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- 1. LOGO CORRELATION ANALYSIS1101091-1101100 PGDM-B
- 2. IntroductionCorrelation a LINEAR association between two random variablesCorrelation analysis show us how to determine both the nature and strength of relationship between two variablesWhen variables are dependent on time correlation is appliedCorrelation lies between +1 to -1
- 3. A zero correlation indicates that there is no relationship between the variablesA correlation of –1 indicates a perfect negative correlationA correlation of +1 indicates a perfect positive correlation
- 4. Types of CorrelationThere are three types of correlation Types Type 1 Type 2 Type 3
- 5. Type1Positive Negative No PerfectIf two related variables are such that when one increases (decreases), the other also increases (decreases).If two variables are such that when one increases (decreases), the other decreases (increases)If both the variables are independent
- 6. Type 2 Linear Non – linearWhen plotted on a graph it tends to be a perfect lineWhen plotted on a graph it is not a straight line
- 7. Type 3 Simple Multiple PartialTwo independent and one dependent variableOne dependent and more than one independent variablesOne dependent variable and more than one independent variable but only one independent variable is considered and other independent variables are considered constant
- 8. Methods of Studying Correlation Scatter Diagram Method Karl Pearson Coefficient Correlation of Method Spearman’s Rank Correlation Method
- 9. Correlation: Linear Relationships Strong relationship = good linear fit 180 160 160 140 140 120 120 Symptom Index S ymptom Index 100 100 80 80 60 60 40 40 20 20 0 0 0 50 100 150 200 250 0 50 100 150 200 250 Drug A (dose in mg) Drug B (dose in mg) Very good fit Moderate fitPoints clustered closely around a line show a strong correlation.The line is a good predictor (good fit) with the data. The morespread out the points, the weaker the correlation, and the lessgood the fit. The line is a REGRESSSION line (Y = bX + a)
- 10. Coefficient of Correlation A measure of the strength of the linear relationship between two variables that is defined in terms of the (sample) covariance of the variables divided by their (sample) standard deviations Represented by “r” r lies between +1 to -1 Magnitude and Direction
- 11. -1 < r < +1 The + and – signs are used for positive linear correlations and negative linear correlations, respectively
- 12. n XY X Yr xy 2 n X ( X) n Y ( Y) 2 2 2 Shared variability of X and Y variables on the top Individual variability of X and Y variables on the bottom
- 13. Interpreting Correlation Coefficient r strong correlation: r > .70 or r < –.70 moderate correlation: r is between .30 & .70 or r is between –.30 and –.70 weak correlation: r is between 0 and .30 or r is between 0 and –.30 .
- 14. Coefficient of DeterminationCoefficient of determination lies between 0 to 1Represented by r2The coefficient of determination is a measure of how well the regression line represents the data If the regression line passes exactly through every point on the scatter plot, it would be able to explain all of the variationThe further the line is away from the points, the less it is able to explain
- 15. r 2, is useful because it gives the proportion of the variance (fluctuation) of one variable that is predictable from the other variable It is a measure that allows us to determine how certain one can be in making predictions from a certain model/graph The coefficient of determination is the ratio of the explained variation to the total variation The coefficient of determination is such that 0 < r 2 < 1, and denotes the strength of the linear association between x and y
- 16. The Coefficient of determination represents the percent of the data that is the closest to the line of best fit For example, if r = 0.922, then r 2 = 0.850 Which means that 85% of the total variation in y can be explained by the linear relationship between x and y (as described by the regression equation) The other 15% of the total variation in y remains unexplained
- 17. Spearmans rank coefficientA method to determine correlation when the data is not available in numerical form and as an alternative the method, the method of rank correlation is used. Thus when the values of the two variables are converted to their ranks, and there from the correlation is obtained, the correlations known as rank correlation.
- 18. Computation of Rank CorrelationSpearman’s rank correlation coefficientρ can be calculated when Actual ranks given Ranks are not given but grades are given but not repeated Ranks are not given and grades are given and repeated
- 19. Testing the significance of correlation coefficient

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