The postmodern world is full of diversity, dynamism and creativity
CCCS’s view ignores this – assumes basically that all subcultures have similar origins (reaction to mainstream)
McCracken says that if we look at the array of values, and ideologies then we can’t make such generalisations.
By only looking at superficial style, Hebdige came to the conclusion subcultures’ difference was only superficial. Look deeper and there is enough richness to warrant renaming ‘subcultures’ as ‘little cultures’.
‘ Para-para’ involves dressing in the most absurd, shocking outfit you can (or to make yourself look as perversely conformist!) and wearing extremely high heels!
The music is sped up euro-pop, released on limited edition vinyl…
… .with the top-secret dance moves to this particular song printed on the sleeve:
Whoever has the newest, most elaborate moves is the envy of the rest of the dancefloor – but due to ridiculously high-heels, these are confined to mainly arm and hand movements.
How would you classify ‘kosupure’ and ‘para-para’?
What are these teens reacting against? Conservative Japanese mainstream? But what about the ‘lolita’ look? Or the fact there is hardly any drug use or violence – most just want to look different and dance?
Are they avant-fashion pioneers, where individuality is everything? Then why the rigid adherence to strict dance moves, and the heirarchy based on this?
CCCS ideas may work when applied to 60s Glasgow barrow-boys, but not to 21 st century Tokyo!
Stars represent shared cultural values and attitudes, and will promote a certain ideology.
Fans who agree with that set of values will support the star
Fans will imitate stars in an aspirational effort to get ‘closer’ to the glamorous, fantasy lifestyle they appear to have – this may take the form of ‘dressing up’, imitating performances, adopting behaviour etc.
Though Dyer was applying this theory to movie stars, it can also be applied to pop stars, who often have a far faster rise to stardom by promoting values.
What values does Kylie promote here? What kind of audience would be attracted to her?
“ The pop music industry does not create long-lasting subcultures – it struggles to keep up with youth values and groups”
Focus on three subcultures:
Sub-culture that has been created by pop music – ‘rude boyz’/white gangsta rap fans
Sub-culture that has other, non-pop origins – Essex boys/casuals (more class-based)
Sub-culture that has resisted pop music industry – ‘ravers’ (scorning commercial dance music, DJs create music purely for the events, not even issued unless it becomes an anthem. No singer/performer to focus on)