Solid Waste Management Challengies for Cities in Developing Countries
Solid Waste Management Challenges for Cities in
Shuaibu Musa Gezawa
Cyprus International University
Definition of terminology
Effect of solid waste if not managed properly
Projections on waste generation in India
Generation of Municipal solid waste
Challenges for Managing waste in developing cities
What can you do? Reducing waste
The volume and types of solid and hazardous waste
increase all over the world due to rapid economic
growth, urbanization and industrialization.
Managing solid wastes in society has been a
challenge for as long as people have gathered
together in sufficient number to impose a stress on
İmproper management of solid waste is one of the
main causes of environmental pollution and
degradation in many cities, low collection coverage,
inadequate transport service, and lack of suitable
treatment, recycling and disposal equipment’s are
factors responsible for unsatisfactory waste
management, leading to water, land and air pollution
It is a matter for which a specific owner ceases to have use for it.
It is also any unwanted or discarded matter.
Any material which is not needed by the owner, producer or
It can be in a solid, liquid or in a gaseous forms.
A product, materials or container is not considered waste until
some one throws it away.
It is non liquid waste arising from domestics, trade, industrial, agricultural,
mining, construction activities and from public services.
Solid waste management
Is defined as it include all the activities that seek to minimize the health,
environmental and aesthetics impacts of solid waste.
execution of functional elements such as collecting,
transporting, processing and disposing of solid waste.
Increasing population levels, booming
economy, rapid urbanization and the rise in
community living standards, have greatly
accelerated solid waste generation rate in
Solid waste can be classified into different types depending on
Household waste or municipal waste: includes
food, paper, cardboard, plastic, textiles, leather, glass, metal, el
ectronics waste etc.
Industrial waste: includes toxic chemicals, debris from
construction site, packaging waste, etc.
Biomedical waste or hospital waste: medicine bottles, expired
medicines, syringes, medical instruments such as
scissors, blades etc.
Effects of waste if not managed properly
Infection to domestics animals as well as waste pickers and
Insects, flies and mosquito
Affects our socio-economic conditions
Affects our coastal and marine environment
Water and land pollution
Disruption of aesthetic value
Rags pickers may be infected
Rag pickers refers to people who collect rag or
recyclable materials that can be sold for making
The rag pickers are not using glove and other
safety tools for use and they have a health
problem attached to them,
They are more vulnerable to diseases like
diarrhea, respiratory diseases and frequent fever.
Burning of waste cause air pollution
Fire set at disposal sites can cause major air
pollution, causing illness and reducing visibility.
Air pollution can lead to formation of acidic rain
which is dangerous to crops life since it fasten
the removal of soil fertility from the surface of the
Destruction of ozone layer and may cause
disease such as cancer.
Indiscriminate dumping in gutter
Most city drain are clogged with garbage, refuse
blocking storm drains can cause malaria and
other disease when waste are dumped every
where they may collect water in them and this
may become a breading ground for mosquitoes.
Hazardous and Toxic Wastes in developing cities
The most dangerous aspect of the waste stream is that it
often contains highly toxic and hazardous materials that
are injurious to both human health and environmental
Waste near road affecting its aesthetic value
River and Coastal Pollution
People dump they waste into the sea and direct
dumping of untreated waste into
ocean, rivers, likes and sea result in the
accumulation of toxic substance in the food chain
through the Plants and Animals that feed on it
and highly dangerous for aquatic life.
South Africa 5786
Lillian et al 2012
Challenges for Managing Waste in Developing Cities;
Weak regulation/absence of legislation
Poor and unscientific waste transportation
Socio cultural problem
lack of technical skills
Insufficient financial resources limiting the safe disposal of waste in
The cities suffer from illegal disposal of waste in rivers,lakes,ocean and
Longer distance to waste disposal container
Lack or absence of treatment facilities
Inadequate supply of waste containers and longer distance to these
containers increase the probability of waste dumping in open areas and
Lack of knowledge of treatment systems
Lack of community involvement
The information available is very scanty from the public domain
Lack of planning for waste management while planning township
Lillian et al 2012
Prevention of waste being created is known as waste reduction which is an
important method of waste management.
The modern concepts based on the three ‘R’s are: Reduce, Reuse and
Recycling: Processing of a waste item into usable forms.
Benefits of recycling:
Reduce environmental degradation
Making money out of waste
Save energy that would have gone into waste handling & product
Recommended approaches to waste management
The government should encourage market for recycled materials and
increasing professionalism in recycling companies
Financial support by recycling projects and infrastructures
Involvement of the population in active environmental organizations is
necessary to have better system
Effective ways of waste collection services
Article; Lillian 2012
What Can You Do? Reducing Waste
Buy foods that come with less packaging; shop at farmers’ markets using your
Separate your cans, bottles, papers, and plastics for recycling.
Wash and reuse bottles, aluminum foil, plastic bags, and so on for your personal
Help your country develop responsible systems for disposing of metals electronics
and other waste.
Source: Data from Minnesota Pollution Control Agency.
In conclusion therefore, the main challenges in developing cities are;
incompliance of managing and handling rules, negligence of the
management body local residents,irrigular waste collection and improper
checking of dumping site
Lastly, each person should be work in their level as far as possible and be
responsible for managing aesthetic beauty and cleanliness of the city
Lillian, A, G, Ger., M, and William, H. (2012) Solid waste
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