Theory

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  • Theory

    1. 1. Theory stuff To underpin your understanding
    2. 2. Synergy• Often as much money can be made from the related products marketed alongside a major new film as the film itself.• Usually not produced by film studios themselves but franchised out.• The planning, marketing & coordination of release dates along with tie ins & spin offs are crucial aspects of modern media activity.• Eg Harry potter world, this is called synergy & is crucial to media institutions success.
    3. 3. Diversification• This is when companies diversify into different realms, sometimes by taking over or merging with other companies..• Horizontal integration- when companies expand sideways eg Sherlock holmes game onfacebook to promote film.• Vertical integration - when a company takes over all the processes of production & distribution, eg murdochs news international owning sky, times, sun etc.
    4. 4. Audiences• demographics react differently to the same products.• Early studies of audiences tended to focus on passive, non discerning, mindless viewers accepting what is fees to them.• Now we realise audience theory is more complex than this.• Audiences are capable of a high degree of self determination.
    5. 5. Chomsky• Noam chomsky is a theorist who contends that the ral product is the audience itself.• He says that media institutions should be seen as businesses who are engaged in driving audiences to the real drivers of media activities, the advertisers.• He claims that programmes and films are made to deliver audiences into the advertisers hands.• With product placement as well as adverts becoming more ubiquitous this theory gains more credibility.• http://www.chomsky.info/
    6. 6. Stuart Hall• Identified 3 main perspectives that audiences can read texts.• Preferred or dominant readings- those that are closest to those intended by the producers.• Negotiated readings - female watching a male protagonist.• Oppositional or resistant readings-audiences own life experiences are at odds with the text. Eg crime drama watched by prisoners.• Halls essay challenged all three components of the mass communications model. It argued that (i) meaning is not simply fixed or determined by the sender; (ii) the message is never transparent; and (iii) the audience is not a passive recipient of meaning.• http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Stuart_Hall_(cultural_theorist)•
    7. 7. David Gauntlett• Gauntlett developed the theory of web 2.0 first devised by Tim oReilly in 2004.• In 2008 Gauntlett proposed the Make and Connect Agenda, an attempt to rethink audience studies in the context of media users as producers as well as consumers of media material.• This argues that there is a shift from a sit- back-and-be-told culture to a making-and- doing culture, and that harnessing creativity in both Web 2.0 and in other everyday creative activities will play a role in tackling environmental problems.• These ideas are developed further in Making is Connecting.• http://theory.org.uk/david/•
    8. 8. David Gauntlett• Gauntlett developed the theory of web 2.0 first devised by Tim oReilly in 2004.• In 2008 Gauntlett proposed the Make and Connect Agenda, an attempt to rethink audience studies in the context of media users as producers as well as consumers of media material.• This argues that there is a shift from a sit- back-and-be-told culture to a making-and- doing culture, and that harnessing creativity in both Web 2.0 and in other everyday creative activities will play a role in tackling environmental problems.• These ideas are developed further in Making is Connecting.• http://theory.org.uk/david/•
    9. 9. David Gauntlett• Gauntlett developed the theory of web 2.0 first devised by Tim oReilly in 2004.• In 2008 Gauntlett proposed the Make and Connect Agenda, an attempt to rethink audience studies in the context of media users as producers as well as consumers of media material.• This argues that there is a shift from a sit- back-and-be-told culture to a making-and- doing culture, and that harnessing creativity in both Web 2.0 and in other everyday creative activities will play a role in tackling environmental problems.• These ideas are developed further in Making is Connecting.• http://theory.org.uk/david/•
    10. 10. David Gauntlett• Gauntlett developed the theory of web 2.0 first devised by Tim oReilly in 2004.• In 2008 Gauntlett proposed the Make and Connect Agenda, an attempt to rethink audience studies in the context of media users as producers as well as consumers of media material.• This argues that there is a shift from a sit- back-and-be-told culture to a making-and- doing culture, and that harnessing creativity in both Web 2.0 and in other everyday creative activities will play a role in tackling environmental problems.• These ideas are developed further in Making is Connecting.• http://theory.org.uk/david/•
    11. 11. • In 2007, Gauntlett published online the article Media Studies 2.0, which created some discussion amongst media studies educators.• The article argues that the traditional form of media studies teaching and research fails to recognise the changing media landscape in which the categories of audiences and producers blur together, and in which new research methods and approaches are needed.• Andy Ruddock has written that Gauntletts "ironic polemic" includes "much to value", and acknowledges that the argument "is more strategy than creed", but argues that audiences still exist, and experience mass media specifically as audience, and so it would be premature to dispose of the notion of audience altogether.• Gauntletts website is really worth looking at, he has videos like this on where he explains his ideas.• http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=SPuV1PvDlqE&feature=youtube_gdata_player• Here http://www.makingisconnecting.org/gauntlett2011-extract1.pdf you will find an extract from his latest book where he explains about web 2.0•
    12. 12. Tapscott & Williams• Wikinomics: How Mass Collaboration Changes Everything is a book by Don Tapscott and Anthony D. Williams, first published in December 2006.• It explores how some companies in the early 21st century have used mass collaboration (also called peer production) and open-source technology, such as wikis, to be successful.• Tapscott and Williams have released a followup to Wikinomics, entitled Macrowikinomics: Rebooting Business and the World, which was released on September 28, 2010.• According to Tapscott, Wikinomics is based on four ideas: Openness, Peering, Sharing, and Acting Globally. The use of mass collaboration in a business environment, in recent history, can be seen as an extension of the trend in business to outsource: externalize formerly internal business functions to other business entities. The difference however is that instead of an organized business body brought into being specifically for a unique function, mass collaboration relies on free individual agents to come together and cooperate to improve a given operation or solve a problem. This kind of outsourcing is also referred to as crowdsourcing, to reflect this difference. This can be incentivized by a reward system, though it is not required.
    13. 13. Tapscott & Williams• Wikinomics: How Mass Collaboration Changes Everything is a book by Don Tapscott and Anthony D. Williams, first published in December 2006.• It explores how some companies in the early 21st century have used mass collaboration (also called peer production) and open-source technology, such as wikis, to be successful.• Tapscott and Williams have released a followup to Wikinomics, entitled Macrowikinomics: Rebooting Business and the World, which was released on September 28, 2010.• According to Tapscott, Wikinomics is based on four ideas: Openness, Peering, Sharing, and Acting Globally. The use of mass collaboration in a business environment, in recent history, can be seen as an extension of the trend in business to outsource: externalize formerly internal business functions to other business entities. The difference however is that instead of an organized business body brought into being specifically for a unique function, mass collaboration relies on free individual agents to come together and cooperate to improve a given operation or solve a problem. This kind of outsourcing is also referred to as crowdsourcing, to reflect this difference. This can be incentivized by a reward system, though it is not required.
    14. 14. Tapscott & Williams• Wikinomics: How Mass Collaboration Changes Everything is a book by Don Tapscott and Anthony D. Williams, first published in December 2006.• It explores how some companies in the early 21st century have used mass collaboration (also called peer production) and open-source technology, such as wikis, to be successful.• Tapscott and Williams have released a followup to Wikinomics, entitled Macrowikinomics: Rebooting Business and the World, which was released on September 28, 2010.• According to Tapscott, Wikinomics is based on four ideas: Openness, Peering, Sharing, and Acting Globally. The use of mass collaboration in a business environment, in recent history, can be seen as an extension of the trend in business to outsource: externalize formerly internal business functions to other business entities. The difference however is that instead of an organized business body brought into being specifically for a unique function, mass collaboration relies on free individual agents to come together and cooperate to improve a given operation or solve a problem. This kind of outsourcing is also referred to as crowdsourcing, to reflect this difference. This can be incentivized by a reward system, though it is not required.
    15. 15. • The book also discusses seven new models of mass collaboration:• Peering: For example, page 24, "Marketocracy employs a form of peering in a mutual fund that harnesses the collective intelligence of the investment community...Though not completely open source, it is an example of how meritocratic, peer-to-peer models are seeping into an industry where conventional wisdom favors the lone super-star stock advisor."[4]• Ideagoras: For example, page 98, linking experts with unsolved research and development problems. The company InnoCentive is a consulting group that encapsulates the idea of ideagoras.[5]• Prosumers: For example, page 125, where it discusses the social video game Second Life as being created by its customers. When customers are also the producers, you have the phenomenon: Prosumer.• New Alexandrians: This idea is about the Internet and sharing knowledge.• And many other subjects.• The last chapter is written by viewers, and was opened for editing on February 5, 2007.

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