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This presentation discuss about the human impact on ecosystem, planetary responses to changes and imbalance in the various ecological systems. The main cause of ecological change is the rapid increase ...

This presentation discuss about the human impact on ecosystem, planetary responses to changes and imbalance in the various ecological systems. The main cause of ecological change is the rapid increase in human population which ultimately utilize the non-renewable resources to fulfil their luxurious living standards and to discover various technologies to generate energy.

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  • Synthetic N was first manufactured in 1913. <br /> Since 1750, the atmospheric concentration of carbon dioxide has increased by about 32% (from about 280 to 376 parts per million in 2003), primarily due to the combustion of fossil fuels and land use changes. <br />
  • most water use (70% worldwide) is for agriculture. <br />
  • More homogenous: in other words, the set of species in any one region of the world are becoming more similar to other region. largely as a result of the massive movement of species associated with increased travel and shipping. <br />
  • Over the past 40 years, globally, intensification of cultivated systems has been the primary source (almost 80%) of increased output. But some countries, predominantly found in Sub-Saharan Africa, have had persistently low levels of productivity, and continue to rely on expansion of cultivated area. in sub-Saharan Africa, however, yield increases accounted for only 34% of growth in production <br />

Ecosystem and human transformation Ecosystem and human transformation Presentation Transcript

  • ECOSYSTEM AND HUMAN TRANSFORMATIONS Gyanesh SinghA Helen P EldhoA Sajal MittalA Shubham GuptaA Instructor: Rajiv SinhaA A Department of Civil Engineering Indian Institute of Technology (IIT), Kanpur
  • AREAS TO COVER
  • ECOSYSTEM • An ecosystem is a community of biotic components (plants, animals and microbes) in conjunction with the abiotic components of their environment (things like air, water and mineral soil), interacting as a system. • The study of ecosystem mainly consists of the study of certain processes that link the living, or biotic components to non living, or abiotic components.
  • ECOSYSTEM: •The term ecosystem was first coined by A.G Tansely. •It consist of two Words. Eco : Environment System : Interaction Thus The ecosystem refers to the things and conditions around the organism, which directly or influence the life and development of the organism and their populations. LivingCreatures Vegetation Energy from the sun Rocks and Soil Climate
  • ECOSYSTEM CHARACTERISTICS • Ecosystem show large variations in their  Size  Structure  Composition etc., However……. •An ecosystem can be as large as the Sahara Desert, or as small as a puddle!!! •Ecosystems are more than just the organisms they contain. Geography ,weather, climate and geologic factors also influence the interactions within an ecosystem.
  • Why are ecosystems important? •Life cannot sustain without ecosystem services •Ecosystem services are the goods and services derived from natural and managed ecosystems upon which human welfare depends, and include everything from clean air and water to food and fuel.
  • TYPES OF ECOSYSTEM NATURAL ARTIFICIAL TERRESTIAL AQUATIC MARINE FRESH WATER LOTIC LENTIC Stream, river etc., Lake, pond, pools, etc., ECOSYSTEM
  • FACTORS AFFECTING ECOSYSTEM Physical Factors •The sunlight & shade •Intensity of solar flux •Duration of sun hours •Average temperature •Maximum & minimum temperature •Annual rainfall •Wind •Latitude •Altitude •Soil type •Water availability Chemical Factors •Availability of essential nutrients like Carbon Nitrogen Phosphorus Potassium Hydrogen Oxygen Sulphur Level of toxic substance Salts causing salinity Organic substance present in soil or water
  • Functional Attributes • Ecosystem performs under natural conditions in a systematic way. • Rate of transformation: If human transformation is within a threshold limit, then no effect on ecosystem If human transformation exceeds the threshold limit, then it disturbs the ecosystem.
  • HUMAN THREATS TO ECOSYSTEMS POPULATION LAND CONVERSION INFRASTRUCTURE DEVELOPMENT OVER EXPLOITATIO N RELEASE OF POLLUTANTS INTRODUCTION OF EXOTIC SPECIES Consumption growth Dams, urban growth, highways Deforestation, agriculture Overfishing Human, agricultural and industrial wastes Replacing indigenous species
  • ECOSYSTEMS AND HUMAN WELL BEING IMPACTS POSITIVE NEGATIVE
  • LINK BETWEEN ECOSYSTEM AND HUMAN WELL-BEING MINING Loss of agricultural land Loss of coral reefs Loss of plantations But !! Impact may not be negative always : •Compensation are given by the mining companies. •The cash can be used to replace lost services and obtain services not previously available, like housing, water, food, medicines etc.
  • LINK BETWEEN ECOSYSTEM AND HUMAN WELL-BEING Converting forests to croplands Ensure food supplies But !! •Causes disruption of hydrology •Loss of biodiversity •Loss of scenic beauty
  • CONSEQUENCES OF IGNORING (The Link Between Well-being And Ecosystem Condition) LOSS GENETIC VARIATION BIODIVERSITY AESTHETIC BENEFITS ENVIRONMENT STABILITY RECREATIONAL BENEFITS CLEANSING CAPACITY
  • FOCUS: ECOSYSTEM SERVICES (The Benefits People Obtain From Ecosystems)
  • MILLENIUM ECOSYSTEM ASSESSMENT FRAMEWORK Direct Drivers Indirect Drivers Ecosystem Services Human Well-being Direct Drivers of Change  Changes in land use  Species introduction or removal  Technology adaptation and use  External inputs (e.g., irrigation)  Resource consumption  Climate change  Natural physical and biological drivers (e.g., volcanoes) Indirect Drivers of Change  Demographic  Economic (globalization, trade, market and policy framework)  Sociopolitical (governance and institutional framework)  Science and Technology  Cultural and Religious Human Well-being and Poverty Reduction  Basic material for a good life  Health  Good Social Relations  Security  Freedom of choice and action
  • CONSEQUENCES • LARGE COAL SUBSIDIES • RISING CO2 EMISSIONS • NEW COAL MINES, COAL SEAM GAS FRACKING • DEGRADATION OF SOILS AND ECOSYSTEMS • DREDGING NEAR GREAT BARRIER REEF • CONTINUING DEFORESTATION • NEGLECT OF RAIL INFRASTRUCTURE • NEGLECT OF RENEWABLE ENERGY POTENTIAL • NEGLECTED SUSTAINABLE HOUSING/ AGRICULTURE • UNDERMINING SUPPORT FOR SUSTAINOCENE • DENIALISM
  • ECOSYSTEM HUMAN IMPACT ON
  • THE GREAT ACCELERATION – A PLANET UNDER PRESSURE Figure 1: A conceptual model illustrating humanity’s direct and indirect effects on the Earth system Source: J. Lubchenco et al These relatively well- documented changes in turn altered ecosystem, most notably by driving: •Global climate change • •Irreversible losses of biological diversity
  • POPULATION Source: Steffen et al 2004 TOTAL REAL GDP FOREIGN DIRECT INVESTMENT DAMMING OF RIVERS WATER USE FERTILISER CONSUMPTION URBAN POPULATION PAPER CONSUMPTION MOTOR VEHICLES INCREASING RATE OF HUMAN ACTIVITIES
  • ATMOSPHERIC CO2 CONCENTRATION Source: Steffen et al 2004 ATMOSPHERIC N2O CONCENTRATION ATMOSPHERIC CH4 CONCENTRATION NORTHERN HEMISPHERE AVERAGE SURFACE TEMPERATURE OZONE DEPLETION TROPICAL RAINFOREST AND WOODLAND LOSS NATURAL CLIMATIC DISASTERS FISHERIES EXPLOITATION BIODIVERSITY LOSS CHANGES IN EARTH SYSTEM
  • PLANETARY RESPONSE Figure 2: Human domination or alteration of several major components of earth systems (expressed as percentage) Source: P. M. Vitousek et al Land Transformation • 10-15% of Earth’s surface occupied by row-crop agriculture and 6-8% by pastureland • The fraction of land transformed or degraded by humanity fall in the range of 39-50%. • It directly effects the biodiversity loss and indirectly to climate change by contributing 20% to current anthropogenic emissions
  • UNPRECEDENTED CHANGE (Land Transformation) More land was converted to cropland since 1945 than in the 18th and 19th centuries combined Cultivated Systems in 2000 cover 25% of Earth’s terrestrial surface (Defined as areas where at least 30% of the landscape is in croplands, shifting cultivation, confined livestock production, or freshwater aquaculture)
  • OCEANS Trophic level of fish captured is declining in marine and freshwater systems Marine fish harvest declining since the late 1980s • As of 2004  3% are underexploited  20% are moderately exploited  52% are fully exploited  17% are overexploited  7% are depleted  1% are recovering from depletion • 27 million tons of non target animals discarded in fisheries • 50% of mangrove ecosystems destroyed globally every year. • Human use >8% of primary production of oceans.
  • UNPRECEDENTED CHANGE: (Biogeochemical Cycles) Human-produced Reactive Nitrogen Humans produce as much biologically available N as all natural pathways and this may grow a further 65% by 2050 Nitrogen Cycle •Before human intervention annually 90-130 million metric tons of N were fixed biologically. •Industrial fixation of N fertilizer <10Tg/year(1950) increased to 80Tg/year(1990) and expected to increase to >135 Tg/year by 2030. •Cultivation of legume crops and fossil fuels combustion fix 40Tg/year and 20Tg/year respectively. •Human individually add >50Tg/year as much as all natural sources combined. •Alterations to N cycle cause:  Increase in concentration of greenhouse gas nitrous oxide globally.  A significant contribution to acid rain.
  • Greenhouse Gas Emissions CO2 CH4 Furnass et al. 2012 Carbon Cycle •CO2 increased steadily from 315 to 393.31ppm since 1957 till now. •Fossil Fuels adds 5.5±0.5 billion metric tons annually. •Average annual accumulation is 3.2±0.2 billion metric tons. •Human caused CO2 increment nearly 30% causing green house effect. •The growth of plants also altered by increase in CO2.
  • UNPRECEDENTED CHANGE (Fresh Water) Intercepted Continental Runoff: 3-6 times as much water in reservoirs as in natural rivers (Data from a subset of large reservoirs totaling ~65% of the global total storage) Water Cycle •Human uses half of runoff i.e. fresh and of this 70% use in agriculture. •6% of Earth’s river runoff is evaporated due to human intervention. •Amount of water in reservoirs quadrupled since 1960 •Irrigation increases atmospheric humidity in semi-arid areas thus increasing precipitation and thunder storm frequency. •Land transformation from forest to agriculture causes increase in albedo and decrease surface roughness, it effects increase in temperature and decrease precipitation.
  • IRREVERSIBLE CHANGES TO SPECIES DIVERSITY LOSSES •100,000,000 different species on Earth. •The extinction rate is 0.01% per year. •At present , 11% of remaining birds, 18% of mammals, 5% of fish, 8% of plant species are threatened with extinction. •Land Transformation is the single most important cause of extinction.
  • BIOTIC CHANGES Growth in Number of Marine Species Introductions in North America and Europe INVASIONS •The distribution of species on Earth is becoming more homogenous •On many islands, more than half of plant species are non indigenous and in many continental areas this figure is 20% •In the San Francisco Bay of California, an average of 1 new species invaded every 36 weeks since 1850, every 24 weeks since 1970, and 12 weeks for last decade. •In India: Spotted Deer, introduced in the Andaman Nicobar island by Britishers, number has proliferated, there large number is affecting forest regeneration as they overexploit certain plant species.
  • Furnass et al. 2012 One dangerous result has been the melting of the Arctic ice cap, satellite photographs indicating that this has been more extensive than the highest of IPCC computer projections HUMAN EFFECT ON ARCTIC ICE CAPS
  • ECOSYSTEM RESTORATION – Ecosystems in some regions are returning to conditions similar to their pre- conversion states – Rates of ecosystem conversion remain high or are increasing for specific ecosystems and regions
  • CHANGES TO ECOSYSTEMS HAVE PROVIDED SUBSTANTIAL BENEFITS – Food production has more than doubled since 1960 – Food production per capita has grown – Food price has fallen
  • DEGRADATION OF ECOSYSTEM SERVICES OFTEN CAUSES SIGNIFICANT HARM TO HUMAN WELL-BEING – Degradation tends to lead to the loss of non- marketed benefits from ecosystems – The economic value of these benefits is often high and sometimes higher than the marketed benefits Timber and fuel wood generally accounted for less than a third of total economic value of forests in eight Mediterranean countries.
  • Source: Rockström et al. 2009 HUMAN IMPACT ON ECOSYSTEM
  • FROM ANTHROPOCENE TO NOOSPHERE The teleology, or end point, of the biosphere was to provide the physical conditions for the ultimate destination of evolution, the transformation of the biosphere into the noosphere. Just as the biosphere transformed the earlier geosphere, the noosphere would transform the biosphere, extending the culminating destiny of humanity. (From W. Hayes, The Noosphere)
  • STRESSORS TO ECOSYSTEM
  • OPERATING BOUNDARIES Source: Rockstorm et al. 2009
  • Source: Rockstorm, J. et al. Ecol. Soc 2009
  • Fresh Water Resources Water covers 71% of the Earth's surface • 96.5% of the planet's water is found in seas and oceans • 1.7% in groundwater • 1.7% in glaciers and the ice caps of Antarctica and Greenland • a small fraction in other large water bodies, and 0.001% in the air as vapour, clouds and precipitation only.  2.5% of the Earth's water is freshwater  98.8% of that water is in ice and groundwater
  • GLOBAL THREAT TO HUMAN WATER SECURITY • “Nearly 80% of total world’s population is exposed to high level of threat to water security”- Vorosmarty C.J. • Freshwater is directly threatened by human activities and further by anthropogenic climate change • 14 out of 47 worlds largest river are under high threat level • Developing countries are more vulnerable to threat
  • (Source: Vorosmarty et al. 2010)
  • ADJUSTED HWS THREAT Fig: Shift in spatial patterns of relative human water security threat after accounting for water technology benefits. (Source: Vorosmarty et al.
  • HUMAN INTERVENTION ON RIVERS Human’s negative impact on river ecosystems River flow withdrawal River flow redistribution in time River flow redistribution in space Physical disturbances of river bed Pollution Water clogging Thermal pollution
  • River flow redistribution in time Source: USGSFig. Three Gorges Dam, China • Soil Erosion • Species Extinction • Spread of Diseases • Changes to Earth’s Rotation • Temporal Employment versus Permanent Displacement • Dams emit greenhouse gases. • Dams impact to the rivers hydrology and ecosystems • The control and the unscheduled releases of waters from dams threaten the lives of people living near the banks.
  • River flow redistribution in space Its impact can be described by using three zones which differ from each other in impact made upon natural habitat : Zone of Water Withdrawal Zone of Water Transportation Zone of Water Usage Characterized by : •Decrease of river flow •Lowering of water level •Intensification of river bed processes •Reduction of water logged sites •Expansion of salty sea waters’ penetration Characterized by : •Increase of river flow •Rise of water level •Under flooding and waterlogging of nearby lands •Intensification of erosion and evaporation Characterized by : •Intensification of erosion and evaporation •Worsening of surface waters’ quality Fig. Sharda Sahayak Canal, UP Source: Google Earth
  • River flow withdrawal • Increase in turbidity of river water. • Increase in salinity. • Siltation and heavier sediment load in rivers. • Reduces quantity of sediments reaching delta. • Increase in water pollution Physical disturbances of river bed • Affects hydrobionts’ natural habitat • Water becomes muddier • Extraction of massifs of riverbeds’ ground causes deepening of river beds thus causing lowering of water level during low water season.
  • Pollution • Industrial waste causing disaster(eg: accidents on tailing dumps of ore mining • Agricultural waste poses a great threat to river habitat. • Municipal wastes are notable for high concentration of pathogenic organisms. Water clogging • Depletion of oxygen in root zone and increase of CO2 due to water clogging • Enhanced higher level of turbidity • Creates flow resistance • Water quality changes
  • Thermal pollution Thermal pollution emerges as a result of functioning of heat and power engineering and heat exchanging plants. It causes: •Increase in amount of blue-green algae •Decreases amount of oxygen, nitrogen and CO2 in water •Slowing of photosynthetic phytoplankton activity •Effects the hydrobionts
  • What will happen when all Glacial Ice will melt down…??? Present Day Shoreline Source: NASA IMPACT OF SEA LEVEL RISE • Increased storm damage to coastal infrastructure • More rapid coastal erosion • Shoreline change including the possibility for total loss of protective natural barriers • Saltwater intrusion into aquifers and surface waters • Rising water tables • Changes in tidal prism
  • Learning from History & Its Importance (WADDEN SEA CASE STUDY) • Very first human impact and ecological changes observed • Large scale transformation affected – Freshwater – Brackish – Marine habitats (Source: Reise et al. 2005)
  • DAMS “Dams have made an important and significant contribution to human development, and the benefits derived from them have been considerable. In too many cases an unacceptable and often unnecessary price has been paid to secure those benefits, especially in social and environmental terms, by people displaced, by communities downstream, by taxpayers and by the natural environment.” — WCD Report, November 2000
  • DAM: A BOON OR A CURSE
  • Source: Dammed Rivers, Damned Lives, International River Network IMPACTS OF DAM
  • DAM’S IMPACT TO PEOPLE AND COMMUNITY •Temporal Employment versus Permanent Displacement. •Dams deprived and displaced people.  40-80 million people displaced till 2005. Three Gorges in China, the level of displacement has increased substantially. •Resettlement focused only on physical relocation. In India, 75% of the displaced people have not been rehabilitated and are impoverished. •No lands, no titles, no compensation. •The control and the unscheduled releases of waters from dams threaten the lives of people living near the banks.
  • CASE STUDY OF INDIAN DAMS AND THEIR IMPACTS Picture showing Mullaperiyar Dam, Kerala Mullaperiyar Dam, Kerala ‘A Ticking Water Bomb’ •One of the Oldest dam in the world operating since 118 years •Constructed in 1895 with a height of 50 meter •Located in Kerala but Operated and Maintained by Tamil Nadu state •Now under dispute between the Kerala and Tamil Nadu government over rising the reservoir level Safety Issues •Mullaperiyar dam has a direct impact on the safety of Idukki project on the downstream side. •Risk is such that it’s own failure can cause failure of Idukki Dam which can have ecological impact of catastrophic nature •Dam lies within the wildlife century, now a part of tiger and elephant reserve in a protected ecosystem •increasing water level will submerge critical grasslands of the Periyar ecosystem
  • Source: http://www.downtoearth.org.in/content/blunder-999?quicktabs_1=0 REBUILT MULLAPERIYAR DAM SAVE KERALA
  • SUBANSIRI BASIN STUDY • 3180 ha of land, including 1333 ha forest land, and 2867 ha area under submergence. • Approx. 10, 032 ha area to be submerged of eight proposed HEPs. • Gangetic dolphin or Susu are under high threat due to human adverse activity on the river • 62 out of 105 species (Mammals), 50 out of 175 (Aves) and 2 out of 6 (amphibians) are listed in Schedules of Wildlife Protection Act, 1972 • 99 out of 105 (Mammals), 57 out of 175 Aves, 1 out of 19 (Reptilian), 28 out of 32 (fishes) reported to be assessed as per IUCN’s threatened categories
  • BODHGHAT HYDROELECTRIC PROJECT •Could impose a great stress on the ecology of the Indravati Tiger Reserve, Bhairamgarh Wild Buffalo Sanctuary •Would result in the forced displacement of some 10000 tribal people •Inundation of a large area of forest •Result in a total loss of 20,000 hectare of wildlife habitats.
  • YETTINAHOLE DIVERSION PROJECT • Scheme involves 8 dams • Will submerge 1200 hectares of land and 2 villages. • Majority of the project falls in Ecologically Sensitive Zone. • Project plans to divert 24.01 TMC water Fig. Yettinahole, a tributary of Netravathi River
  • Rate of siltation in some selected Indian reservoirs RESERVOIR Rate of silting (in ha m 100 km-2 yr-1 ) Assumed Actual Gobindsagar 4.29 6.00 Nizamsagar 0.29 6.57 Tungabhadra 4.29 6.11 Hirakud 2.52 3.98 Shivajisagar 3.24 15.24 Gandhisagar 3.61 10.05 (Modified from Joshi, 1990)
  • Pollution in Reservoirs Reservoir Name of river Sources of pollution Getalsud Subarnarekha Heavy engineering, chemicals and sewage. Gandhisagar Chambal Textile, chemicals, trade effluents from Indore, Ujjain and Kota. Tungabhadra Tungabhadra Paper, iron and steel, rayon, chemicals and sewage. G.B.Pantsagar Rend Thermal power plant, coal washery, chemicals. Bhavanisagar Bhavani Viscose factory effluent. Hussainsagar Musa Trade effluents and sewage from Hyderabad city. Hirakud Mahanadi Paper mill Byramangala Vrishabhavati Industrial effluents and city sewage Sandynulla - Animal products (Modified from Joshi, 1990)
  • Source: http://www.indiawaterportal.org
  • PLANETARY STEWARDSHIP 2020 2040 20502030
  • – The changes that have been made to ecosystems have contributed to substantial net gains in human well-being and economic development, but these gains have been achieved at growing costs. – diversification, protection, and restoration helps in recovering the original state of ecosystem – These problems, unless addressed, will substantially diminish the benefits that future generations obtain from ecosystems – The environmental impact assessment process highlights the need to monitor the human activities. – A better understanding of the interplay between development and the natural environment in which development takes place is necessary at the time of project planning to ensure environmental security and economic prosperity. – Public pressure can often help environmental conservation especially if political will is wanting or found wavering. CONCLUSION
  • REFERENCES • Peter M. Vitousek, Harold A. Mooney, Jane Lubchenco, Jerry M. Melillo, Human Domination of Earth’s Ecosystems. Science vol.277 July 1997. • Heike K. Lotze, Karsten Reise, Boris Worm. Human transformations of the Wadden Sea ecosystem through time: a synthesis. Springer-Verlag and AWI 2005. • Anthony McMichael, Robert Scholes. Linking Ecosystem Services and Human Well-being. Ecosystems and Human Well-being: Sub-global pg.45-59. • C. J. Vorosmarty, P. B. McIntyre, M. O. Gessner, D. Dudgeon, A. Prusevich, P. Green1, S. Glidden, S. E. Bunn,C. A. Sullivan, C. Reidy Liermann8 & P. M. Davies. Global threats to human water security and river biodiversity. doi:10.1038/nature09440. • Will Steffen, Jacques Grinevald, Paul Crutzen and John McNeill. Perspectives The Anthropocene: conceptual and historical. Phil. Trans. R. Soc. A 2011 369, 842-867. doi: 10.1098/rsta.2010.0327. • Govorushko, S.M., Effect of human activity on rivers. International Congress of river basin management. pg. 464-476. • Asian Development Bank and Dams, Annual Report on Dam’s Impact and effectiveness 2011.