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Introduction to Phonetic Science HESP 403 Spring 2007
Our backgrounds <ul><li>... </li></ul>
Syllabus <ul><li>Course / Instructor info </li></ul><ul><ul><li>www.bsos.umd.edu/hesp/mwinn  </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Office...
Purpose of the course <ul><li>ASHA guidelines </li></ul><ul><li>Communication between clinicians </li></ul><ul><li>Underst...
Goals of today’s class: <ul><li>Understand what the science of phonetics is.   </li></ul><ul><li>Understand linguistic ter...
Phonetics <ul><li>Where does it fit in? </li></ul><ul><li>What kinds of explanations does it offer? </li></ul><ul><li>What...
Kinds of Phonetics <ul><li>Articulatory / Transcription Phonetics </li></ul><ul><ul><li>What is being said? </li></ul></ul...
Articulatory / Transcription Phonetics What is being said? How do we classify sounds that we make in speech?
English Sounds in the IPA http://www.yorku.ca/earmstro/ipa/index.html
Acoustic phonetics What are the physical properties  of speech sounds?
Auditory Phonetics <ul><ul><li>How do we organize speech sounds  in our ears and in our brains? </li></ul></ul>
Clinical Phonetics <ul><li>The application of the knowledge of phonetics to solving practical problems </li></ul><ul><ul><...
The most important slide EVER <ul><li>Orthography (how a word is written) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Does not  indicate  </li><...
Spelling   <ul><li>Wood – would  </li></ul><ul><li>Fly – high  </li></ul><ul><li>Here – hear  </li></ul><ul><li>Cough – s...
Helpful symbols to start off <ul><li>“ word ”     a normal, typewritten word in plain English </li></ul><ul><li>/  word  ...
Terms:  Phoneme:  A sound in a language <ul><ul><li>Smallest unit of  sound  that distinguishes meaning in a word/language...
Understanding phonemes <ul><li>Every sound that is “important” to the word is a phoneme </li></ul>“ Phoneme” / m / / i / /...
Activity <ul><li>How many phonemes do these  words have? </li></ul><ul><li>“Good” </li></ul><ul><li>“Half” </li></ul><ul><...
Minimal Pairs <ul><li>Words  that  differ  by only  one  phoneme </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ Shoe”  /  š u /  </li></ul></ul><...
Are they Minimal pairs? <ul><li>Shoe – sue </li></ul><ul><li>Shoe – stew  </li></ul><ul><li>Flew – stew </li></ul><ul><li>...
Phoneme    categorization <ul><li>Each speaker sounds a bit different.  Every time to  say  a word, it might sound a bit ...
Allophones <ul><li>Variant pronunciations of a phoneme </li></ul><ul><li>So… they are different  phones  (sounds) but the ...
Allophone examples <ul><li>Keep and Keep  (unreleased or released final sound) </li></ul><ul><li>Light and Dark L sounds <...
Allophone example <ul><li>/ p h   I  t /  “pit” </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Aspirated (puff of air escapes from the mouth) </li>...
Allophones  Phonemes “ Allophone” is a  language-specific  designation.   Japanese [ r ] [ l ] p h o n e p h o n e / r / E...
Allophones  Phonemes “ Allophone” is a  language-specific  designation.   “See” “ Sika” “ Siika” English [ i: ] [ i ] p h ...
Different phones can be the  same   or   different  phonemes <ul><li>Phonemes in Sindhi </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>voiceles...
Non-phonemic phones <ul><li>Clicks </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Velar click </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Palatal click </li></ul></...
Phonemes from other languages <ul><li>Clicks – not phonemic in our language, but they are phonemes in  !Xóõ </li></ul><ul>...
Analogy  for Allophones: orthography <ul><li>Representation in the head </li></ul><ul><ul><li>  “ b ” </li></ul></ul><ul><...
So far... <ul><li>Phonetics as a sound science </li></ul><ul><li>Spelling is generally not useful for phonetics </li></ul>...
Kinds of  transcription <ul><li>If we use  Broad  Transcription, we just use the intended phoneme and disregard the slight...
The IPA <ul><li>The  International Phonetic Alphabet   </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Purpose Guiding principle:  one sound = one s...
IPA symbols <ul><li>Familiarize yourself with the IPA chart </li></ul><ul><li>(handout) </li></ul><ul><li>It contains the ...
IPA symbols – introductory issues <ul><li>/ j / = “y” </li></ul><ul><li>“ th” </li></ul><ul><li>“ sh”  and “ch” </li></ul>...
Sound inventories <ul><li>English has roughly 42 sounds </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Different dialects may drop or add some </li...
Combining sounds <ul><li>Syllables – sound units of words </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Are “countable” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li...
Syllables <ul><li>Definition? </li></ul>ve  coda a h ø e B nucleus coda nucleus rhyme onset rhyme onset Syllable  Syllable...
Kinds of Syllables <ul><li>Open  syllables </li></ul><ul><ul><li>End in a vowel (no coda) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>T...
Syllables and phonotactics <ul><li>Not all sounds are permitted in any position / in any combination in a syllable. </li><...
Stress <ul><li>= “lexical stress” </li></ul><ul><li>= “accent” </li></ul><ul><li>An increase in muscular force for one vow...
Types of stress <ul><li>Trochaic (English)  vs.  Iambic (French) stress </li></ul><ul><li>Photo </li></ul><ul><li>Defense ...
Stress <ul><li>If you can sing it long...    If you say it loud    when you’re mad... </li></ul><ul><li>Which syllable is ...
Stress as a semantic identifier in (phonetic) homographs <ul><ul><ul><li>con vict  vs.  con vict </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><...
Interchangeable stress <ul><li>Inside </li></ul><ul><li>Hello </li></ul>Non-Interchangeable stress <ul><li>Gather </li></u...
Transcription of stress <ul><li>Transcr | ibe </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Insert  |  before the stressed syllable (or vowel) </l...
Examples of stress transcription in orthography <ul><li>M | emphis </li></ul><ul><li>Sevent | een </li></ul><ul><li>Revol ...
So far... <ul><li>We use IPA to transcribe sounds </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The IPA is governed by specific and simple princip...
Homework for next week <ul><li>( Handout)  </li></ul><ul><li>QUIZ next week: </li></ul><ul><li>Basic linguistic terms that...
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  • When we say “phonetics,” we mean…
  • Sometimes allophones are context-dependent
  • Dog, whitefish
  • Even though we’ve vowed to disregard spelling…
  • Cite Maddieson book from 1984
  • Make HW for this class
  • Transcript of "Introduction to Phonetic Science"

    1. 1. Introduction to Phonetic Science HESP 403 Spring 2007
    2. 2. Our backgrounds <ul><li>... </li></ul>
    3. 3. Syllabus <ul><li>Course / Instructor info </li></ul><ul><ul><li>www.bsos.umd.edu/hesp/mwinn </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Office hours </li></ul><ul><li>Book (yes, there’s a book) </li></ul><ul><li>Syllabus/Grading </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Exams, quizzes, prep work, homework, (=attendance) </li></ul></ul>
    4. 4. Purpose of the course <ul><li>ASHA guidelines </li></ul><ul><li>Communication between clinicians </li></ul><ul><li>Understanding of the speech mechanism </li></ul><ul><li>Physical and theoretical properties of speech sounds </li></ul>
    5. 5. Goals of today’s class: <ul><li>Understand what the science of phonetics is. </li></ul><ul><li>Understand linguistic terms like “phoneme” “allophone” and “syllable” </li></ul><ul><li>Understand Stress </li></ul><ul><li>Know why we use phonetic symbols </li></ul>
    6. 6. Phonetics <ul><li>Where does it fit in? </li></ul><ul><li>What kinds of explanations does it offer? </li></ul><ul><li>What comparisons and analogies can we make? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>To other fields of study, within the study of language </li></ul></ul>
    7. 7. Kinds of Phonetics <ul><li>Articulatory / Transcription Phonetics </li></ul><ul><ul><li>What is being said? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>How do we classify sounds that we make in speech? </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Acoustic Phonetics </li></ul><ul><ul><li>What are the physical properties of speech sounds? </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Auditory Phonetics </li></ul><ul><ul><li>How do we organize speech sounds in our brains? </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Clinical Phonetics </li></ul><ul><ul><li>How can we use this knowledge to solve problems? </li></ul></ul>
    8. 8. Articulatory / Transcription Phonetics What is being said? How do we classify sounds that we make in speech?
    9. 9. English Sounds in the IPA http://www.yorku.ca/earmstro/ipa/index.html
    10. 10. Acoustic phonetics What are the physical properties of speech sounds?
    11. 11. Auditory Phonetics <ul><ul><li>How do we organize speech sounds in our ears and in our brains? </li></ul></ul>
    12. 12. Clinical Phonetics <ul><li>The application of the knowledge of phonetics to solving practical problems </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Phonological disorders </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Understanding dialects </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Accent reduction </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Language acquisition </li></ul></ul>
    13. 13. The most important slide EVER <ul><li>Orthography (how a word is written) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Does not indicate </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pronunciation (how a word is spoken) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Don’t be fooled by spelling! Phonetics is concerned with sounds, not letters </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Digraphs “th” “sh” “ch” “-ti” etc. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Represent one sound </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Vowels </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Are often not clearly reflected by spelling. </li></ul></ul></ul>
    14. 14. Spelling  <ul><li>Wood – would </li></ul><ul><li>Fly – high </li></ul><ul><li>Here – hear </li></ul><ul><li>Cough – scoff </li></ul><ul><li>Mission – ration – fishing </li></ul><ul><li>Mission – fission </li></ul>
    15. 15. Helpful symbols to start off <ul><li>“ word ”  a normal, typewritten word in plain English </li></ul><ul><li>/ word /  the basic idea we have about how a word is pronounced </li></ul><ul><li>[ word ]  an actual pronunciation of a word (usually from an audio recording) </li></ul>
    16. 16. Terms: Phoneme: A sound in a language <ul><ul><li>Smallest unit of sound that distinguishes meaning in a word/language </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“ cat” has three sounds, each of which can distinguish its meaning from another word </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>“ r at” “k i t” “ca b ” </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>If you change any of the three sounds, the word no longer means the same thing. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Each phoneme is represented by one symbol in the IPA alphabet </li></ul></ul>
    17. 17. Understanding phonemes <ul><li>Every sound that is “important” to the word is a phoneme </li></ul>“ Phoneme” / m / / i / / n / / o / / f / me e n o Ph “ Boat” / t / / o / / b / t oa B
    18. 18. Activity <ul><li>How many phonemes do these words have? </li></ul><ul><li>“Good” </li></ul><ul><li>“Half” </li></ul><ul><li>“Through” </li></ul><ul><li>“Chips” </li></ul>
    19. 19. Minimal Pairs <ul><li>Words that differ by only one phoneme </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ Shoe” / š u / </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“ Do” / d u / </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Min. Pair even though it is 4 letters vs 2 </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Not minimal pairs: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ Cough” “rough” differ by more than one sound, though only one letter. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“ Pair” and “Pare” both the same – no change in sounds , though there is a change in orthography. </li></ul></ul>
    20. 20. Are they Minimal pairs? <ul><li>Shoe – sue </li></ul><ul><li>Shoe – stew </li></ul><ul><li>Flew – stew </li></ul><ul><li>Correct – collect </li></ul><ul><li>Mice – nice </li></ul><ul><li>Wail – sale </li></ul><ul><li>Wail – where </li></ul>
    21. 21. Phoneme  categorization <ul><li>Each speaker sounds a bit different. Every time to say a word, it might sound a bit different. </li></ul><ul><li>Still, we can learn to put these physically different sounds into categories . </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The categories are phonemes </li></ul></ul>
    22. 22. Allophones <ul><li>Variant pronunciations of a phoneme </li></ul><ul><li>So… they are different phones (sounds) but the same phoneme (category) </li></ul>Any speech sound Because they don’t change the meaning of the word
    23. 23. Allophone examples <ul><li>Keep and Keep (unreleased or released final sound) </li></ul><ul><li>Light and Dark L sounds </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Little vs ball </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Keel and cool </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Front and back /k/ </li></ul></ul>
    24. 24. Allophone example <ul><li>/ p h I t / “pit” </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Aspirated (puff of air escapes from the mouth) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>/ s p I t / “spit” </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Unaspirated </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Both are still perceived as the same sound </li></ul>
    25. 25. Allophones Phonemes “ Allophone” is a language-specific designation. Japanese [ r ] [ l ] p h o n e p h o n e / r / English [ r ] [ l ] p h o n e p h o n e / r / / l /
    26. 26. Allophones Phonemes “ Allophone” is a language-specific designation. “See” “ Sika” “ Siika” English [ i: ] [ i ] p h o n e p h o n e / i / Finnish [ i: ] [ i ] p h o n e p h o n e / i: / / i /
    27. 27. Different phones can be the same or different phonemes <ul><li>Phonemes in Sindhi </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>voiceless d </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>aspirated t </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>breathy d </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>unaspirated t </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Allophones of the same phoneme / t / </li></ul><ul><ul><li>(in English) </li></ul></ul>
    28. 28. Non-phonemic phones <ul><li>Clicks </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Velar click </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Palatal click </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Dental click </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Glottal click </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Other sounds </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Bbbbbb! </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Whistle </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Scream </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Not phonemes in English </li></ul></ul>http://hctv.humnet.ucla.edu/departments/linguistics/VowelsandConsonants/course/chapter11/zulu/zulu.html
    29. 29. Phonemes from other languages <ul><li>Clicks – not phonemic in our language, but they are phonemes in !Xóõ </li></ul><ul><ul><li>” be seated” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“ to die” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“ not to be” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“ shoot you” </li></ul></ul>
    30. 30. Analogy for Allophones: orthography <ul><li>Representation in the head </li></ul><ul><ul><li> “ b ” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>b B </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Normal use Proper names </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>special words 2 realizations of the same letter </li></ul></ul>
    31. 31. So far... <ul><li>Phonetics as a sound science </li></ul><ul><li>Spelling is generally not useful for phonetics </li></ul><ul><ul><li>May not reflect sound contrasts </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>May imply false contrasts </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Is not consistent </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Sounds can distinguish meaning </li></ul><ul><ul><li>This is language-specific </li></ul></ul>
    32. 32. Kinds of transcription <ul><li>If we use Broad Transcription, we just use the intended phoneme and disregard the slight variation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>All k’s are k’s. All b’s are b’s </li></ul></ul><ul><li>If we use Narrow Transcription, we use the exact allophone being spoken </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Different sounds are written differently </li></ul></ul>
    33. 33. The IPA <ul><li>The International Phonetic Alphabet </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Purpose Guiding principle: one sound = one symbol </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A different symbol for each distinctive sound </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The same symbol should be used for that sound in every language which uses it </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Simple symbols for major sounds (from the roman alphabet where possible) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Diacritics are used for minor modifications </li></ul></ul>
    34. 34. IPA symbols <ul><li>Familiarize yourself with the IPA chart </li></ul><ul><li>(handout) </li></ul><ul><li>It contains the characters used in broad transcription </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Extended IPA charts show markings (diacritics) to use for slight variations. </li></ul></ul>
    35. 35. IPA symbols – introductory issues <ul><li>/ j / = “y” </li></ul><ul><li>“ th” </li></ul><ul><li>“ sh” and “ch” </li></ul><ul><li>“ ng” </li></ul><ul><li>classification </li></ul>
    36. 36. Sound inventories <ul><li>English has roughly 42 sounds </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Different dialects may drop or add some </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>This is above-average (~29) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Small inventories: Rotokas, Mura – 11 sounds Hawaiian 13 sounds </li></ul><ul><li>Largest inventory: !Xóõ - 141 </li></ul>
    37. 37. Combining sounds <ul><li>Syllables – sound units of words </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Are “countable” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Are “singable” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Contain a vowel / a vowel quality </li></ul></ul>
    38. 38. Syllables <ul><li>Definition? </li></ul>ve coda a h ø e B nucleus coda nucleus rhyme onset rhyme onset Syllable Syllable Word – “behave”
    39. 39. Kinds of Syllables <ul><li>Open syllables </li></ul><ul><ul><li>End in a vowel (no coda) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The, he, she, play </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Closed syllables </li></ul><ul><ul><li>End with a consonant (have a coda) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Bring, them, luck, speech </li></ul></ul></ul>
    40. 40. Syllables and phonotactics <ul><li>Not all sounds are permitted in any position / in any combination in a syllable. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ ng” “ts” “rf” at start of syllable? </li></ul></ul><ul><li>English consonant clusters </li></ul><ul><ul><li>3 @initial 4 @coda </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Japanese lack of clusters </li></ul>
    41. 41. Stress <ul><li>= “lexical stress” </li></ul><ul><li>= “accent” </li></ul><ul><li>An increase in muscular force for one vowel in a word </li></ul><ul><li>General tendencies: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Longer duration </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Higher pitch </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Louder </li></ul></ul>
    42. 42. Types of stress <ul><li>Trochaic (English) vs. Iambic (French) stress </li></ul><ul><li>Photo </li></ul><ul><li>Defense </li></ul><ul><li>Strategy </li></ul>
    43. 43. Stress <ul><li>If you can sing it long... If you say it loud when you’re mad... </li></ul><ul><li>Which syllable is stressed? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Baker </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Enter </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Infer </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Police </li></ul></ul>it is probably the stressed syllable” <ul><ul><li>Accident </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Guitar </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Computer </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Plant </li></ul></ul>
    44. 44. Stress as a semantic identifier in (phonetic) homographs <ul><ul><ul><li>con vict vs. con vict </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>pro ject vs. pro ject </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>con verse vs. con verse </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>first syllable stressed: noun </li></ul></ul>(Same sounds in the word) <ul><ul><li>second syllable stressed: verb </li></ul></ul>
    45. 45. Interchangeable stress <ul><li>Inside </li></ul><ul><li>Hello </li></ul>Non-Interchangeable stress <ul><li>Gather </li></ul><ul><li>Sleepy </li></ul><ul><li>Computer </li></ul>
    46. 46. Transcription of stress <ul><li>Transcr | ibe </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Insert | before the stressed syllable (or vowel) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Pr | emon | ition </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Insert | before a syllable (vowel) of secondary stress (this one is not as important) </li></ul></ul>
    47. 47. Examples of stress transcription in orthography <ul><li>M | emphis </li></ul><ul><li>Sevent | een </li></ul><ul><li>Revol | ution </li></ul><ul><li>Inv | est </li></ul><ul><li>B | ubble </li></ul><ul><li>| Invoice </li></ul><ul><li>Inst | ead </li></ul><ul><li>Ind | eed </li></ul><ul><li>| Insect </li></ul><ul><li>| Index </li></ul><ul><li>Insp | ire </li></ul>
    48. 48. So far... <ul><li>We use IPA to transcribe sounds </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The IPA is governed by specific and simple principles </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Different languages vary greatly in their inventory of contrastive sounds </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Syllables </li></ul><ul><li>Stress </li></ul>
    49. 49. Homework for next week <ul><li>( Handout) </li></ul><ul><li>QUIZ next week: </li></ul><ul><li>Basic linguistic terms that we discussed today </li></ul><ul><li>The nature of phonetic transcription </li></ul><ul><li>Identifying phonemes and stress in words </li></ul><ul><li>Think about prep question </li></ul>
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