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Introduction to Phonetic Science

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  • When we say “phonetics,” we mean…
  • Sometimes allophones are context-dependent
  • Dog, whitefish
  • Even though we’ve vowed to disregard spelling…
  • Cite Maddieson book from 1984
  • Make HW for this class
  • Transcript

    • 1. Introduction to Phonetic Science HESP 403 Spring 2007
    • 2. Our backgrounds
      • ...
    • 3. Syllabus
      • Course / Instructor info
        • www.bsos.umd.edu/hesp/mwinn
      • Office hours
      • Book (yes, there’s a book)
      • Syllabus/Grading
        • Exams, quizzes, prep work, homework, (=attendance)
    • 4. Purpose of the course
      • ASHA guidelines
      • Communication between clinicians
      • Understanding of the speech mechanism
      • Physical and theoretical properties of speech sounds
    • 5. Goals of today’s class:
      • Understand what the science of phonetics is.
      • Understand linguistic terms like “phoneme” “allophone” and “syllable”
      • Understand Stress
      • Know why we use phonetic symbols
    • 6. Phonetics
      • Where does it fit in?
      • What kinds of explanations does it offer?
      • What comparisons and analogies can we make?
        • To other fields of study, within the study of language
    • 7. Kinds of Phonetics
      • Articulatory / Transcription Phonetics
        • What is being said?
        • How do we classify sounds that we make in speech?
      • Acoustic Phonetics
        • What are the physical properties of speech sounds?
      • Auditory Phonetics
        • How do we organize speech sounds in our brains?
      • Clinical Phonetics
        • How can we use this knowledge to solve problems?
    • 8. Articulatory / Transcription Phonetics What is being said? How do we classify sounds that we make in speech?
    • 9. English Sounds in the IPA http://www.yorku.ca/earmstro/ipa/index.html
    • 10. Acoustic phonetics What are the physical properties of speech sounds?
    • 11. Auditory Phonetics
        • How do we organize speech sounds in our ears and in our brains?
    • 12. Clinical Phonetics
      • The application of the knowledge of phonetics to solving practical problems
        • Phonological disorders
        • Understanding dialects
        • Accent reduction
        • Language acquisition
    • 13. The most important slide EVER
      • Orthography (how a word is written)
        • Does not indicate
        • Pronunciation (how a word is spoken)
          • Don’t be fooled by spelling! Phonetics is concerned with sounds, not letters
        • Digraphs “th” “sh” “ch” “-ti” etc.
          • Represent one sound
        • Vowels
          • Are often not clearly reflected by spelling.
    • 14. Spelling 
      • Wood – would
      • Fly – high
      • Here – hear
      • Cough – scoff
      • Mission – ration – fishing
      • Mission – fission
    • 15. Helpful symbols to start off
      • “ word ”  a normal, typewritten word in plain English
      • / word /  the basic idea we have about how a word is pronounced
      • [ word ]  an actual pronunciation of a word (usually from an audio recording)
    • 16. Terms: Phoneme: A sound in a language
        • Smallest unit of sound that distinguishes meaning in a word/language
        • “ cat” has three sounds, each of which can distinguish its meaning from another word
          • “ r at” “k i t” “ca b ”
          • If you change any of the three sounds, the word no longer means the same thing.
        • Each phoneme is represented by one symbol in the IPA alphabet
    • 17. Understanding phonemes
      • Every sound that is “important” to the word is a phoneme
      “ Phoneme” / m / / i / / n / / o / / f / me e n o Ph “ Boat” / t / / o / / b / t oa B
    • 18. Activity
      • How many phonemes do these words have?
      • “Good”
      • “Half”
      • “Through”
      • “Chips”
    • 19. Minimal Pairs
      • Words that differ by only one phoneme
        • “ Shoe” / š u /
        • “ Do” / d u /
          • Min. Pair even though it is 4 letters vs 2
      • Not minimal pairs:
        • “ Cough” “rough” differ by more than one sound, though only one letter.
        • “ Pair” and “Pare” both the same – no change in sounds , though there is a change in orthography.
    • 20. Are they Minimal pairs?
      • Shoe – sue
      • Shoe – stew
      • Flew – stew
      • Correct – collect
      • Mice – nice
      • Wail – sale
      • Wail – where
    • 21. Phoneme  categorization
      • Each speaker sounds a bit different. Every time to say a word, it might sound a bit different.
      • Still, we can learn to put these physically different sounds into categories .
        • The categories are phonemes
    • 22. Allophones
      • Variant pronunciations of a phoneme
      • So… they are different phones (sounds) but the same phoneme (category)
      Any speech sound Because they don’t change the meaning of the word
    • 23. Allophone examples
      • Keep and Keep (unreleased or released final sound)
      • Light and Dark L sounds
        • Little vs ball
      • Keel and cool
        • Front and back /k/
    • 24. Allophone example
      • / p h I t / “pit”
        • Aspirated (puff of air escapes from the mouth)
      • / s p I t / “spit”
        • Unaspirated
      • Both are still perceived as the same sound
    • 25. Allophones Phonemes “ Allophone” is a language-specific designation. Japanese [ r ] [ l ] p h o n e p h o n e / r / English [ r ] [ l ] p h o n e p h o n e / r / / l /
    • 26. Allophones Phonemes “ Allophone” is a language-specific designation. “See” “ Sika” “ Siika” English [ i: ] [ i ] p h o n e p h o n e / i / Finnish [ i: ] [ i ] p h o n e p h o n e / i: / / i /
    • 27. Different phones can be the same or different phonemes
      • Phonemes in Sindhi
          • voiceless d
          • aspirated t
          • breathy d
          • unaspirated t
      • Allophones of the same phoneme / t /
        • (in English)
    • 28. Non-phonemic phones
      • Clicks
        • Velar click
        • Palatal click
        • Dental click
        • Glottal click
      • Other sounds
        • Bbbbbb!
        • Whistle
        • Scream
        • Not phonemes in English
      http://hctv.humnet.ucla.edu/departments/linguistics/VowelsandConsonants/course/chapter11/zulu/zulu.html
    • 29. Phonemes from other languages
      • Clicks – not phonemic in our language, but they are phonemes in !Xóõ
        • ” be seated”
        • “ to die”
        • “ not to be”
        • “ shoot you”
    • 30. Analogy for Allophones: orthography
      • Representation in the head
        • “ b ”
        • b B
        • Normal use Proper names
        • special words 2 realizations of the same letter
    • 31. So far...
      • Phonetics as a sound science
      • Spelling is generally not useful for phonetics
        • May not reflect sound contrasts
        • May imply false contrasts
        • Is not consistent
      • Sounds can distinguish meaning
        • This is language-specific
    • 32. Kinds of transcription
      • If we use Broad Transcription, we just use the intended phoneme and disregard the slight variation
        • All k’s are k’s. All b’s are b’s
      • If we use Narrow Transcription, we use the exact allophone being spoken
        • Different sounds are written differently
    • 33. The IPA
      • The International Phonetic Alphabet
        • Purpose Guiding principle: one sound = one symbol
        • A different symbol for each distinctive sound
        • The same symbol should be used for that sound in every language which uses it
        • Simple symbols for major sounds (from the roman alphabet where possible)
        • Diacritics are used for minor modifications
    • 34. IPA symbols
      • Familiarize yourself with the IPA chart
      • (handout)
      • It contains the characters used in broad transcription
        • Extended IPA charts show markings (diacritics) to use for slight variations.
    • 35. IPA symbols – introductory issues
      • / j / = “y”
      • “ th”
      • “ sh” and “ch”
      • “ ng”
      • classification
    • 36. Sound inventories
      • English has roughly 42 sounds
        • Different dialects may drop or add some
        • This is above-average (~29)
      • Small inventories: Rotokas, Mura – 11 sounds Hawaiian 13 sounds
      • Largest inventory: !Xóõ - 141
    • 37. Combining sounds
      • Syllables – sound units of words
        • Are “countable”
        • Are “singable”
        • Contain a vowel / a vowel quality
    • 38. Syllables
      • Definition?
      ve coda a h ø e B nucleus coda nucleus rhyme onset rhyme onset Syllable Syllable Word – “behave”
    • 39. Kinds of Syllables
      • Open syllables
        • End in a vowel (no coda)
          • The, he, she, play
      • Closed syllables
        • End with a consonant (have a coda)
          • Bring, them, luck, speech
    • 40. Syllables and phonotactics
      • Not all sounds are permitted in any position / in any combination in a syllable.
        • “ ng” “ts” “rf” at start of syllable?
      • English consonant clusters
        • 3 @initial 4 @coda
      • Japanese lack of clusters
    • 41. Stress
      • = “lexical stress”
      • = “accent”
      • An increase in muscular force for one vowel in a word
      • General tendencies:
        • Longer duration
        • Higher pitch
        • Louder
    • 42. Types of stress
      • Trochaic (English) vs. Iambic (French) stress
      • Photo
      • Defense
      • Strategy
    • 43. Stress
      • If you can sing it long... If you say it loud when you’re mad...
      • Which syllable is stressed?
        • Baker
        • Enter
        • Infer
        • Police
      it is probably the stressed syllable”
        • Accident
        • Guitar
        • Computer
        • Plant
    • 44. Stress as a semantic identifier in (phonetic) homographs
          • con vict vs. con vict
          • pro ject vs. pro ject
          • con verse vs. con verse
        • first syllable stressed: noun
      (Same sounds in the word)
        • second syllable stressed: verb
    • 45. Interchangeable stress
      • Inside
      • Hello
      Non-Interchangeable stress
      • Gather
      • Sleepy
      • Computer
    • 46. Transcription of stress
      • Transcr | ibe
        • Insert | before the stressed syllable (or vowel)
      • Pr | emon | ition
        • Insert | before a syllable (vowel) of secondary stress (this one is not as important)
    • 47. Examples of stress transcription in orthography
      • M | emphis
      • Sevent | een
      • Revol | ution
      • Inv | est
      • B | ubble
      • | Invoice
      • Inst | ead
      • Ind | eed
      • | Insect
      • | Index
      • Insp | ire
    • 48. So far...
      • We use IPA to transcribe sounds
        • The IPA is governed by specific and simple principles
        • Different languages vary greatly in their inventory of contrastive sounds
      • Syllables
      • Stress
    • 49. Homework for next week
      • ( Handout)
      • QUIZ next week:
      • Basic linguistic terms that we discussed today
      • The nature of phonetic transcription
      • Identifying phonemes and stress in words
      • Think about prep question

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