Solid Waste Management Challengies for Cities in Developing Countries


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Solid Waste Management Challengies for Cities in Developing Countries

  1. 1. Solid Waste Management Challenges for Cities in Developing Countries Presented By Shuaibu Musa Gezawa At Cyprus International University March 2013
  2. 2. Contents             Introduction Definition of terminology Classification Types Effect of solid waste if not managed properly Projections on waste generation in India Generation of Municipal solid waste Challenges for Managing waste in developing cities Waste Minimization Recommendations What can you do? Reducing waste Conclusion
  3. 3. Introduction  The volume and types of solid and hazardous waste increase all over the world due to rapid economic growth, urbanization and industrialization.  Managing solid wastes in society has been a challenge for as long as people have gathered together in sufficient number to impose a stress on local resources.  İmproper management of solid waste is one of the main causes of environmental pollution and degradation in many cities, low collection coverage, inadequate transport service, and lack of suitable treatment, recycling and disposal equipment’s are factors responsible for unsatisfactory waste management, leading to water, land and air pollution
  4. 4. Waste  It is a matter for which a specific owner ceases to have use for it.  It is also any unwanted or discarded matter.  Any material which is not needed by the owner, producer or processor  It can be in a solid, liquid or in a gaseous forms.  A product, materials or container is not considered waste until some one throws it away.
  5. 5. Solid waste  It is non liquid waste arising from domestics, trade, industrial, agricultural, mining, construction activities and from public services.  Solid waste management  Is defined as it include all the activities that seek to minimize the health, environmental and aesthetics impacts of solid waste.  The orderly execution of functional elements such as collecting, transporting, processing and disposing of solid waste.
  6. 6. cont  Increasing population levels, booming economy, rapid urbanization and the rise in community living standards, have greatly accelerated solid waste generation rate in developing cities
  7. 7. Classification Solid waste can be classified into different types depending on their source:  Household waste or municipal waste: includes food, paper, cardboard, plastic, textiles, leather, glass, metal, el ectronics waste etc.  Industrial waste: includes toxic chemicals, debris from construction site, packaging waste, etc.  Biomedical waste or hospital waste: medicine bottles, expired medicines, syringes, medical instruments such as scissors, blades etc.
  8. 8. Agricultural wastes  Household wastes Types of waste Industrial wastes  Hospital waste
  9. 9. Effects of waste if not managed properly  Infection to domestics animals as well as waste pickers and      workers Insects, flies and mosquito Affects our socio-economic conditions Affects our coastal and marine environment Water and land pollution Disruption of aesthetic value
  10. 10. Domestics animal may be infected
  11. 11. Rags pickers may be infected  Rag pickers refers to people who collect rag or recyclable materials that can be sold for making money.  The rag pickers are not using glove and other safety tools for use and they have a health problem attached to them,  They are more vulnerable to diseases like diarrhea, respiratory diseases and frequent fever.
  12. 12. waste pickers may be infected
  13. 13. Burning of waste cause air pollution  Fire set at disposal sites can cause major air pollution, causing illness and reducing visibility.  Air pollution can lead to formation of acidic rain which is dangerous to crops life since it fasten the removal of soil fertility from the surface of the ground.  Destruction of ozone layer and may cause disease such as cancer.  Global warming.
  14. 14. Burning of waste cause air pollution
  15. 15. Indiscriminate dumping in gutter  Most city drain are clogged with garbage, refuse blocking storm drains can cause malaria and other disease when waste are dumped every where they may collect water in them and this may become a breading ground for mosquitoes.
  16. 16. Hazardous and Toxic Wastes in developing cities  The most dangerous aspect of the waste stream is that it often contains highly toxic and hazardous materials that are injurious to both human health and environmental quality.
  17. 17.  Waste near road affecting its aesthetic value
  18. 18. River and Coastal Pollution  People dump they waste into the sea and direct dumping of untreated waste into ocean, rivers, likes and sea result in the accumulation of toxic substance in the food chain through the Plants and Animals that feed on it and highly dangerous for aquatic life.
  19. 19. Water and land pollution
  20. 20. Projections on Waste Generation In India
  21. 21. Continent Country GDP(US$) Year Cities Waste generatio rate(kg/capit a/day Africa Ethiopia 344 2009 Addis Ababa 0.32 Kenya 738 2009 Nakuru 0.50 South Africa 5786 2009 Lange berg 0.65 China 3744 2010 Beijin 0,80 Thailand 4043 2009 Bangkok 1.10 Turkey 8215 2010 Amasya 1.20 Pakistan 495 1995 Lahore 0.84 Ecuador 1771 1995 Pillaro 0.50 Costa Rica 6386 2011 San jose 1.10 Asia Central & South America Lillian et al 2012
  22. 22. Generation of Municipal Solid Waste
  23. 23. Challenges for Managing Waste in Developing Cities;  Weak regulation/absence of legislation  Poor and unscientific waste transportation  Socio cultural problem    • • lack of technical skills Insufficient financial resources limiting the safe disposal of waste in well equipped The cities suffer from illegal disposal of waste in rivers,lakes,ocean and drainage channels. Longer distance to waste disposal container Lack or absence of treatment facilities
  24. 24. cont  Inadequate supply of waste containers and longer distance to these     containers increase the probability of waste dumping in open areas and road sides Lack of knowledge of treatment systems Lack of community involvement The information available is very scanty from the public domain Lack of planning for waste management while planning township Lillian et al 2012
  25. 25. Waste Minimisation  Prevention of waste being created is known as waste reduction which is an important method of waste management.  The modern concepts based on the three ‘R’s are: Reduce, Reuse and Recycle.
  26. 26.  Hierarchy of waste minimisation
  27. 27. Managing Waste Recycling: Processing of a waste item into usable forms. Benefits of recycling:  Reduce environmental degradation  Making money out of waste  Save energy that would have gone into waste handling & product manufacture
  28. 28. Recommended approaches to waste management  The government should encourage market for recycled materials and     increasing professionalism in recycling companies Financial support by recycling projects and infrastructures Involvement of the population in active environmental organizations is necessary to have better system Community awareness Effective ways of waste collection services Article; Lillian 2012
  29. 29. What Can You Do? Reducing Waste  Buy foods that come with less packaging; shop at farmers’ markets using your own containers.  Separate your cans, bottles, papers, and plastics for recycling.  Wash and reuse bottles, aluminum foil, plastic bags, and so on for your personal use.  Help your country develop responsible systems for disposing of metals electronics and other waste. Source: Data from Minnesota Pollution Control Agency.
  30. 30. Conclusion  In conclusion therefore, the main challenges in developing cities are; incompliance of managing and handling rules, negligence of the management body local residents,irrigular waste collection and improper checking of dumping site  Lastly, each person should be work in their level as far as possible and be responsible for managing aesthetic beauty and cleanliness of the city
  31. 31. Thank you
  32. 32. References  Lillian, A, G, Ger., M, and William, H. (2012) Solid waste challenges for cities in developing countries, Journal of waste management Vol 33  Aliyu B, Nabegu (2008). The Role of Refuse Management and Sanitation Board (REMASAB) in Solid Waste Management in Kano Metropolis. Maiduguri Journal of Art and Social Science Vol 6 number 2  Jibril, D.J. Et al (2012) Public awareness on 3rs system, an integrated solid waste management in Kano metropolis.  Majumder Shapan and Mohammad Razaul Karim (2012) urban solid waste management: A study on Camilla City Corporation. Journal of Economics and Sustainable Development Vol, 3 No 6  Agbu, Y, Abdul’razack, N, Utange, J, Z., (2013) an appraisal of solid waste Generation and management in Jalingo city, Nigeria. Journal of environmental and Earth science. Vol 3, No 9  Maigari, A. (2002), Introduction to environmental problems and management