My TopicA brief History of Ancient Madhya Pradesh
Contents :-) 1) Historical and Physical Geography 2) Paramāra 3) Kalachuri 4) Contribution of M.P. to Indian History
1.Historical and Physical Geography Formation of Madhya Pradesh
1.Historical and Physical GeographyGeographical territories – MahājanapadasAvanti Chedi The name Avanti was derived Chedi is an ancient tribe from the Avanti branch of the mentioned in the Rig-Veda. Haiheyas. The Chedi kingdom has been In 6th century B.C,it was as in the list of 16 Great states of--Avanti, capital at Ujjaiyni Buddhist literature.-- Avanti Dakshinpatha,capital Anargharaghava mentions at Mahishmati. Mahishmati as capital of Panini mentions it in list of Chedi mandala at time of Countries to the south. Kalachuri. In the early medical period In puranic list of Janapadas, it was located in the frontiers of Chedi country Madhyadeshia. reached the bank of Narmada.
1.Historical and Physical Geography Natural Divisions Malwa and Vindhya Hills The Chambal Sind (Gwalior) Basin Bundelkhand and the Rewa Plateaus The Narmada Valley and the Satpura-Mahadeo- Maikal Ranges
2. Paramāra Origin From the Fire Pit – Navasahasankacharita of Padma Gupta & many Paramāra inscriptions Earliest known records Harsola Plates in Gujarat --- started as feudatory of Rashtrakutas --- belonged to the same clan to Rashtrakutas Kailash Chand Jain – Both literary & epigraphical evidences finger toward connection with the Abu - may they have taken the advantage of fight between Pratiharas & Rashtrakutas and occupied Malwa .
2.Paramāra Administration Kingship - Initial titles – Maharaja ,Nripa ,Bhupa After Vakpati II titles became like Srivallabha - Constitutional & executive head - Commander-in-chief of army . Ministers & Officers - Well versed in Dharmasastras - Posts were hereditary - Mahapradhana, Chief Minister Financial Administration – Bhopal Inscription says of ferry duties like Shulka, dramma
2.Paramāra Religion Puranic Brahmanical religion in the forms of Saivism and Vaishnavism became dominant . Of the famous 12 jyotirlings of lord Shiva, 2 lie in Paramāra territory viz. Mahakala at Ujjain, and Omkaramandhata on the bank of Narmada . Vishnu was worshipped in incarnations like Parasurama, Rama, Krishna, Matsya, etc. An inscribed sculpture of Brahma dated V.S.1210 was recovered from Bagh which records its installation from a Paramāra chief’s sister. In the Jainad inscription of Jagaddeva, the first two verses are dedicated to the praise of god Surya.
2.Paramāra Art & Architecture This period is famous for Bhumija (which means Earth born) style of architecture which is purely secular, one of the masterpiece is the Nilakantha or Udayeshwar at Udaipur in Rajasthan. For Example:-Siddesgvara temple at Nemawar. Mahadeva Temple at Jamli (Dhar District). Sheshashayin Temple at Kethuli. Sculptures figures are large, vigorous, free from jerky movement, intense flexious, blankness on face. The Paramāra art was also taken by the Chandella dynasty for their last notable work in Khajuraho temples.
3. Kalachuri Origin According to legends, Kalli meaning long moustache and Churi meaning Sharp knife is the source of their dynastic name. They were also referred to as Kalachuri (shape of a sharp knife). The Kalachuri, also known as the Haihayas, were an ancient people known from the Epics and Puranas from 249 or 250 A.D. Many Kalachuri were settled in different parts of Northern India. In the later half of 6th century A.D., they ruled over a powerful kingdom comprising Gujarat, northern Maharashtra, and some parts of Malwa. A 1174 CE. records says the dynasty was founded by one Soma who grew beard and moustache, to save himself from the wrath of Parashurama, and thereafter the family came to be known as “Kalachuri”.
3. Kalachuri Administration Kingship - The govt. was monarchial . - King was regarded as men born with divinity. Ministry - Initial kings must have many ministers but the latter ones kept council of eight ministers. - Chief among them was Mahamantrim. Revenue - Head of this department was Mahapramatri. - Anjaneri plates of Bhagashakti mention the tax levied on shops in market places. Foreign Dept. - The foreign department was called Sandhivigraha Adhikarana where deals with feudatories & royal orders were issued.
3. Kalachuri Religiono Mainly many religions prevailed in the society mainly were Vedic, Buddhism, Jainism, Vaishnavism & Shaivism.o Vedic - Still continued to survive because of dedication of the Brahmans.o Buddhism - Koni stone inscription of Prithvideva II refers to the three Ratnas of Buddhism, the Buddha, the Dharma & the Sangha.o Vaishnavism - Rewa stone inscription of Karna(812A.D.) states of a temple of Vishnu was dedicated by Vappula (military general of Karna).o Lingayatism, also known as Veerashaivism started in this area by Basavanna who was a social reformer, humanitarian strongly apposed the caste system and founded this religion.
3. Kalachuri Art & Architectureo The Kalachuri temples have several types of plans ,i.e., circular, square, rectangular etc.o The distinctive Kalachuri idiom in art & architecture is fully articulated in the Vishnu temple at Arjula. The Jaina Temple at Arang in Raipur District in Kalachuri period interpreting the Bhumija style with influence of Kalachuri type.o Most developed among the temples is the Virateshwar temple at Sohagpur( Shahdol).
4.Contribution of M.P. to Indian History Early Man liked foothills & plateaus because stone tools can be manufactured there . Malwa Plateau has got black cotton soil. The painted Grey Ware Pottery is manufactured . Avanti helps to control over western and southern India. Also it afforded an excellent military base. Hills & Valleys in M.P. always been habitat for ancient tribes like Pulindas, Mahishmats , etc. Cultural Link between North and South India, also it provides rich resources & fertile soil which provide ease to people for the growth of Religion, Art & Literature.