Conflict and negotiation
• Everybody negotiates. Some people like
it, others hate it but all agree that the ability
to neg...
Conflict and negotiation
• Conflict is a process that begins when one
party perceives that another party has
negatively af...
Transitions in conflict thought
• Traditional view – the belief that all conflict is
harmful and must be avoided.
• Human ...
Task Interdependence
• Pooled interdependence
• Sequential interdependence
• Reciprocal interdependence
Types of conflict
• Functional conflict – conflict that supports the goals of
the group and improves its performance.
• Dy...
Conflicts happen because of -
• Personality clash
• Gender clash
• Customer needs
• Biased treatment
• Changed / new hiera...
Conflict process
• Stage 1 – potential opposition or
incompatibility
• Conditions – communication, structure and
personal ...
• Stage 3 – intentions – decisions to act in a
given way.
• Primary conflict handling intentions are –
Competing
Collabora...
• Stage 4 – Behavior
• Party’s behavior / others reaction
• Stage 5 – outcomes
• Increased group performance / decreased
g...
Conflict mgmt techniques
• Problem solving
• Super ordinate goals
• Expansion of resources
• Avoidance
• Smoothing
• Compr...
• Conflict Manager must –
• Create a win – win situation
• Find opportunity in adversity
• Defuse the situation immediately
Conflicts happen because of -
• Personality clash
• Gender clash
• Customer needs
• Biased treatment
• Changed hierarchy
•...
Avoidance styles
• Resignation
• Withdrawal
• Defusion – buy time for dealing with a conflict
• Appeasement – the main obj...
• A conflict manager has to –
• Create win-win situation
• Find opportunity in adversity
• Defuse situation immediately
To solve conflicts
• Game theory – use mathematical models to
predict the outcome of negotiation situations.
• Win – win a...
Negotiation
• A process in which two or more parties exchange
goods or services and attempt to agree on the
exchange rate ...
• Integrative bargaining – negotiation that seeks
one or more settlements that can create a win
– win solution.
• Compromi...
Negotiation process
• Preparation & Planning – BATNA – the best
alternative to a negotiated agreement, the
lowest acceptab...
Issues in negotiation
• Role of mood
• Role of personality
• Gender differences
• Cultural differences
III party negotiations
• Mediator – a neutral third party who facilitates a
negotiated solution by using
reasoning, persua...
• Consultant – an impartial III party skilled in
conflict mgmt who attempts to facilitate
creative problem solving through...
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Conflict and negotiation

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Conflict and negotiation

  1. 1. Conflict and negotiation • Everybody negotiates. Some people like it, others hate it but all agree that the ability to negotiate well is a valuable business skill and therefore it’s something worth doing well. • As the Al Capone character in The Untouchables said “You get more with a kind word…and a gun, than you do with just a kind word.
  2. 2. Conflict and negotiation • Conflict is a process that begins when one party perceives that another party has negatively affected, or is about to negatively affect, something that the first party cares about. Eg – incompatibility of goals, differences over interpretations of facts, disagreements based on behavioral expectations.
  3. 3. Transitions in conflict thought • Traditional view – the belief that all conflict is harmful and must be avoided. • Human relations view of conflict – The belief that conflict is a natural and inevitable outcome in any group. • Interactionist view – The belief that conflict is not only a positive force in a group but that it is also an absolute necessity for a group to perform effectively.
  4. 4. Task Interdependence • Pooled interdependence • Sequential interdependence • Reciprocal interdependence
  5. 5. Types of conflict • Functional conflict – conflict that supports the goals of the group and improves its performance. • Dysfunctional conflict – conflict that hinders group performance. • Task conflict – conflicts over content and goals of the work (3 types – pooled interdependence, sequential interdependence, reciprocal interdependence) • Relationship conflict – conflict based on interpersonal relationships. • Process conflict – conflict over how work gets done.
  6. 6. Conflicts happen because of - • Personality clash • Gender clash • Customer needs • Biased treatment • Changed / new hierarchy • Superiors • Cross cultural difference
  7. 7. Conflict process • Stage 1 – potential opposition or incompatibility • Conditions – communication, structure and personal variables • Stage 2 – cognition and personalization • Experience perceived conflict (awareness of conditions that create conflicts) and felt conflict (emotional involvement which creates anxiety, tenseness, frustration and hostility)
  8. 8. • Stage 3 – intentions – decisions to act in a given way. • Primary conflict handling intentions are – Competing Collaborating Avoiding Accommodating compromising
  9. 9. • Stage 4 – Behavior • Party’s behavior / others reaction • Stage 5 – outcomes • Increased group performance / decreased group performance.
  10. 10. Conflict mgmt techniques • Problem solving • Super ordinate goals • Expansion of resources • Avoidance • Smoothing • Compromise • Authoritative command • Altering the human variable • Altering the structural variables
  11. 11. • Conflict Manager must – • Create a win – win situation • Find opportunity in adversity • Defuse the situation immediately
  12. 12. Conflicts happen because of - • Personality clash • Gender clash • Customer needs • Biased treatment • Changed hierarchy • Superiors • Cross cultural differences
  13. 13. Avoidance styles • Resignation • Withdrawal • Defusion – buy time for dealing with a conflict • Appeasement – the main objective is to buy temporary peace.
  14. 14. • A conflict manager has to – • Create win-win situation • Find opportunity in adversity • Defuse situation immediately
  15. 15. To solve conflicts • Game theory – use mathematical models to predict the outcome of negotiation situations. • Win – win approach – PRAM model of negotiations ie Plans – Relationships - Agreement - Maintenance
  16. 16. Negotiation • A process in which two or more parties exchange goods or services and attempt to agree on the exchange rate for them. • Distributive bargaining – negotiation that seeks to divide up a fixed amount of resources; a win – lose situation. • The essence of distributive bargaining is negotiating over who gets what share of a fixed pie. Fixed pie is the belief that there is only a set amount of goods or services to be divided up between the parties. • Less obvious eg of distributive bargaining is good cop – bad cop routine.
  17. 17. • Integrative bargaining – negotiation that seeks one or more settlements that can create a win – win solution. • Compromising may be your worst enemy in negotiating a win – win agreement. This is because compromising reduces the pressure to bargain integratively.
  18. 18. Negotiation process • Preparation & Planning – BATNA – the best alternative to a negotiated agreement, the lowest acceptable value to an individual for a negotiated agreement. • Definition of ground rules • Clarification and justification • Bargaining and problem solving • Closure and implementation
  19. 19. Issues in negotiation • Role of mood • Role of personality • Gender differences • Cultural differences
  20. 20. III party negotiations • Mediator – a neutral third party who facilitates a negotiated solution by using reasoning, persuasion, and suggestions for alternatives. • Arbitrator – a third party who has the authority to dictate an agreement • ( mediation & arbitration are two popular forms of alternative dispute resolution) • Conciliator – a trusted III party who provides an informal communication link between the two parties.
  21. 21. • Consultant – an impartial III party skilled in conflict mgmt who attempts to facilitate creative problem solving through communication and analysis.

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