RIGHTS ARE LEGAL, SOCIAL, OR ETHICAL PRINCIPLES OF FREEDOM ABOUT WHAT ISALLOWED OF PEOPLE OR OWED TO PEOPLE, ACCORDING TO SOME LEGAL SYSTEM,SOCIAL CONVENTION, OR ETHICAL THEORY.Rights are protections against lawsand other powers of thegovernment.Law is the way to make right legalby constitution in written form"A child is any human being below theage of eighteen years.Child Rights are fundamentalfreedoms and the inherent rights ofall human beings below the age of18.The Charter of Child Rights (CRC) isbuilt on the principle that "ALLchildren are born with fundamentalfreedoms and ALL human beings havesome inherent rights".
IMPORTANCE OF CHILD RIGHTIN REALITY children have been abused and exploited.Suffer from hunger and homelessness,work in harmful conditions, high infantmortality, deficient health care and limitedopportunities for basic education.2 million Indian babies will die before theycelebrate their first birthday.More girl children will be killed at birththan in any previous year.At least 35 million children aged 6 – 14years will not be in school.17 million children in India workChildhood can and must be preserved.Children have the right to survive,develop, be protected and participate indecisions that impact their lives.Their lives should mature gradually, asthey gain new experiences.
CRY AND CHILD RIGHTFounder(s) Rippan KapurType Community ServiceFounded 1979Headquarters Mumbai, IndiaBranches -Bangalore,Chennai, Delhi, KolkataKey people raijain mandaricaFocus Childrens RightsMethod Partnership with NGOsRevenue ~Rs.36 croresEmployees 150Motto Stand up for what isrightCRY is Child right and you.Non-profit organization in India that aimsto restore childrens rights in India.Primary source of revenue - donations byindividuals and organizationsCRY’s role is to support for this cause byspeaking out, demanding, negotiating asrequired with the relevant state or citizenbodies for the rights of children.CRY started work on empowering under-privileged children and the communitiesthey belonged to by actively partneringsmaller / grassroots-level NGOs working inremote and neglected areas of India.
THE RIGHT TO EDUCATION:50% of Indian children aged 6-18 do not go to schoolDropout rates increase alarmingly in class III to V, its 50% forboys, 58% for girls.THE RIGHT TO EXPRESSION:Right to express himself freely in which ever way he likes.Majority of children however are exploited by their eldersand not allowed to express.THE RIGHT TO NUTRITION:More than 50% of Indias children are malnourished.While one in every five adolescent boys is malnourished,one in every two girls in India is undernourished.THE RIGHT TO HEALTH & CARE:58% -below the age of 2 years are not fully vaccinated.24% -do not receive any form of vaccination.Over 60% -are anemic.
THE RIGHT TO PROTECTION FROM EXPLOITATION 17 million work as per official estimates.Children put in an average of 21 hours of labourper week.THE RIGHT TO DEVELOPMENT:Every child has the right to development that letsthe child explore her/his full potential..The right to Name & Nationality:Every child has a right to identify himself with anation.A vast majority of underprivileged children in Indiaare treated like commodities and exported to othercountries as labour or prostitutes.THE RIGHT TO SURVIVAL:Of the 12 million girls born in India, 3 million do notsee their fifteenth birthday.A million of them are unable to survive even their firstbirthday.Every sixth girl childs death is due to genderdiscrimination.
Project H.O.P.E.(Helping Other People Eat)makes yearly donations tohomeless shelters in our community, Allowing employees to donatetheir time to the help the lives ofthose less fortunate.SAVE THE CHILDREN: world’s leadingindependent organization for children.Aim-every child attains the right to survival,protection, development and participation.Actively works with the communities, the Stategovernments and the National government to bringlasting changes for the most marginalised childrenby:•Providing them with immunisation and nutrition.•Chance to join formal school.•Exposing and preventing exploitative child labourpractices and running prevention programs.SOCIAL RESPONSIBILITYIt our resposibility and priveledge to help resolve social issues faced within our community, andstrengthen them through our dedicated community service.
VEDAS PERIOD(Some laws of Manu(200 - 400 C.E)•Honored and respected by the male memberwho desire their own welfare.”•In childhood a female must be subject to herfather, in youth to her husband, and when herlord is dead, to her sons; a woman must neverbe independent.”•“A husband should be worshiped as a God.•Women, shudra,dog and crow embodyuntruth, sin and darkness.”•“A woman should not go to a meeting place;and they should not dance like the young, butsit at their proper places.”Women were educated in theearly Vedic period. Rigvedic versessuggest that the women married at amature age and were probably freeto select their husband.
MEDVIAL PERIODWomen had to obey men, but they wereoften treated well. We could say thatwomen were treated based on theirsocial rank, but this would also showsome inconsistencies.Women were below men, they wereruled by the males in their families.The Indian womans position in the societyfurther deteriorated during the medievalperiod.The Muslim conquest in the Indiansubcontinent brought the purdah practice inthe Indian society.IN SPITE OF THESE CONDITIONSSome women excelled in the fields of politics,literature, education and religion.Razia Sultana became the only womanmonarch to have ever ruled Delhi.The Mughal princesses Jahanara andZebunnissa were well-known poets.Mirabai was a female saint-poet
PRE-INDEPENDENCE PERIODReformers such as Ram Mohan Roy, IshwarChandra Vidyasagar, Jyotirao Phule etc. foughtfor the upliftment of women.Raja Ram Mohan Roys efforts led to theabolition of the Sati practice under Governor-General William Cavendish-Bentinck in 1829.Ishwar Chandra Vidyasagars crusade forthe improvement in condition of widows ledto the Widow Remarriage Act of 1856.Chandramukhi Basu, KadambiniGanguly and Anandi Gopal Joshi were few ofthe earliest Indian women to obtaineducational degrees.In 1917, the first womens delegation metthe Secretary of State to demand womenspolitical rights, supported by the IndianNational Congress.THE CHILD MARRIAGE ACT RESTRAINT - 1929,•14 as the minimum age of marriage for a girlthrough the efforts of Mahomed Ali JinnahSarojini Naidu-a poet and a freedomfighter, was the first Indian woman tobecome the President of the Indian NationalCongress and the first woman to becomethe governor of a state in India.
POST-INDEPENDENCE PERIODFaced a major upheaval as regards their position,perception and role in society.Women were no longer subordinate to men.The Constitution of India declared equality as oneof the Fundamental Rights.Equal protection of the law, equal opportunities in publicemployment,and prohibited discrimination in public places.In 1954 Vibhla Farooqui and her female colleagues in theCommunist Party of India organized a nationalconference to address women`s issues.This was a time when Mrs. Indira Gandhi was the Prime Minister .India was one of the few countries in the world that regularly sentwomen abroad as ambassadors, representatives to the UnitedNations, and delegates to international conferences.
1. Right To Vote First countries to grant women electoral equality withthe men –New Zealand (1893), Finland (1906), Norway (1913)andIceland (1915)In 1989 general election out of a total of 498,406, 429voters 236, 861, 287 were women .In the 1991 general election, the number of womenfielded by the major political parties was very low.In developed countries, like the United Kingdom(6.3 %),the United States (5.3 %), France (6.4 %)andJapan (1.4%) the representation of women in parliament isextremely poor.In India participation of women in parliament is 8.3%.POLITICAL RIGHT OF WOMEN(Articles 325 and 326 )
2. RIGHT TO PARTICIPATE IN POLITICAL PROCESS Beginning of women’s participation inpolitics-Swadeshi movement in Bengal(1905-8) .The 73rd Constitutional Amendment Act-33 % reservation in the Panchayat Rajinstitutions in the rural areas.74th constitutional amendment act-33% reservation in Nagara Palike andMunicipalities in towns and urban areas.1991 –The Janata PartyGovernment in Karnataka passed abill to implement 25 per cent reservationFor women in local elections.
High female literacy rates-Kerala and MizoramNFE centers have provided education –0.12 million girls out of 7.42 million childrenSAAKSHAR BHARAT MISSIONLaunched-Dr. Manmohan SinghCentrally sponsored scheme of -Department of School Education and Literacy(DSEL),Ministry of Human Resource Development(MHRD),Government of India (GOI)on the International Literacy Day,Date-8th September, 2009.Aims -promote and strengthen AdultEducation, specially of womenRIGHT TO EDUCATION
LAND RIGHTPre 1978 AmendmentACTArticle 19(1)(f)Post1978 AmendmentActArticles 31(a), 31(a), 31(a), 300 Adeals withthe rights to use, alienate,or exclude others from land.stem from inheritance,transfers from the State,tenancy arrangements, landpurchase etc.Importance : welfare,efficiency, equality, andempowerment.Bina Agarwal is a prize-winning developmenteconomist and Director and Professor of Economics atthe Institute of Economic Growth in Delhi.According to Bina Agarwal-Land ownership is• social status•political power•shaping relationships• creating family dynamics•decreases the chance of domestic violence
TheTebhaga Story EMERGED IN –•1946–47•undivided Bengal•in the footsteps of thegreat Bengal famine of 1943.REASON-• Sharecroppers in the region had no occupancyrights.•faced a constant threat of eviction.•The landlords took half the produce.•Sexually abused the women.SPEARHEADED BY-the Bengal Provincial Kisan Sabha (BPKS), underthe leadership of the Communist Party of India.The women’s self-defense league played a criticalmobilizing role among women.
PWESCRSTARTED -2005 FOCUS-South AsiaProgramme on Women’s Economic, Socialand Cultural Rights.international advocacy and educationalinitiative in the area of women and theireconomic, social and cultural rights (ESCR). PROMOTE -human rights of womenGOALSTo build leadership and capacity of groups,organizations, activities and other actors in thefield of human rights and economic justice topromote women’s ESCR.
LEGAL PROVISIONTHE CRIMES IDENTIFIEDUNDER THE INDIANPENAL CODE (IPC)---•Rape (Sec. 376 IPC)•Homicide for Dowry, DowryDeaths or their attempts(Sec. 302/304-B IPC)•Torture, both mental andphysical (Sec. 498-A IPC)•Sexual Harassment (Sec.509 IPC)•Importation of girls (up to21 years of age)•The Crimes identified underthe Special Laws (SLL)-•Family Courts Act, 1954•The Special Marriage Act, 1954•The Hindu Marriage Act, 1955•Dowry Prohibition Act, 1961•The Prohibition of Child Marriage Act,2006•Commission of Sati (Prevention) Act,1987•Protection of Women from DomesticViolence Act, 2005
SPECIAL INITIATIVESNATIONAL COMMISSION FOR WOMEN (JANUARY 1992)-Constitutional and legal safeguards provided for women, reviewthe existing legislation to suggest amendments wherevernecessary, etc.NATIONAL PLAN OF ACTION FOR THE GIRL CHILD (1991-2000)-Survival, protection and development of the girl child with theultimate objective of building up a better future for the girlchild.NATIONAL POLICY FOR THE EMPOWERMENT OF WOMEN (2001)-• Prepared by-Department of Women & Child Development in theMinistry of Human Resource Development .• Goal-advancement, development and empowerment ofwomen.