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Milestones in biology

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Milestones in biology 1900-2010

Milestones in biology 1900-2010

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  • 1. Milestones in Biology 1900 - 2010
    Dr.G.ShubhakaraMsc.Ph.D
    Bangalore university
    Bangalore
  • 2. 1901 – 10
    - Hugo de Vries, Tshermak and Correns
    discovered Mendel’s long ignored paper
    “ Experiments with plants hybrids”
  • 3. 1901 – Hugo de vries of Holland introduces the concept of mutations in organims
    1902 – Karl Landsteiner disovered the AB blood
    group
    Archibald Garrod documented inborn errors associated with inheritance of recessive genes
  • 4. 1903 – Walter Sutton observes that egg and sperm cells contain half the number of chromosomes
    1908 – Thomas Hunt Morgan started extension work on fruit flies. Morgan came from a prominent Kentucky family.
  • 5. Albert Calmette and Camille Guerin Develop a vaccine against tuberculosis called ( Bacillus Calmette Guerin ) the vaccine was put to use in 1921.
  • 6. 1909 – Johanssen suggested the term gene
    1910 – T.H .Morgan found that genes are carried on chromosomes. The word gene was taken from pangene referred by De vries. It was part of English language from 1911.
  • 7. 1911 – 20 Time of war
    The second decade of the 20th century was time of great international tension that erupted into a war.
    Many researchers diverted their work from pure science to the war effort.
    Fritz Haber in 1918 a Nobel laureate in chemistry promoted Germany’s use of chemical weapons in world war I
  • 8. The decade of the great war brought advances in areas of applied biology such as immunology bacteriology, food science and crop breeding.
    1914 – Henry Hallett Dale isolated acetylcholine involved in sending nerve impulses
  • 9. 1915 – Frederick Twort – English bacteriologist describes bacteriophages
    d Herelle identified bacteriophage and coined the term
  • 10. 1918 – A world wide epidemic of influenza kills 25 million people far more than died as a result of world war I
  • 11. 1921 - 30
    1921 – Frederick Grant Banting and Charles Herbert Best isolated insulin from the pancreas of a dog.
    1925 – A Tennesse court finds a biology teacher John Thomas guilty of violating a state law that bans the teaching of evolution.
  • 12. 1926 – Walter Canon a Neurologist coins the term Homeostasis
  • 13. 1928 – Alexander Fleming discovered Penicillin
    Fleming (centre) receiving the Nobel prize from King Gustaf V of Sweden (right), 1945
  • 14. Griffith conducted several experiments on Streptococcus pneumonia to identity the transforming particle
  • 15. This decade marked a giant misstep for genetic science.
    1928 George William Hunter classified five races of man different in each in instincts, social customs and to some extent structure
    The highest type of all Caucasians represented by civilized white inhabitants of Europe and America.
  • 16. Darwin’s theory of evolution was being used in 1920 to teach racism in American high school students.
    Francis Galton – Charles Darwin’s cousin coined the term eugenics meaning well born or good heritage
    Galton believed that human species could be improved through careful genetic management.
  • 17. This idea led to the thinking of the idea that certain kinds of people are inherently superior to others.
    This idea led to block immigrants from southern and eastern Europe on the grounds of their genetic unsuitability
  • 18. Eugenics – minded public officials also took it upon themselves to rule that certain individuals considered genetically inferior should be surgically sterilized against their will for the good of society
  • 19. Adolf Hitler seized power in Germany and his party enacted laws against those considered wither politically or genetically undesirable
    Nazi policies caused many scientist, educators and public health officials to reexamine ideas about race and eugenics.
  • 20. In the late 19th century Bacteriologist Ernest Hankin has noticed that Hindu worshippers who drank the water of the sacred Ganges river did not contract Cholera
    As he investigated he found that the water also contained an antibacterial agent.
  • 21. 1931- 40 Hard times and hard lessons
    The 1930 was difficult decade marred by a worldwide economic slum, great depression and by dictatorial and militaristic government in several parts o the world.
    Soviet union, Japan and Italy launched military conquests that led towards the horrors of world war II
  • 22. Nazi policies caused many scientist educators, and public officials especially those of Jewish heritage fled Germany setting back that countrys research programmes
  • 23. 1931 – BarabaraMclintock identified transposons
    Albert Bethe introduces the concept of pheromones the substances effect the physiology of another individual of the same species.
  • 24. Sewall Wright proposes genetic drift as a factor in evolution
    1933 – Shickel Painter and others rediscovered giant salivary chromosomes in Drosophila
  • 25. 1935 – American Scientist Stanley crystallized tobacco mosaic virus
    1938 – Warren Weaver director of Rockfeller institute Division of Natural sciences coins the term Molecular biology
  • 26. 1939 – A war criminal Josef Mengele Became the director of Berlins institute of Hereditary biology and Racial Hygiene he sterilized 56,244 people as hereditary defectives
  • 27. 1951- 60 Double helix decade
    The double helix molecules stands as the most prominent historical landmark in biological research between Gregor Mendel’s 19th century discoveries and the present day recombinant DNA and Bioengineering
  • 28. 1951- James Watson and Francis Crick attended a lecture by Maurice Wilkins on X-ray crystallography of DNA
  • 29. X- ray Crystallographer
    Rosalind Franklin produces
    the image of DNA
    1952 – Immunologist Jones Salk
    began field trials of his
    experimental vaccine against
    Infantile paralysis also called Polio
  • 30. 1953 – The Journal nature publishes Watson and Crick’s manuscript describing the double helix structure of DNA
  • 31. 1955 – Salk’s Polio vaccine, having proven safe and effective was released for a vaccination program
  • 32. 1958 - Kornberg isolated DNA polymerase was called Kornberg enzyme
  • 33. 1961 – 70 Code breakers and Ecologists
    1961 – Marshall W. Niremberg builds a strand of RNA from the base Uracil
    Monod & Jacob coined the term messenger RNA
    1966 – Niremberg and collegues show that codon determines each of 20 amino acids that form proteins
    1970 – Temin discovered Reverse transcriptase
  • 34. 1971 - 1980
    The field of molecular genetics changed radically as scientists achieved new means for probing measuring, synthesizing and ultimately manipulating DNA
  • 35. 1972 – Paul Berg achieves the first recombinant DNA molecule
    1978 – Boyer makes a synthetic version of the human insulin gene and inserts into the bacterium E.coli
    1980 – U. S supreme court rules that genetically altered life forms can be patented
  • 36. 1985 – AnandChakraborthy patented Super bug (oil eating bacteria)
  • 37. 1981 – 1990Biotech booms, AIDS looms
    The field of biotechnology accelerated in the 1980s in large part because of new tools for molecular biologists
    1982 – the term AIDS is used for the first time
    1983 – Stanley Prusiner introduces the term PrionsKarry Mullis invents PCR
    1985 – Alec Jaffreys introduced “DNA finger printing” which soon enters court room.
  • 38. 1986 – Robert Horvitz discovered genes controlling programmed cell death in the nemadoteC.elegans
    1987 – The USA department of Energy establishes a research program to sequence the entire human genome
    1990 – The human genome project begins work estimated cost 13 billion
    Gene therapy was used for the first time on human subject
  • 39. 1991- 2000Sheep and Stem cells
    1995 – O. J. Simpson a film actor and a foot ball of fame was convicted for the murder of his ex-wife and her friend by DNA analysis.
    A Virginia prisoner is the first person put to death after a conviction based on DNA evidence
    1997 – Wilmut announces the cloning of sheep Dolly
  • 40. 2000 – Human genome project
    was completed and was published
    in Nature journal
  • 41. Golden rice was produced by Ingo Potrykus and Peter Beyer
  • 42. 2010 – Steptoe & Edwards awarded Nobel prize for IVF
  • 43. 2001 - 2100
    Future Perspectives :
    The biological research in 20th century offers many great promises for the future and as many cautions
    The science of genetics once involved tracing neat rules in pea plants – lead to the emergence of R DNA technique
  • 44. In the early 21stcentury Huntington’s disease took a toll.
    Many children still go blind from Vitaminedeficiency. Herat disease and diabetes play a dominant role.
    Cancers far better understood and more successfully treated than they were decades ago. Continue to disable and kill
    The earth species are becoming extinct at an alarming rate
    AIDS ravages the third world
  • 45. What happened to Recombinant DNA technology ?
    Decades of success and failures. It has met opposition on religious and philosophical grounds. Recombinant DNA remains incredibly promising and dangerous too.
    Ultimately the bigger challenge that biologists will face in the future are sure to be cultural political ethical and moral rather than pure scientific.