Poison Ivy Rash - Contact Dermatitis

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  • 1. POISON IVY RASH ALLERGIC CONTACT DERMATITIS
  • 2. Poison Ivy Rash  Poison ivy, poison oak, and poison sumac are plants that can cause a skin rash called allergic contact dermatitis when they touch your skin.
  • 3.  The rash is caused by contact with an oil (urushiol) found in these plants.
  • 4. Contact Dermatitis Contact dermatitis is a localized rash or irritation of the skin caused by contact with a foreign substance.
  • 5. Types of Contact Dermatitis There are three types of contact dermatitis:  irritant contact dermatitis  allergic contact dermatitis  photo contact dermatitis.
  • 6. Irritant Contact Dermatitis − caused by chemical and physical irritant that damages skin's outer protective layer − Common chemical irritants: • solvents (alcohol, xylene, turpentine, esters, acetone,ketones) • latex • Kerosene
  • 7. • ethylene oxide • surfactants in topical medications and cosmetics (sodium lauryl sulfate) • alkalis (drain cleaners, strong soap) - Physical irritant contact dermatitis is commonly caused by low humidity from air conditioning.
  • 8. Allergic Contact Dermatitis − occurs when a substance to which you're sensitive (allergen) triggers an immune reaction in your skin. − Common causes of allergic contact dermatitis are plants of the Toxicodendron genus: - poison ivy - poison oak - poison sumac
  • 9. Photo Contact Dermatitis − is the eczematous condition which is triggered by an interaction between an otherwise unharmful or less harmful substance on the skin and ultraviolet light. − Is usually associated only with areas of skin which are left uncovered by clothing, and it can be soundly defeated by avoiding exposure to sunlight.
  • 10. Signs & Symptoms Only the superficial regions of the skin are affected in contact dermatitis. Inflammation of the affected tissue is present in the epidermis(the outermost layer of skin) and the outer dermis (the layer beneath the epidermis).
  • 11.  Contact dermatitis results in large, burning, and itchy rashes  Takes several days to weeks to heal
  • 12.  Allergic dermatitis is usually confined to the area where the trigger actually touched the skin, whereas irritant dermatitis may be more widespread on the skin.
  • 13. • Red rash. This is the usual reaction. The rash appears immediately in irritant contact dermatitis; in allergic contact dermatitis, the rash sometimes does not appear until 24–72 hours after exposure to the allergen. • Blisters or wheals. Blisters, wheals (welts), and urticaria (hives) often form in a pattern where skin was directly exposed to the allergen or irritant. • Itchy, burning skin. Irritant contact dermatitis tends to be more painful than itchy, while allergic contact dermatitis often itches.
  • 14. Medical Treatment Medical treatment usually consists of lotions, creams, or oral medications.  Corticosteroids - may be prescribed to combat inflammation in a localized area. - in a cream or ointment form. - If the reaction covers a relatively large portion of the skin or is severe, a corticosteroid in pill or injection form may be prescribed.
  • 15.  Antihistamines. Oral antihistamines such as diphenhydramine (Benadryl, Ben-Allergin) can also relieve itching. Prescription antihistamines may be given if non-prescription strengths are inadequate.
  • 16. Self-care at home Immediately after exposure to a known allergen or irritant, wash with soap and cool water to remove or inactivate most of the offending substance. Weak acid solutions [lemon juice, vinegar] can be used to counteract the effects of dermatitis contracted by exposure to basic irritants. If blistering develops, cold moist compresses applied for 30 minutes 3 times a day can offer relief.
  • 17. Avoid scratching, as this can cause secondary infections. Calamine lotion and cool colloidal oatmeal baths may relieve itching. For mild cases that cover a relatively small area, hydrocortisone cream in nonprescription strength may be sufficient. A barrier cream such as those containing zinc oxide (e.g. Desitin, etc.) may help to protect the skin and retain moisture.
  • 18. Prevention Allergy testing- patch tests done to identify the responsible agent and avoid it. The patient must know where the irritant or allergen is found to be able to avoid it. protective clothing, gloves or barrier cream should be used depending on the working environment.