Communication Communication is defined as the process by which peopleseek to share meaning via the transmission of symbolicMessages.
Communication It involves, people and that understanding communication so, involves trying to understand how people relate to each other. Shared meaning which suggests that in order for people to communicate, they must agree on the definitions of terms they are using. Symbols- gestures, sounds,letters,numbers, and words can only represent or approximate the ideas that they are meant to communicate.
Importance of effectivecommunication Communication provides a common thread for the management processes of planning, organizing, leading and controlling. Manager develop plans by doing communication with others at organization He can make decision about distributing authority & responsibility. He becomes able to develop motivational policies, groups, leadership by regular exchange of information.
Continued… Effective communication skills enable managers to draw on vast array of talents available in multicultural world of organization. Managers do spend a great deal of time in communicating with others. Managerial time is spent largely in face to face or telephonic communication with employees,supervisors, suppliers or customers. Even when not talking with others manager may be writing memos, letters or reports or reading such communication letters.
Case of hallmark World‟s largest Greeting card company. In 1991, company confronted a situation, it was taking 18 to 20 months for a card to go from concept to store, when it should have been taking only 4 to 6 months. At that time company‟s CEO noted that main problem is communication between two departments. Employee such as artists & writers worked in different department rarely communicate with each other. At that time they decided to enable employees to communicate with one another. Employees were relocated within the buildings so that they can communicate & share ideas during the creative process.
MODEL OF COMMUNICATION PROCESSsender encoding channel decoding receiver FEEDBACK
Model of communication process Sender:- Sender or source who initiates the communication process. In organization, the sender is a person with information or need. Receiver:- Receiver is the person who perceives or senses the sender‟s message. There may be a large number of receiver as when a memo is addressed to all members of organization or there just may be one. For ex. One discussing privately with colleague.
Model of communication process The message must be crafted by keeping in mind the background of receiver. If message does not reach the receiver communication has not taken place & if message reaches the receiver but receiver doesn‟t understand it. Three factors that can influence effective or non-effective communication are encoding, decoding & Noise.
Model of communication process Encoding:- Encoding takes place when the sender translates information to be transmitted into series of symbols. Communication is object of encoding, the sender attempts to establish “mutuality” of meaning with the receiver by choosing symbols, usually in the form words and gestures that the sender believes to have same meaning for receiver. Decoding:- Decoding is the process by which receiver interprets the message and translates it into meaningful information.
Model of communication process Decoding is affected by the receiver‟s past experience, personal assessments of symbols and gestures used, expectations and mutuality of meaning with the sender. Noise:- It is any factor that disturbs, confuses or otherwise interferes with communication. It can arise along with communication channel or method of transmission. It can be internal or external. Physical discomfort such as hunger, pain can also be considered a form of noise and can interfere with effective communication.
Improving communication process Differing Perceptions:- This is one of the most common communication barriers. People who have different background of knowledge and experience often perceive the same phenomenon from different perspectives. Language differences are often closely related to differences in individual perceptions. Perceptual differences can arise due to gender differences.
Improving communication processOvercoming Differing Perceptions:- To overcome differing perceptions and languages, the message should be explained so that it can be understand by receivers with different views and experiences. Whenever possible, we should learn about background of those with whom we will be communicating. It is helpful to ask the receiver to confirm or restate the main points of the message. Receiver can be encouraged to ask questions and to seek clarification of points that are uncleared.
Improving communication process It is also helpful to remain sensitive to the various alternative ways of phrasing message. If possible, try to change physical environment to promote relationship in which different perceptions are available for all to see and work through. Emotional Reactions:- Like anger, love, hate, jealousy, fear influence how we understand others message and how we influence others with our own messages. The best approach to dealing with emotions is to accept them as part of the communication process and to seek to understand them when they cause problems.
Improving communication process Inconsistent Verbal and non-verbal communication:- Messages we send and receive are strongly influenced by non- verbal factors such as body movements, clothing, gestures, facial expressions, eye movements and body contact. The keys to eliminating inconsistencies in communication are being aware of them and guarding against sending false messages.
Improving communication process Distrust:- A receiver‟s trust or distrust of a message is a function of credibility of the sender in the mind of the receiver. A sender‟s credibility is affected by circumstances in the context in which he or she sends the message. Credibility is the result of long term process in which a person „s honesty, fair-mindedness and good intentions are recognized by others.
Factors influencing OrganizationalCommunication According to Nobel prize winner “Herbert Simon” organizations are necessary to help people to communicate. Raymond V. Lesikar has described 4 factors that influencing the effectiveness of organizational communication.A. Formal Channel of Communication:- Formal channel of communication is a mean of communication that is endorsed and probably controlled by managers. Newsletters, memos, reports, staff meetings, noon news, Directions publications are all formal channel of communication.
Factors influencing Organizational Communication Fcc influence communication effectiveness in two ways. First, Formal channel cover ever-widening distance as organizations develop and grow. Second, Formal channel of communication can inhibit the free flow of information between organizational levels. Example, Lantech Inc., a $50 million manufacturer of packaging machinery, a “group leader report” serves as a formal channel of comm. Each report is prepared by the company‟s top 6 managers, hepls to promote effective internal communication by offering a complete picture of company‟s morale and climate.
Factors influencing Organizational CommunicationB. Authority Structure:- Hierarchy of control within an organization. Status and power differences in organization helps to determine who will communicate comfortably with whom. The content and accuracy of communication will also be affected by authority differences. For ex. Conversation between a company president and a clerical worker may well be characterized by politeness and formality.
Factors influencing Organizational CommunicationC. Job Specialization:- It usually facilitates communication within differentiated groups. Members of the same work group are likely to share the same jargon, time horizons, goals, tasks and personal styles.D. Information ownership:- It means that individuals possess unique information and knowledge about their jobs. For example, a darkroom employee may have found a particularly efficient way to develop photo prints.
Factors influencing Organizational Communication A department head may have an effective way of handling conflict among employees. Such information is a form of power for the individuals who possess it. They are able to function more effectively than their peers. Many individuals with such skills and knowledge are unwilling to share this information with others. So, complete open communication within the organization does not take place.
VERTICAL COMMUNICATION Any communication that moves up or down the chain of command. Downward communication starts with top management and flows down through management levels to line workers and nonsupervisory personnel. Purposes of downward communication are to advise, inform, direct, instruct and evaluate employees and to provide organization members about goals and policies of organization. Main function of upward communication is to supply information to upper levels about what is happening at lower level. For ex., reports, request letter, suggestions.
PROBLEMS OF VERTICAL COMMUNICATION Upward communication is likely to be filtered, condensed or altered by middle managers who see it as part of their job to protect upper management from nonessential data originating at lower levels. Problems in downward communication exist when managers do not provide employees with information they need to carry out their task effectively. Due to this kind of lack of communication , sometimes employees feel confused, uninformed, powerless and may fail to carry out task properly.
LATERAL COMMUNICATIONCommunication between departments of an organization that generally follows the work flow rather than the chain of command and thus provides a direct channel for coordination and problem solving.It enables organization members to form relationships with their peers.
Informal communication Communication within an organization that is not officially sanctioned. This type of communication is called Grapevine. Basically of 4 types.1. Single-strand: Person A tells person B, who tells it to person C and so on. This chain is least accurate at passing on information.2. Gossip Chain: In this, one person seeks out and tells everyone the information he or she had. When information is interesting but non-job related this kind is used.
Informal communication3. Probability Chain: Individuals are indifferent about whom they offer information to. They tell people at random and those people in turn tell others at random.4. Cluster Chain: person A conveys the information to a few selected individuals, some of whom then inform a few selected others. It is the most dominant grapevine pattern in organization . Only few individuals pass on information they have obtained and they likely to do so only to people they trust or from whom they would like favors.
Negotiating to manage conflicts CONFLICT Disagreement about the allocation of scarce resources or clashes regarding goals, values can occur on the interpersonal or organizational levels. NEGOTIATION The use of communication skills and bargaining to manage conflict and reach mutually satisfying outcomes.
STABILITY OF NEGOTIANTIONSOUTCOMES Integrative process It is a process in which the prospects for both parties‟ gains are encouraging also known as WIN-WIN situation. Distributive process It is a process in which each of the parties tends to seek maximum gains and wants impose maximum loses on other, also known as WIN-LOSS situation or zero sum.