer web documents but risks full support on mass market mobile browsers. Copyright © Shujaa Solutions Ltd. 2010. All Rights Reserved.
  • 21. Mobile Web Standards You can add Wireless CSS to your document the same way as you would for a normal HTML document. Link to an external global stylesheet using the following line:  <link href="external.css" rel="stylesheet" type="text/css" /> Insert styles at the document head the following example shows:  <style>  p{  font-size: small;  }  </style> Copyright © Shujaa Solutions Ltd. 2010. All Rights Reserved.
  • 22. Mobile Web Standards Wireless CSS supports a lot CSS attributes, but not all of them. More advanced styling techniques won’t likely work across multiple mobile browsers. The best advice is to keep your CSS as simple as possible. Copyright © Shujaa Solutions Ltd. 2010. All Rights Reserved.
  • 23. Client Side Scripting Copyright © Shujaa Solutions Ltd. 2010. All Rights Reserved.
  • 24. Mobile Web Standards Client-side scripting mainly through Javascript ECMAScript-MP or mobile JavaScript targets mobile phones WMLScript is a scripting language which complements WML. Copyright © Shujaa Solutions Ltd. 2010. All Rights Reserved.
  • 25. Mobile Web Standards Client-side scripting in mobile browsers used to be the exclusive domain of smartphones, but this is rapidly changing. Many mass-market mobile devices beginning to support mobile JavaScript. Copyright © Shujaa Solutions Ltd. 2010. All Rights Reserved.
  • 26. Mobile Web Standards As with any client-side mobile technology, testing JavaScript on actual mobile devices is critical for effective development Testing on emulators and in Firefox might not uncover syntax problems and performance issues that can occur on the target mobile device. Copyright © Shujaa Solutions Ltd. 2010. All Rights Reserved.
  • 27. Mobile Web Standards Mobile and desktop JavaScript have virtually identical syntax. The mobile version is stringent about ending lines with semicolons. Copyright © Shujaa Solutions Ltd. 2010. All Rights Reserved.
  • 28. Mobile Web Standards Mobile JavaScript reduces the supported character sets and excludes computationally intensive language elements. It differs from its desktop counterpart in the extent of its DOM and event support in the mobile browser. Copyright © Shujaa Solutions Ltd. 2010. All Rights Reserved.
  • 29. Mobile Web Standards DOM and event support can vary from one browser vendor and version to another. On-device testing is critical for success with mobile JavaScript. Copyright © Shujaa Solutions Ltd. 2010. All Rights Reserved.
  • 30. Mobile Web Standards You can use device awareness and content adaptation techniques that enable conditional inclusion of scripting to target only mobile browsers with support for JavaScript. Copyright © Shujaa Solutions Ltd. 2010. All Rights Reserved.
  • 31. MIME TypesCopyright © Shujaa Solutions Ltd. 2010. All Rights Reserved.
  • 32. Mobile Web Standards Mobile MIME types (or content types) identify the format of Mobile Web content. Formats are differentiated by web servers and browser clients in an HTTP transaction using MIME types Copyright © Shujaa Solutions Ltd. 2010. All Rights Reserved.
  • 33. Mobile Web Standards Text documents containing mobile markup Binary files include viewable or playable content like ringtones, wallpaper and videos, and binary executable mobile applications Copyright © Shujaa Solutions Ltd. 2010. All Rights Reserved.
  • 34. Standardization Bodies Copyright © Shujaa Solutions Ltd. 2010. All Rights Reserved.
  • 35. Mobile Web Standards Mobile Industry Groups and Standards Bodies adherence to Mobile Web industry standards and best practices is important for flexible and cross- platform development. Several Internet and mobile industry bodies govern Mobile Web standards and recommended best practices Copyright © Shujaa Solutions Ltd. 2010. All Rights Reserved.
  • 36. Mobile Web Standards W3C: This body standardizes mobile markup languages and publishes best practices documents for Mobile Web development and testing. Copyright © Shujaa Solutions Ltd. 2010. All Rights Reserved.
  • 37. Mobile Web Standards Open Mobile Alliance (formerly WAP Forum): This body standardizes mobile markup and style languages and other mobile technologies designed to be interoperable across devices, geographies, and mobile networks. Copyright © Shujaa Solutions Ltd. 2010. All Rights Reserved.
  • 38. Mobile Web Standards dotMobi (http://mtld.mobi): This body controls the .mobi top-level domain, the content of which must be device-adaptive and compatible with mobile devices. This body also publishes best practices for Mobile Web development and nurtures mobile developers, marketers, and operators with online Copyright © Shujaa Solutions Ltd. 2010. All communities. Rights Reserved.
  • 39. Mobile Web Standards Mobile Marketing Association: This body centralizes technology recommendations and best practices for marketing and advertising on mobile devices. Copyright © Shujaa Solutions Ltd. 2010. All Rights Reserved.
  • 40. Mobile Web Standards Open Mobile Terminal Platform (OMTP) (www.omtp.org/): This operator-sponsored mobile industry group standardizing mobile device access from Web applications. Copyright © Shujaa Solutions Ltd. 2010. All Rights Reserved.