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Paper on Sustainable Architecture In India - MA Architecture , University of Liverpool , UK

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Sustainable architecture

  1. 1. University of LiverpoolDepartment of ArchitectureARCH421 – Current Themes in Sustainable DesignCheema , Shubh ShaganStudent ID -20084362425th May 2012 1
  2. 2. Indian ScenarioOne of the seventh largest country in the world, India is home to over one billion people. Withthe economic reforms of 1991, Indian economy has been growing at a steady pace leading torapid urbanization. In 2001, 68.7% of the total urban population was living in Class 1 cities(defined as cities having a population of over 1, 00,000) .1 80.7 million person or about onefourth of the country’s total urban population is poor therefore for a third world country,sustainability also taken on the issue of affordability.2 Green building and constructiontechniques need to be affordable by the masses to make the larger impact in a country likeIndia. One section of architectural community wants to combine modern building designs withvarious passive strategies and technologies that allow the use of local material and skill. Whilethe other section is looking at the international renowned LEED rating system as well as GRIHAwhich is designed by the Government of India on the lines of LEED . These two different aspectsof sustainability are coexisting in the Indian construction/design ecosystem. Both have differentperspective on the issue of sustainability. To give the complete picture of Indian sustainabilitylandscape one need to understand the perspective/drawback of the both directions.Scale of the issueWith the rapid urbanization, the number of buildings with huge energy consumption is on risein the country .Buildings are responsible for 33% of energy consumption in industrialized anddeveloping countries.3 As per 17th electrical power survey (EPS) of the central electricityauthority, the electricity demand is likely to increase by 39.7% in 2011-12 as compared to 2006-07, by another 43.7% in 2016-17 as compared to 2011-12 and by yet another 37.5% in 2021-22as compared to 2016-17. With nearly 8% rise in annual energy consumption in residential andcommercial sector ,building energy consumption has seen an increase from 14% in the 1970’sto nearly 33% in 2004 -05. 41 Govt of India, “Nation Urban Housing and habitat Policy”, 2007: 32 Govt of India, “Nation Urban Housing and habitat Policy”, 2007: 33 UNEP, TERI, “Sustainable Building and construction for India :Policies, Practice and performance” : 24 UNEP, TERI, “Sustainable Building and construction for India :Policies, Practice and performance” : 2 2
  3. 3. (Fig -1) Requirement vsAchievement of installed capacity (Fig-2) Energy scenario in India, 2009 (Fig -3) Demand Growth up to 2030 3
  4. 4. In 2010 India’s total installed energy capacity was approximately 160,000 MW while theprojected capacity in 2030 is 800,000 MW which means additional 600 MW capacity eachweek. Peak power deficit in year 2006-07 was 16.6% and the energy deficit was 9.9%. 1 (Fig-1)(Fig-2) shows the sector wise energy consumption breakup in India emphasizing theconsumption by the industry with respect to others . According to Mckinsey report on India’sapproach to sustainability, they predict the rise in residential and commercial market which willadd strain to energy consumption scenario (Fig-3) .2 India will have to accomplish twinobjectives of sustainable development and inclusive growth .Next few years will be challengingin this respect and the outcome will be determined by the choices made by India.Green Building rating system in IndiaThere are currently two rating system being used which is LEED (Leadership in energy andenvironmental design) and the other one is GRIHA (Green Rating for Integrated HabitatAssessment).LEED (Leadership in energy and environmental design)LEED is most widely used rating system in North America and was developed and managed byUSGBC (US Green Building Council). Buildings are given rating of Platinum, Gold, and Silver orcertified based on various benchmarks set by the rating system. In 2001, CII (Confederation ofIndian Industry) and a private manufacturer Goodrej founded IGBC (Indian Green Buildingcouncil), India’s version of LEED, which was based on the similar guidelines as US based LEEDbut with few changes with regard to Indian construction scenario. According to researchconducted by IGBC on the executed projects in India, green buildings can be constructed withan incremental cost of 1-6% and there is no much cost difference between a normal buildingsand a green building.31 USAID INDIA,ECO III , BEE ,”International building energy efficiency and ZEB Conference” , Beijing, China (March 31st , 2010) :52 McKinsey & Company ,”Environmental and energy sustainability :An Approach for India” : 63 S Srinivas , “Green Buildings – Benefit and impact “ ,Proceedings of International Conference on Energy and Environment(March 19-21) :1 4
  5. 5. LEED-INDIA promotes a whole-building approach to sustainability by recognizing performancein the following five key areas:1 Sustainable site development Water savings Energy efficiency Materials selection and Indoor environmental qualityAccording to the data on their website there are around 1,640 registered buildings and 249certified buildings that accounts to around 1.16 billion Sq ft Green Building footprint.2GRIHA – Green Rating for Integrated Habitat AssessmentGRIHA is developed by TERI (The energy and resources Institute) for the ministry of new andRenewable energy. This is the indigenous national rating system developed by the ministry tocover the climatic variations, architectural practices, existing practices of construction andattempting to revive the passive architecture. GRIHA rating system takes into account theprovisions of the National Building Codes 2005 , The energy conservation Building Code 2007 3announced by BEE and other IS codes. The rating system based on accepted energy andenvironmental principles, seeks to strike a balance between the established practices andemerging concepts, both national and international.41 Indian Green Building Council , online accessed , May 22 ,20122 Indian Green Building Council , online accessed , May 22,20123 TERI ,UNEP , “Background paper for Sustainable Buildings and Construction for India: Policies, Practices andPerformance” , TERI Green Building scenario , Pg 74 TERI , GRIHA Manual Vol 1 , Ministry of New and renewable energy , Govt of India , Pg - 118 5
  6. 6. GRIHA is a Sanskrit word meaning ‘Abode’. GRIHA promotes passive techniques to reduceenergy cost while keeping the optimum thermal comfort inside the build environment. Theyencourage non energy demanding air conditioning systems and the solar heating systems.Passive cooling and heating can be replicated for the masses and can reduce the energy load ofthe country.GRIHA is also focusing on the growing residential sector by providing simple, affordable andversatile approach to the citizens through their website, which is instrumental in creatingawareness among citizens as well as giving them an alternative viewpoint. GRIHA is alsofocusing on promoting energy efficiency in existing buildings in urban areas which will in returnreduce energy demand.Over 120 projects across India of varying scale and function are being built based on GRIHAguidelines. The centre for environmental sciences and engineering, IIT, Kanpur (2009) andSuzlon ‘one earth’ office complex (2010), Pune have been certified GRIHA 5 stars .1With construction industry growing at the rate of 9.5% as compared to the global average of5%, India will have to look at these alternative methods of construction and government as wellas private sector will have to work hand in hand to promote green sustainable buildingconstruction techniques. Growth in construction sector is also related to the economic growthof the country, so it will be challenging for India, to keep the pace of the growth while keepingthese sustainable issues to its core. These rating systems clearly show the concern and theresolve of the government to take note of various issues related to sustainable development.LEED rating and GRIHA are very recent phenomenon derived by global push towardssustainability but the architects have always been concerned only that the terminology havechanged to adapt to the new age marketing jargons.1 GRIHA ,, online , Accessed , May 20 , 2012 6
  7. 7. Auroville experimentSustainability is not just limited to green buildings but also encompasses making our cities more‘livable’, more ‘sustainable’, more ‘Greener’. Modern Indian cities are struggling with thesemetaphors; they have lost the age old techniques, the wisdom while in sudden urge to catch upwith the world. Auroville a city near Pondicherry, South India is such an experiment .Aurovillean ‘international city of future’ inspired by the ideas of Sri Aurobindo and the Mother. It was setup in 1968. Auroville’s mission is “to be a universal town where men and women of allcountries are able to live in peace and progress harmony above all creeds, all politics and all 1nationalities. The purpose of Auroville is realizing human unity. The residents are activelyexperimenting and innovating in shaping the city. The citizens have regenerated the wholeenvironment from the barren land into a lush green landscape with indigenous varieties oftrees and plants. Over 2 million trees have been planted to stabilize and re fertilize the soil,canyons have been dammed and hundreds of fields bunded to prevent runoff. 2 The communityhave focused on conservation, reforestation, sustainable agriculture and was instrumental inpromoting renewal energy and appropriate building technologies. Auroville got a distinctarchitecture with houses built by compressed mud bricks or recyclable materials. Most of thehouses are using solar energy in conjunction with grid connection. The community kitchenwhich provides food for more than 1000 people runs on steam which is generated by solarconcentrator , which focus the sun’s rays on cylinders which is monitored by computerizedtracking devices. A 37 KW solar plant consisting of 484 PV panel of 75 W each provides lightingand can store 2 days worth of energy.3Auroville is melting pot for various sustainable building ideas focusing on passive energies.According to the Auroville philosophy “Our Mother earth gives us a wonderful buildingmaterial, which should be used with awareness, sensitivity and with much respect andgratitude.” 41 Rakesh Kapoor , “Auroville : A Spirtual –Social experiment in Human Unity and Evolution” , Futures 39 (2007): 6322 Rakesh Kapoor , “Auroville : A Spirtual –Social experiment in Human Unity and Evolution” , Futures 39 (2007): 6343 Rakesh Kapoor , “Auroville : A Spirtual –Social experiment in Human Unity and Evolution” , Futures 39 (2007): 6354 Auroville , , online , May 20 , 2012 7
  8. 8. Auroville Earth InstitueAuroville is house to ‘Earth Architecture Institute ‘, which was previously named AurovilleBuilding centre/earth unit. The earth unit came into existence in 1989 and was the initiative ofHUDCO (Housing and Urban Development Program), Government of India .The earth institute isresearching, and developing, promoting and transferring earth based technologies, which arecost and energy efficient. The Auroville Earth Institute is the representative for Asia of the 1UNESCO Chair "Earthen Architecture, Constructive Cultures and Sustainable Development”.According to the statistics from UNCHS 40% of the world population lives in earthen dwellingsand 25% of the world population does not have access to decent housing. 2 The main objectivesof the institute is to how to built large scale projects with earth and how to realize architecturefull of light , suppleness , simplicity, imagination and beauty with a heavy and formless mud. 3In the research being done by Auroville earth institute, raw earth is being used as the mainbuilding material. The focus is on minimizing the use of steel, cement and reinforced cementconcrete (RCC) and to use local material like raw earth which will be energy saving, eco-friendlyand sustainable. Compressed Stabilized Earth Blocks (CSEB) is the most being developed bymost advanced technology, for which the machinery is also made in Auroville which is calledAuram press 3000 .Most of the technologies developed are mastered and the present research is focused onalternative stabilizers to cement and alternative waterproofing with stabilized earth, composedof soil, sand, cement, lime, alum and tannin.4To promote the technology and to create awareness among people, earth institute also holdsvarious diplomas for the architects/engineers, masons. Various week long programs are heldfive to eight times in a year for working professional or anybody who is interested in the mudarchitecture.1 Wikipedia , online accessed 20 May , 2012, Auroville earth Institute,online , Accessed 20 May 2012 , Auroville earth Institute, online, Accessed 20 May 2012 Auroville earth Institute, online, Accessed 20 May 2012 8
  9. 9. Earth TechnologiesTechnologies which are being currently used are (Data from their website):1• Stabilized rammed earth foundations with 5 % cement• Stabilized rammed earth walls with 5 % cement, rammed manually• Composite plinth – step plinth with CSEB, plinth beam with reinforced concrete cast in Ushaped CSEB• Composite columns – Round hollow CSEB with reinforced cement concrete• Composite beams and lintels – U shaped CSEB with reinforced cement concrete• Wide variety of compressed stabilized earth blocks (17 moulds are presently available forproducing about 75 different types of blocks)• Various vaults with compressed stabilized earth blocks• Stabilized earth mortars and plastersThe following technologies are still under research (Data from their website) 2• Composite blocks (earth, fibers and stabilizer)• Alternative stabilizers to cement (“homeopathic” milk of lime and alum)• Alternative water proofing with stabilized earth (soil, sand, cement, lime, alum and tanninfrom the juice of a seed)Compressed stabilized earth blocks (CSEB) is being used for most of the projects in Auroville.Stabilized rammed earth is also used extensively for foundations and to a lesser extent forwalls. The initial embodied energy of CSEB is about 4 times less than country fired bricks. Ofcourse the carbon emission is also about 4 times less for the CSEB, compared to the countryfired bricks.31 “Auroville earth Institute”, online, Accessed 20 May 2012 “Auroville earth Institute”, online, Accessed 20 May 2012 “Auroville earth Institute”, online, Accessed 20 May 2012 9
  10. 10. Advantages of CSEB to the local country fired Brick: 1• Walls made of CSEB and stabilized rammed earth is always cheaper than fired bricks.• The initial embodied energy of CSEB produced on site with 5 % cement is ~ 4 times less thanthe local country fired bricks.• The strength of these blocks is most of the time higher than the local country fired bricks.Vaulted StructuresAt Auroville earth institute they are trying to revive Arches, Vaults and Domes (AVD) by creatingawareness about the possibilities of such roofing. The Research and development seeks toincrease the span of the roof, decrease its thickness, and create new shapes. Arches, Vaults andDomes are usually built with compressed stabilized earth blocks, which are laid in “freespanning” mode, without using a formwork.2The institute has inherited the ideas of the Nubian techniques and are further developing theseto develop other types of vaults, such cloister and groined domes, and has evolved towards theFree Spanning technique. The free spanning technique is an ongoing development of theNubian technique that the Auroville earth Institute is working on since a few years. It allowscourses to be laid horizontally. 3Advantages of earth as a building material: 4• The earth is a local material, contributing to sustainable development.• The production of the building components demands a lot of semi-skilled manpower.• The technology is easily adaptable and transferable.• The monetary and environmental costs are much lower than that of most other materials.• The thermal comfort and quality of space are in general better than conventional materials.1 “Auroville earth Institute”, online, Accessed 20 May 2012 “Auroville earth Institute”, online, Accessed 20 May 2012 “Auroville earth Institute”, online, Accessed 20 May 2012 “Auroville earth Institute”, online, Accessed 20 May 2012 10
  11. 11. Project – Hamsa Moily’s House , RT Nagar , Bengaluru , IndiaArchitects – BIOME ENVIRONMENTAL PVT LTDSite Area – 140 SqmBuilding Area – 172 SqmHeight of the Building – 10.37 mBiome is one of the architectural practices that have taken the challenge of building distinctive,environmentally and socially conscious buildings through Mud architecture. These buildings arebeing built for the urban environment testing the usability for an urban citizen. They are usingbuilding materials like compressed stabilized earth blocks (CSEB) or stabilized Mud blocks(SMB). Architect chitra vishwananth has executed various projects – residential, institutionaland resorts guided by sustainable principles. Biome has also founded ‘Rainwater club’ whichprovides services related to water management and rainwater harvesting, ecologicalwastewater treatment and sanitation practices. 1Biome’s architecture speaks of honesty wherethe architect is striving to create a humane space with natural environment while notcompromising on the comfort and aesthetics. The buildings done by Biome are not onlysustainable but are also economical with the sensible use of local material and also from designsolutions developed for maximum efficiency in energy, water and other natural resources.2Masonry is done by SMB (Stabilized Mud Blocks) or walls made of Rammed earth, cob andwattle and daub are some of the techniques used to make these buildings. Since these bricksare manufactured manually on the site with local soil with a maximum of 6% cement contentand are not burned in order to use, they are much cheaper than the conventional bricks. Fillerslabs and arched panels decrease the dependence on steel and reduce the volume of concreteneeded for a floor slab. 3 Battling social and ideological barriers, educating client and society ,setting an example and making these ideas observable , are all at the foundation of the Biome’sapproach and method.41 Varun Thautam , Priya Joseph : “ Three Houses and a Studiolo “ , Domus India , Vol 01, Issue 05 (March2012):342 Thautam, Joseph ,”Three Houses and a Studiolo” : 343 Thautam, Joseph ,”Three Houses and a Studiolo” : 344 Thautam, Joseph ,”Three Houses and a Studiolo” : 34 11
  12. 12. Since lot of people are not convinced of the durability , strength and performance of the mudbuildings , Biome’s projects stand as testimonial and give a affirmation that mud architecture isnot only for standalone like ‘Auroville’ but it can also be applied in urban and sub-urbanenvironments.This project is completed in 2010 in the city of Bengaluru. Hamsa’s house is located in the urbanlocality in the middle of the concrete jungle. The house can be read as a mud box withfenestrations. The walls are made of rammed earth and are exposed in the interiors as wellexterior. The walls are used in volumetric proportions which gives a contemporary language tothe age old material. The fenestrations are strategically located to avoid urban chaos around.The elevation is the play between exposed concrete bands, mud walls and wood parapets. Thesame vocabulary is transferred to the exterior boundary of the house. The fenestrations makean interesting play in the otherwise plain elevation. The focus of the building is on simplicityand truthfulness to the materials and design intent. Main concrete staircase runs through thehouse in the side elevation, making interesting visual pattern. Interior have been left bare inaccordance to the exterior. The interior of the house has no plaster or paint and works withmezzanines to use the volume available to the maximum. The whole house seems like asymphony between concrete and mud. 12
  13. 13. (Fig-1) Exterior Façade of the house(Fig-2) Front Elevation of the house 13
  14. 14. Case study -2Suzlon Earth oneArchitect – Christopher Charles BennigerOne Earth is the corporate headquarters office for Suzlon in pune, India. The project in keepingwith the spirit of the parent company, attempts to showcase itself as a building project with theminimum impact on the environment.1 The total site is 45392 Sqm and the total buildup area is70865 Sqm which consists of museum of wind energy and an advanced learning centre. Anauditorium, cafes, central kitchen and meeting halls support this facility, which has basementparking for eight hundred vehicles.2 The project is a GRIHA registered green building certified.There are various salient features that enable to become a certified green building, whichinclude passive design strategies to ensure thermal comfort in the built environment. Toachieve this minimum technological interventions are done in the built environment. Theorientations of the blocks such as to allow day lighting while controlling extra glare and thusmaintaining the inner temperatures. Most of the blocks face north, south, North West andsouth east. Louvers have been used on the facades to reduce direct solar radiation whichbecome the strong visual element for the whole building (Fig-2). Various extrusions on theupper floors are instrumental in shading the lower floors and thus a massing vocabularyemerges out of these extrusions and also the whole building is partly shaded to keep out thestrong Indian sun. The buildings are low rise and clustered around the Japanese garden, giving itserene environment (Fig-1). Interesting breakout spaces in the form of small terraces havebeen interspersed all over the office block. The project has created a distinct massingvocabulary with its shading, open terraces and clustering. The Japanese garden have a CentralStumb ( Pole) around which whole campus revolves (Fig-4). It is also symbolic of the central axisin Indian Philosophy. The roofing is also symbolic of architecture in that region. The complexaimed at creating a ‘office in Garden’ concept rather than monotonous glass box office. 31 Griha Manual, Vol 1 , Case studies of Griha registered/Rated Projects : 49 , 502 Christopher Charles Benniger architects , online , May 19 , 20123 Suzlon, online, , May 19 , 2012 14
  15. 15. (Fig-1) Meandering facades(Fig-2) Terraces , Louvers and shades. 15
  16. 16. (Fig-3) Campus plan(Fig-4) Central stambh (Pole) around which the campus revolves 16
  17. 17. Other than the passive techniques used in the campus design various high efficient mechanicalsystem are also introduced to ensure low energy consumption. Task lights in the interiors areLED and are governed by motor sensors which turn off when people are not around their desk.This whole system reduces the lighting load to 0.8 W/Sqft. 1 High efficiency HVAC system alsominimize the energy consumption by the buildings. The HVAC system has various componentslike pre cooling of fresh air heat recovery/exchange mechanisms. 2 The complex have been ableto reduce its energy consumption by 47% and also fulfilled the GRIHA criterion for the greenbuilding.Renewable energy systems like Solar PV and windmills are installed around the campus whichgenerates around 250000 units of electricity annually. The campus has 18 windmills and 13.44 3kwp of Solar PV system with power capacity of 4.75 KW each. To reduce the waterconsumption the whole campus has low flow fixtures. The water consumption of the buildingsis reduced by 65% than conventional office buildings for sanitary purpose. Only native plants,shrubs and trees are used in the landscape design. Usage of high efficiency sprinkler and dripsystem reduce the landscape water consumption by 50% . Overall 55% of the water in thebuilding is recycled and reused within the complex which is major feat for an office complex. 4Various strategies in material usage in interior and structural system also reflect the intent ofthe building. By using post tension slab the architect was able to reduce concrete requirementin slabs and beams by 37% and the use of PT structural system has helped reduce therequirement of structural steel by almost 50%. 5 Usage of siporex blocks which use the wastematerial like fly ash and also make the building better insulated are some the sustainablefeatures of the project. Even the material used in the interior like paints, carpets and others hashigh recyclable content.1 Griha Manual, Vol 1 , Case studies of Griha registered/Rated Projects : 49 , 502 Griha Manual, Vol 1 , Case studies of Griha registered/Rated Projects : 49 , 503 Griha Manual, Vol 1 , Case studies of Griha registered/Rated Projects : 49 , 504 Griha Manual, Vol 1 , Case studies of Griha registered/Rated Projects : 49 , 505 Griha Manual, Vol 1 , Case studies of Griha registered/Rated Projects : 49 , 50 17
  18. 18. Case studyDruk White Lotus SchoolLadakh is located in the highest plateau region in the northern India in-between the Himalayanrange. It is also called ‘Little Tibet’. It is a remote area and sparsely populated. For good 8-7months it is covered by snow. The people of Ladakh are traditional Buddhist. This school is thebrainchild of His Holiness Gyalwang Drukpa, in service of the people of Ladakh. Arup is theambassador of the Drukpa trust and to support this endeavor sends an engineer or architectfrom the design team every year.The school is located in Shey (the ancient capital of Ladakh) .It is about 30 minutes drive fromthe main town of leh towards Indus valley. Ladakh have extreme weather which is hot insummers and very cold in winters and also the area is earth quake prone. The project started in1997 and the first phase which included a nursery and a infant courtyard was opened inSeptember 2001. Junior school was completed in 2005. Senior secondary school, which is thefinal phase of the project, will be completed by 2013. Arup have done the concept, master planand detail drawings of the each phase.1Arup’s design for the school combines sustainable local materials and traditional constructiontechniques with leading-edge environmental design. The school is designed as a model forsustainable development for the region. It will cater for 750 pupils from nursery age to 18years old.1 The material used in the construction is all locally available like Solid granite blocksare used for the outer wall. The stone come from the areas adjacent to the site. The inner wallsare made of Mud blocks. These walls have a cavity to increase the insulation and the durabilityof the building. The roof is of a traditional Ladakhi mud construction, including poplar andwillow from local monastery plantations, and provides good protection from the cold. 21“ Arup website”, online accessed May 18, 2012 ,“ Arup website”, online accessed May 18, 2012 , 18
  19. 19. The school is located at the high altitude of around 3,500m where the sun rays falls at the angleof 30 degree which is ideal for using it for use in solar energy. Also the classroom with their fullyglazed facades gathers sun’s energy and store in the high thermal mass wall. 1 Classrooms arealigned in south east orientation to gain maximum solar heat .Residences are facing south anduse trombe wall. The exterior of the walls are painted dark and heat absorbing material toabsorb maximum heat so that the dormitories can be warm in the night. 1 By supporting theheavy roof on a structure that is independent of the walls Arup’s design team made it sure thatthe school was built to the Indian Seismic code. 242 kWp photo-voltaic systems was installed in October 2008 providing reliable power to theschool .It uses an initial installation of 9 kWp of PV panels, which also act as external shadingdevices for three of the school buildings. 2 These PV installment was funded by Arup who usedthe project to offset their carbon footprint for 2007.Due to scarcity of water resources in Ladakh a system pump snow melt water from the depth ofabout 30 m to reservoirs near the top of the site. One reservoir provides drinking water undergravity feed to the school, while the other reservoir provides irrigation water.3To ensure the safety of the building in the wake of earth quake, all the building structure aretimbre frame and they are independent of the walls so that the structure can be more stable.1 ”Druk white lotus school”, , online accessed May 182“ Arup website”, , online accessed May 18, 20123” Druk white lotus school”, , online accessed May 18 19
  20. 20. (Fig -1) Exterior view(Fig- 2) Classroom 20
  21. 21. (Fig-3) Classroom(Fig-4) PV installation 21
  22. 22. (Fig-5) Interior courtyard view 22
  23. 23. BIBLIOGRAPHYGovt of India, “Nation Urban Housing and habitat Policy”, 2007: 3Kapoor , Rakesh: “Auroville : A Spirtual –Social experiment in Human Unity and Evolution” , Futures 39 (2007): 632-635McKinsey & Company ,”Environmental and energy sustainability :An Approach for India” : 6Srinivas , S: “Green Buildings – Benefit and impact “ ,Proceedings of International Conference on Energy andEnvironment (March 19-21) :1Thautam, Varun and Joseph ,Priya: “ Three Houses and a Studiolo “ , Domus India , Vol 01, Issue 05 (March 2012):33-39TERI ,UNEP , “Background paper for Sustainable Buildings and Construction for India: Policies, Practices andPerformance” , TERI Green Building scenario , Pg 7TERI, “GRIHA Manual Vol 1”, Ministry of New and renewable energy, Govt of India , 49-118USAID INDIA, ECO III, BEE,”International building energy efficiency and ZEB Conference”, Beijing, China (March 31st, 2010) :5“Auroville”, , online , May 20 , 2012“Auroville earth Institute”, online, Accessed 20 May 2012“Arup website”, , online accessed May 18,2012“Christopher Charles Benniger architects” , ,online , May 19 , 2012”Druk white lotus school”, , online accessed May 18, 2012“GRIHA “,, online , Accessed , May 20 , 2012“Indian Green Building Council”, online accessed , May 22,2012Suzlon, ,online, May 19 , 2012 23
  24. 24. LIST OF IMAGES 1. Requirement vs Achievement of installed capacity , USAID INDIA,ECO III , BEE ,”International building st energy efficiency and ZEB Conference” , Beijing, China (March 31 , 2010) :5 2. Energy scenario in India, 2009, , USAID INDIA,ECO III , BEE ,”International building energy efficiency and ZEB Conference” , Beijing, China (March 31st , 2010) :6 3. Demand Growth up to 2030 , USAID INDIA,ECO III , BEE ,”International building energy efficiency and ZEB Conference” , Beijing, China (March 31st , 2010) :8 4. , Online , Accessed , May 18 , 2012 5. , Online , Accessed , May 18 , 2012 6. Christopher Charles Benniger Architects , Online , Accessed , May 18 , 2012 7. Christopher Charles Benniger Architects , Online , Accessed , May 18 , 2012 8. World , Online , Accessed , May 18 , 2012 9. Christopher Charles Benniger Architects , Online , Accessed , May 18 , 2012 10. World Architecture .com , online , accessed May 18 , 2012 11. World Architecture .com , online , accessed May 18 , 2012 12. World Architecture .com , online , accessed May 18 , 2012 13. , Online , Accessed May 18 , 2012 , karpo-library-by-arup/ 14. , Online , Accessed May 18 , 2012 , karpo-library-by-arup/ 24
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