Introduction to Phonetic Science
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in...5
×
 

Introduction to Phonetic Science

on

  • 3,910 views

 

Statistics

Views

Total Views
3,910
Views on SlideShare
3,908
Embed Views
2

Actions

Likes
0
Downloads
118
Comments
0

2 Embeds 2

http://pinterest.com 1
http://www.pinterest.com 1

Accessibility

Categories

Upload Details

Uploaded via as Microsoft PowerPoint

Usage Rights

© All Rights Reserved

Report content

Flagged as inappropriate Flag as inappropriate
Flag as inappropriate

Select your reason for flagging this presentation as inappropriate.

Cancel
  • Full Name Full Name Comment goes here.
    Are you sure you want to
    Your message goes here
    Processing…
Post Comment
Edit your comment
  • When we say “phonetics,” we mean…
  • Sometimes allophones are context-dependent
  • Dog, whitefish
  • Even though we’ve vowed to disregard spelling…
  • Cite Maddieson book from 1984
  • Make HW for this class

Introduction to Phonetic Science Introduction to Phonetic Science Presentation Transcript

  • Introduction to Phonetic Science HESP 403 Spring 2007
  • Our backgrounds
    • ...
  • Syllabus
    • Course / Instructor info
      • www.bsos.umd.edu/hesp/mwinn
    • Office hours
    • Book (yes, there’s a book)
    • Syllabus/Grading
      • Exams, quizzes, prep work, homework, (=attendance)
  • Purpose of the course
    • ASHA guidelines
    • Communication between clinicians
    • Understanding of the speech mechanism
    • Physical and theoretical properties of speech sounds
  • Goals of today’s class:
    • Understand what the science of phonetics is.
    • Understand linguistic terms like “phoneme” “allophone” and “syllable”
    • Understand Stress
    • Know why we use phonetic symbols
  • Phonetics
    • Where does it fit in?
    • What kinds of explanations does it offer?
    • What comparisons and analogies can we make?
      • To other fields of study, within the study of language
  • Kinds of Phonetics
    • Articulatory / Transcription Phonetics
      • What is being said?
      • How do we classify sounds that we make in speech?
    • Acoustic Phonetics
      • What are the physical properties of speech sounds?
    • Auditory Phonetics
      • How do we organize speech sounds in our brains?
    • Clinical Phonetics
      • How can we use this knowledge to solve problems?
  • Articulatory / Transcription Phonetics What is being said? How do we classify sounds that we make in speech?
  • English Sounds in the IPA http://www.yorku.ca/earmstro/ipa/index.html
  • Acoustic phonetics What are the physical properties of speech sounds?
  • Auditory Phonetics
      • How do we organize speech sounds in our ears and in our brains?
  • Clinical Phonetics
    • The application of the knowledge of phonetics to solving practical problems
      • Phonological disorders
      • Understanding dialects
      • Accent reduction
      • Language acquisition
  • The most important slide EVER
    • Orthography (how a word is written)
      • Does not indicate
      • Pronunciation (how a word is spoken)
        • Don’t be fooled by spelling! Phonetics is concerned with sounds, not letters
      • Digraphs “th” “sh” “ch” “-ti” etc.
        • Represent one sound
      • Vowels
        • Are often not clearly reflected by spelling.
  • Spelling 
    • Wood – would
    • Fly – high
    • Here – hear
    • Cough – scoff
    • Mission – ration – fishing
    • Mission – fission
  • Helpful symbols to start off
    • “ word ”  a normal, typewritten word in plain English
    • / word /  the basic idea we have about how a word is pronounced
    • [ word ]  an actual pronunciation of a word (usually from an audio recording)
  • Terms: Phoneme: A sound in a language
      • Smallest unit of sound that distinguishes meaning in a word/language
      • “ cat” has three sounds, each of which can distinguish its meaning from another word
        • “ r at” “k i t” “ca b ”
        • If you change any of the three sounds, the word no longer means the same thing.
      • Each phoneme is represented by one symbol in the IPA alphabet
  • Understanding phonemes
    • Every sound that is “important” to the word is a phoneme
    “ Phoneme” / m / / i / / n / / o / / f / me e n o Ph “ Boat” / t / / o / / b / t oa B
  • Activity
    • How many phonemes do these words have?
    • “Good”
    • “Half”
    • “Through”
    • “Chips”
  • Minimal Pairs
    • Words that differ by only one phoneme
      • “ Shoe” / š u /
      • “ Do” / d u /
        • Min. Pair even though it is 4 letters vs 2
    • Not minimal pairs:
      • “ Cough” “rough” differ by more than one sound, though only one letter.
      • “ Pair” and “Pare” both the same – no change in sounds , though there is a change in orthography.
  • Are they Minimal pairs?
    • Shoe – sue
    • Shoe – stew
    • Flew – stew
    • Correct – collect
    • Mice – nice
    • Wail – sale
    • Wail – where
  • Phoneme  categorization
    • Each speaker sounds a bit different. Every time to say a word, it might sound a bit different.
    • Still, we can learn to put these physically different sounds into categories .
      • The categories are phonemes
  • Allophones
    • Variant pronunciations of a phoneme
    • So… they are different phones (sounds) but the same phoneme (category)
    Any speech sound Because they don’t change the meaning of the word
  • Allophone examples
    • Keep and Keep (unreleased or released final sound)
    • Light and Dark L sounds
      • Little vs ball
    • Keel and cool
      • Front and back /k/
  • Allophone example
    • / p h I t / “pit”
      • Aspirated (puff of air escapes from the mouth)
    • / s p I t / “spit”
      • Unaspirated
    • Both are still perceived as the same sound
  • Allophones Phonemes “ Allophone” is a language-specific designation. Japanese [ r ] [ l ] p h o n e p h o n e / r / English [ r ] [ l ] p h o n e p h o n e / r / / l /
  • Allophones Phonemes “ Allophone” is a language-specific designation. “See” “ Sika” “ Siika” English [ i: ] [ i ] p h o n e p h o n e / i / Finnish [ i: ] [ i ] p h o n e p h o n e / i: / / i /
  • Different phones can be the same or different phonemes
    • Phonemes in Sindhi
        • voiceless d
        • aspirated t
        • breathy d
        • unaspirated t
    • Allophones of the same phoneme / t /
      • (in English)
  • Non-phonemic phones
    • Clicks
      • Velar click
      • Palatal click
      • Dental click
      • Glottal click
    • Other sounds
      • Bbbbbb!
      • Whistle
      • Scream
      • Not phonemes in English
    http://hctv.humnet.ucla.edu/departments/linguistics/VowelsandConsonants/course/chapter11/zulu/zulu.html
  • Phonemes from other languages
    • Clicks – not phonemic in our language, but they are phonemes in !Xóõ
      • ” be seated”
      • “ to die”
      • “ not to be”
      • “ shoot you”
  • Analogy for Allophones: orthography
    • Representation in the head
      • “ b ”
      • b B
      • Normal use Proper names
      • special words 2 realizations of the same letter
  • So far...
    • Phonetics as a sound science
    • Spelling is generally not useful for phonetics
      • May not reflect sound contrasts
      • May imply false contrasts
      • Is not consistent
    • Sounds can distinguish meaning
      • This is language-specific
  • Kinds of transcription
    • If we use Broad Transcription, we just use the intended phoneme and disregard the slight variation
      • All k’s are k’s. All b’s are b’s
    • If we use Narrow Transcription, we use the exact allophone being spoken
      • Different sounds are written differently
  • The IPA
    • The International Phonetic Alphabet
      • Purpose Guiding principle: one sound = one symbol
      • A different symbol for each distinctive sound
      • The same symbol should be used for that sound in every language which uses it
      • Simple symbols for major sounds (from the roman alphabet where possible)
      • Diacritics are used for minor modifications
  • IPA symbols
    • Familiarize yourself with the IPA chart
    • (handout)
    • It contains the characters used in broad transcription
      • Extended IPA charts show markings (diacritics) to use for slight variations.
  • IPA symbols – introductory issues
    • / j / = “y”
    • “ th”
    • “ sh” and “ch”
    • “ ng”
    • classification
  • Sound inventories
    • English has roughly 42 sounds
      • Different dialects may drop or add some
      • This is above-average (~29)
    • Small inventories: Rotokas, Mura – 11 sounds Hawaiian 13 sounds
    • Largest inventory: !Xóõ - 141
  • Combining sounds
    • Syllables – sound units of words
      • Are “countable”
      • Are “singable”
      • Contain a vowel / a vowel quality
  • Syllables
    • Definition?
    ve coda a h ø e B nucleus coda nucleus rhyme onset rhyme onset Syllable Syllable Word – “behave”
  • Kinds of Syllables
    • Open syllables
      • End in a vowel (no coda)
        • The, he, she, play
    • Closed syllables
      • End with a consonant (have a coda)
        • Bring, them, luck, speech
  • Syllables and phonotactics
    • Not all sounds are permitted in any position / in any combination in a syllable.
      • “ ng” “ts” “rf” at start of syllable?
    • English consonant clusters
      • 3 @initial 4 @coda
    • Japanese lack of clusters
  • Stress
    • = “lexical stress”
    • = “accent”
    • An increase in muscular force for one vowel in a word
    • General tendencies:
      • Longer duration
      • Higher pitch
      • Louder
  • Types of stress
    • Trochaic (English) vs. Iambic (French) stress
    • Photo
    • Defense
    • Strategy
  • Stress
    • If you can sing it long... If you say it loud when you’re mad...
    • Which syllable is stressed?
      • Baker
      • Enter
      • Infer
      • Police
    it is probably the stressed syllable”
      • Accident
      • Guitar
      • Computer
      • Plant
  • Stress as a semantic identifier in (phonetic) homographs
        • con vict vs. con vict
        • pro ject vs. pro ject
        • con verse vs. con verse
      • first syllable stressed: noun
    (Same sounds in the word)
      • second syllable stressed: verb
  • Interchangeable stress
    • Inside
    • Hello
    Non-Interchangeable stress
    • Gather
    • Sleepy
    • Computer
  • Transcription of stress
    • Transcr | ibe
      • Insert | before the stressed syllable (or vowel)
    • Pr | emon | ition
      • Insert | before a syllable (vowel) of secondary stress (this one is not as important)
  • Examples of stress transcription in orthography
    • M | emphis
    • Sevent | een
    • Revol | ution
    • Inv | est
    • B | ubble
    • | Invoice
    • Inst | ead
    • Ind | eed
    • | Insect
    • | Index
    • Insp | ire
  • So far...
    • We use IPA to transcribe sounds
      • The IPA is governed by specific and simple principles
      • Different languages vary greatly in their inventory of contrastive sounds
    • Syllables
    • Stress
  • Homework for next week
    • ( Handout)
    • QUIZ next week:
    • Basic linguistic terms that we discussed today
    • The nature of phonetic transcription
    • Identifying phonemes and stress in words
    • Think about prep question