DAMAGE ASSESSMENT FOR PARTS OF
ANDAMAN AND NICOBAR ISLANDS
(CASE STUDY: 2004 TSUNAMI AND EARTHQUAKE EFFECT ON
ANDAMAN AND ...
Overview
• Causes of tsunami
• Impact on
1) Agricultural land
2) Infrastructure
3) Costal ecological resources
2
Tsunami (harbor wave)
Caused by processes that abruptly move large
volumes of ocean water:
• Earthquake
• submarine volcan...
How do EQ cause tsunami?
4
5
2004 Great Andaman Sumatra tsunami
wave propagation
6
Impact on Agricultural Land
• sea water ingression damaged the agricultural areas and
environment which resulted in salini...
Satellite images showing water inundated in settlement with agricultural land.
(Source: NRSA)
8
An Ariel view of tsunami inundation in Car Nicobar
Source: Paul, D. K. et al 2012
9
Impact on Infrastructure
• Most of the buildings in the islands of
Great Nicobar, Car Nicobar, and Little
Andaman were was...
Collapsed and submerged Jungali Ghat Jetty, Port Blair, Andaman
Island Source: Paul, D. K. et al
11
12
Image: (a) The lighthouse tower at Indira
Point in Great Nicobar Island before the 26
December earthquake. The tower is
su...
MES inspection bungalow on the east coast of Car
Nicobar Island, about 100 m from the shoreline
under high tide conditions...
Impact On Coastal Ecological
Resources
Coastal Ecological Resources
•Mangroves/Forest cover
•Coral Reefs
•Sandy Beaches
15
Post Tsunami Coastal Information
• Total coast line 1962 Km
• 115.36 Km coastal line damaged
• Coastal landuse damaged due...
Mangroves
17
Pre Tsunami Mangroves
18
Dried mangroves along the frontline of creeks
Post Tsunami Mangroves
19
Post Tsunami Mangroves
20
Pre and Post Tsunami Mangroves
Healthy Mangroves on 16th
Feb,
2001 (IRS-1C-LISSIII)
Dried Mangroves 11th
Feb,
2005 (IRS-1C...
Pre and Post Tsunami forest cover changes in Little Andaman (South eastern coast)
Source: NRSA
Pre and Post Tsunami Mangro...
Pre Tsunami and Post Tsunami
Forest Cover Change in Car
Nicobar
Source: NRSA
IRS-P6-LISSIII
dated 21st December 2004
IRS-P...
Forest Cover Changes In Great
Nicobar Island
Classified map from IRS-P6 LISSIII data
24
Coral Reefs
25
Pre Tsunami Coral Reefs
26
Pre and Post Tsunami Coral Reefs In
Car Nicobar
27
North Sentinel Island Coral Reefs
(Post Tsunami)
Source: NASA, 2009
28
Pre And Post Tsunami Satellite Images
Of Mahatma Gandhi Marine National
Park
Source: NRSA
29
North Reef Island (Post Tsunami)
Source: (Kayane et. al 2007)30
Sandy Beaches
31
Pre and Post Tsunami Photos of
Carbyn’s Cove
Photo by Srikant, Research fellow at CARI, Port Blair32
Pre And Post Tsunami View Of Sawai
Bay At Car Nicobar
Source: (Sharma amd Bajpai, 2011)33
Category
Area in
2003 (ha)
Area in
2005 (ha)
Changes in
the area
(2003-2005)
Percentage
Change
Coral Reef
Coral Reef
1381....
Conclusion
• After 18 months the salinity of the soil reduced, reaching the level
of pre-tsunami level
• Buildings in the ...
Refrences
• Datta, K. K. and De Jong, C., Adverse effect of water logging and soil salinity on
crop and land productivity ...
Thanks
37
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in...5
×

Tsunami damage assessment for parts of Andaman and Nicobar Island: 2004 Indian Ocean Tsunami

1,904

Published on

DAMAGE ASSESSMENT FOR PARTS OF ANDAMAN AND NICOBAR ISLANDS
(CASE STUDY: 2004 TSUNAMI AND EARTHQUAKE EFFECT ON ANDAMAN AND NICOBAR ISLANDS)

Published in: Education, Technology, Travel
0 Comments
0 Likes
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

No Downloads
Views
Total Views
1,904
On Slideshare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
1
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
0
Comments
0
Likes
0
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

Tsunami damage assessment for parts of Andaman and Nicobar Island: 2004 Indian Ocean Tsunami

  1. 1. DAMAGE ASSESSMENT FOR PARTS OF ANDAMAN AND NICOBAR ISLANDS (CASE STUDY: 2004 TSUNAMI AND EARTHQUAKE EFFECT ON ANDAMAN AND NICOBAR ISLANDS) ____________________________________________________ Presented by L. K. TiwariA Shubham GuptaA Instructor J.N. MalikA A Department of Civil Engineering Indian Institute of Technology (IIT), Kanpur 1
  2. 2. Overview • Causes of tsunami • Impact on 1) Agricultural land 2) Infrastructure 3) Costal ecological resources 2
  3. 3. Tsunami (harbor wave) Caused by processes that abruptly move large volumes of ocean water: • Earthquake • submarine volcanic eruption • coastal/submarine landslide or rock fall • extraterrestrial impact 3
  4. 4. How do EQ cause tsunami? 4
  5. 5. 5
  6. 6. 2004 Great Andaman Sumatra tsunami wave propagation 6
  7. 7. Impact on Agricultural Land • sea water ingression damaged the agricultural areas and environment which resulted in salinization of soil, which was mainly used for agricultural purpose. • Salted-over soil becomes sterile, and it is difficult and costly to restore for agriculture. • Caused the death of plants and important soil micro- organisms. Thousands of rice, mango and banana plantations were destroyed almost entirely and will take years to recover. 7
  8. 8. Satellite images showing water inundated in settlement with agricultural land. (Source: NRSA) 8
  9. 9. An Ariel view of tsunami inundation in Car Nicobar Source: Paul, D. K. et al 2012 9
  10. 10. Impact on Infrastructure • Most of the buildings in the islands of Great Nicobar, Car Nicobar, and Little Andaman were washed away by the strong waves. • Eastern Coast was completely destroyed; wave height there was 10- 15 m • There was an evidence of subsidence and uplift in eastern and western parts of the ANI • Structures with circular plan construction didn’t suffer any serious damage • Sea traffic was affected and ultimately it affected the relief operation as several jetties damaged and collapsed • Cause of damage to bridges was only the negligence of the proper earthquake zone construction guidelines 10
  11. 11. Collapsed and submerged Jungali Ghat Jetty, Port Blair, Andaman Island Source: Paul, D. K. et al 11
  12. 12. 12
  13. 13. Image: (a) The lighthouse tower at Indira Point in Great Nicobar Island before the 26 December earthquake. The tower is surrounded by lavish green grass; residences are at the base, and a sandy beach is in the foreground. (b) Flooding of the lighthouse base because of land subsidence. The submergence of 3 m was caused by the 26 December earthquake. (Source: Malik et al. 2006) (a) (b) 13
  14. 14. MES inspection bungalow on the east coast of Car Nicobar Island, about 100 m from the shoreline under high tide conditions. Earthquake-shaking related collapse of a stilt-plus- one storey house in reinforced concrete near Port Blair in Andaman & Nicobar Islands Collapse of a stilt plus one-storey house in reinforced concrete near Port Blair. (Source: Malik et al. 2006) 14
  15. 15. Impact On Coastal Ecological Resources Coastal Ecological Resources •Mangroves/Forest cover •Coral Reefs •Sandy Beaches 15
  16. 16. Post Tsunami Coastal Information • Total coast line 1962 Km • 115.36 Km coastal line damaged • Coastal landuse damaged due to Tsunami 16
  17. 17. Mangroves 17
  18. 18. Pre Tsunami Mangroves 18
  19. 19. Dried mangroves along the frontline of creeks Post Tsunami Mangroves 19
  20. 20. Post Tsunami Mangroves 20
  21. 21. Pre and Post Tsunami Mangroves Healthy Mangroves on 16th Feb, 2001 (IRS-1C-LISSIII) Dried Mangroves 11th Feb, 2005 (IRS-1C-LISSIII) Source: NRSA21
  22. 22. Pre and Post Tsunami forest cover changes in Little Andaman (South eastern coast) Source: NRSA Pre and Post Tsunami Mangroves IRS-P6-AWiFS, dated 21-12- 2004 IRS-P6-AWiFS, dated 18-1- 2005 22
  23. 23. Pre Tsunami and Post Tsunami Forest Cover Change in Car Nicobar Source: NRSA IRS-P6-LISSIII dated 21st December 2004 IRS-P6-LISSIII dated 16-2-2005 23
  24. 24. Forest Cover Changes In Great Nicobar Island Classified map from IRS-P6 LISSIII data 24
  25. 25. Coral Reefs 25
  26. 26. Pre Tsunami Coral Reefs 26
  27. 27. Pre and Post Tsunami Coral Reefs In Car Nicobar 27
  28. 28. North Sentinel Island Coral Reefs (Post Tsunami) Source: NASA, 2009 28
  29. 29. Pre And Post Tsunami Satellite Images Of Mahatma Gandhi Marine National Park Source: NRSA 29
  30. 30. North Reef Island (Post Tsunami) Source: (Kayane et. al 2007)30
  31. 31. Sandy Beaches 31
  32. 32. Pre and Post Tsunami Photos of Carbyn’s Cove Photo by Srikant, Research fellow at CARI, Port Blair32
  33. 33. Pre And Post Tsunami View Of Sawai Bay At Car Nicobar Source: (Sharma amd Bajpai, 2011)33
  34. 34. Category Area in 2003 (ha) Area in 2005 (ha) Changes in the area (2003-2005) Percentage Change Coral Reef Coral Reef 1381.00 190.97 -1190.03 -86.17 Sand Sandy Beach 140.43 126.76 -13.67 -9.73 Mangroves Dense 2743.05 1420.85 -1322.2 -48.20 Coastal Ecological Resources and its changes Source: FSI Report(2005) 34
  35. 35. Conclusion • After 18 months the salinity of the soil reduced, reaching the level of pre-tsunami level • Buildings in the low lying areas suffered the most. • In some buildings and bridges the cause for damage was not just tsunami or an earthquake, it was because of negligence of the proper construction methodology. • Low lying coastal area nearer to settlement, forest, forest plantation were affected by tsunami and their total aerial extent were decreased. • It is observed from the tsunami that the area nearer to sandy beaches and mangroves are highly vulnerable place and needs vulnerability mapping. • The damage over highly sensitive critical habitats can be easily identified by remote sensing (RS) and GIS technology. • Sand over reef, reef flat, dense mangrove, sparse mangrove, degraded mangroves and sandy beaches can be identified using RS technique. 35
  36. 36. Refrences • Datta, K. K. and De Jong, C., Adverse effect of water logging and soil salinity on crop and land productivity in northwest region of Haryana, India. Agric. Water Manage. 2002, 57, 223–238. • ICMAM (INTEGRATED COASTAL AND MARINE AREA MANAGEMENT) 2005, Preliminary Assessment of Impact of Tsunami in Selected Coastal Areas of India. Chennai, India: Department of Ocean Development Post Tsunami field report. • Laxminarayana, K. and Kar A. (2010). Post-Tsunami groundwater management studies in Neil, Havelock and Little Andaman Islands, S. Andaman District, A & N Islands. Kolkata: Central Ground Water Board Eastern Region. • Malik, J.N., Murty, C.V.R. and Rai C. Durgesh, Landscape Changes in the Andaman and Nicobar Islands (India) after the December 2004 Great Sumatra Earthquake and Indian Ocean Tsunami. Current Science 2004. [DOI: 10.1193/1.2206792] • Malik, J. N., R. Murty C.V. & Rai D.C. (2006) Landscape changes in the Andaman and Nicobar Island(India) after 2004 Great Sumatra Earthquake and Indian Ocean Tsunami. Earthquake Spectra 22:S43–S66 • R. Raja*, S. Ghoshal Chaudhuri, N. Ravisankar, T. P. Swarnam, V. Jayakumar and R. C. Srivastava, Salinity status of tsunami-affected soil and water resources of South Andaman, India. CURRENT SCIENCE, VOL. 96, NO. 1, 10 JANUARY 2009 36
  37. 37. Thanks 37

×