Consumer behaviour


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  • 2.5% innovators13% Early adopters34% Early majority34% Late majority16% laggards
  • Consumer behaviour

    1. 1. Consumer Behavior is the behavior that the consumers display in searching for, purchasing, using ,evaluating and disposing of products ,services and ideas which they expect will satisfy their needs”.
    2. 2.  Consumer Behavior refers to how consumer behaves or acts or reacts in making a purchase of goods and services of his choice in different situations . Importance of Consumer Behavior  To consumers  To Marketers
    3. 3. The Various Disciplines having influence on consumer Behaviour Economics Demand,Supply,Income,Purchasin g Power Psychology Needs & Motivation,Personality,Perception ,Learning , Attitudes Sociology Society ,Social class, Power, Esteem , Status Socio Psychology Group Behaviour,confirmity to group norms,Group influences,role of a leader Cultural Anthropology Values,Beliefs,Caste System,Joint family system
    4. 4. Characteristics of Indian consumers           Geography Population Urban rural composition Sex composition Age factor Literacy level Income level Linguistic Diversity Religion Dress, food habits & festival
    5. 5. Factors Influencing consumer behaviour Cultural Factors Social Factors Personal factors Psychological factors 1.Culture 2.Sub culture 3.Social class 1.Reference group 2.Family 3.Role & Status 1.Age & stage of Life cycle 2.Occupation 3.Economic circumstances 4.Life style 5.Personality & self concept 1.Motivation 2.Perception 3.Learning 4.Beliefs & Attitude
    6. 6. Models of consumer Behaviour  Economic model  Psychological model  Learning model S-R Model  Sociological model  Howard sheth model  Nicosia Model  Webster & Wind model  Engel kollat blackwell model
    7. 7. Economic model Under economics it is assumed that man is a rational human being,who will evaluate all the alternatives in terms of cost & value received and select that product /service which gives him/her max satisfaction. Consumers are assumed to follow the law of diminishing marginal utility. Economic model is based on certain predictions of buying behaviour 1.price effect –lesser the price of the product ,more will be the quantity purchased 2.Lesser the price of the substitute product,lesser will be the quantity of the orginal product bought(Substitution effect). 3.Income effect-more the purchasing power ,more will be the quantity purchased
    8. 8. Motivation may be said to be the driving force behind human behaviour. Maslow has made a framework of a set of heirachy of human needs and explained the strength of certain needs ,which is given here under. 1.Physiological –basic needs lik food,water and shelter 2.Safety-Insurance policy 3.Social-self of belongingness 4.Esteem-park avenue,Car 5.Self Actualisation-to become everything one is capable of
    9. 9. Learning Model Pavlovian Learning Model According to this model,behaviour is learned by repetitive associations between a stimulus and response (S-R Association). The model is based on a experiment performed on a dog by a russian physiologist.This experiment is based on how a dog responds (measured on the basis of saliva secreted by the dog)to various conditional stimulus and unconditioinal stimulus(ringing of a bell-presenting a piece of meat).Knowing the learning process is very important for a marketing manager. Learning can be defined as all changes in behaviour which occurs as a result of practise and based on previous experience.
    10. 10. Sociological Model Acc to this model individual buyer is a part of the institution called Society.Since he is living in a society,he gets influenced by it and in turn also influences it in its path of development.He is playing many roles as a part of various formal & informal associations or organisations i.e as a family,as a employee of a firm,as a member of professional forum .such interactions leave some impressions on him and may play a role in influencing his buying behaviour.
    11. 11. Howard Sheth Model The model bascially serves two purposes  It indicates how complex the whole question of consumer behaviour really is  It provides a framework for including various concepts like learning,perception,attitude etc..which play a role in influencing consumer behaviour
    12. 12. Inputs in Howard sheth theory. These cues may be Significative if it comes to the buyer from the product itself when he is involved in a shopping activity.A similar set of cues which are symbolic in nature may also act as information sources.Both these significative and symbolic information cues represent the firms marketing efforts..these are impersonal sources lik mass communication,advertising etc. Third source is social information cues which could affect the buying behaviour towards the product or brand and these include family,friends or other members of the group with which the buyer comes into contact.The social source is personal and has no control over this source.
    13. 13.  Perceptual constructs :This refers to all the complex states or psycological processes (perception)and how the individual deals with the information cues received from various sources.  Learning constructs:-Second set of hypothetical constructs in this theory are more complex and numerous .Motives referes to the goal the individual attempts to achievie through his or her buying behaviour.most closely related to the buyers intention is his attitude towars the product /brand.other learning constructs include brand comprehension i.e knowledge /awareness about the brand features that forms the basis for the buyers evoked set of alternatives ,choice criteria and the confidence the individual has about that brand .Finally the model includes a construct satisfaction .This refers to feedback mechanism i.e post purchase and post use evaluation of the output of the process.
    14. 14. Nicosia Model This model was developed in 1966 by Nicosia an expert in consumer motivation and behaviour.The nicosia model tries to explain buyer behaviour by establishing a link between the organisation and its consumer. The nicosia model groups the above activity explanations into four basic areas. 1.Field one has two subareas-the consumer attributes and the firm attributes the advertising msg sent from the company will reach the consumers attributes. Depending on the way the msg is is received by the consumer ,a certain attribute may develop. The newly developed attributes becomes the input for area two. 2.The second area or area two-is related to the search & evaluation undertaken by the consumer. 3.Third area explains how the consumers actually buys the product. 4.Area four is related to the uses of the purchased items.
    15. 15. Webster & wind model This is a complex model developed by F.E.Webster and Y.wind as an attempt to explain the multifaceted nature of organisational buying behaviour .This model refers to the environmental ,organisational,interpersonal & individual buying determinants which influences the organisational buyers.These determinants influence both the individual and group decision making processes and on the final buying decisions. The environmental determinants comprise of the physical & technological factors,economic ,political,legal and socio cultural environmental factors.These are external factors which cannot be controlled,but an understanding of the same may be crucial to succeed.
    16. 16. An individual may be involved in one or more buying roles during organisational buying :These roles are  Users  Influencers  Buyers  Deciders  Gate keepers This model is valuable contribution and helps in revealing the whole range of direct & indirect influences which affect the organisational buying behaviour.
    17. 17. Engel Kollat Black well Model This model talks of consumer behaviour as a decision making process in the form of five steps which occur over a period of time. The 5 steps involved in decision making making process stage are : 1.Problem recognition 2.Information Search 3.Alternative evaluation 4.Choice
    18. 18. Diffusion of innovations Diffusion of innovation is the process by which acceptance of an innovation is spread by communication (mass media,sales people,informal conversation)to members of the target market over a period of time. The Diffusion Process New concept or new idea Implementation of the idea or converting idea into product/service Market acceptance or diffusion process
    19. 19. Types of decision making 1.Routinised response Behaviour/Habitual 2.Limited problem solving 3.Extensive problem solving
    20. 20. Stages in buyer decision process I. II. III. IV. V. Problem Recognition Information search Evaluation of Alternatives Purchase decision Post purchase Behaviour
    21. 21. Buyer Decision process towards New products Stages of adapting New Products 1. Awareness 2. Interest 3. Evaluation 4. Trial 5. Adoption
    22. 22. Individual Differences in innovativeness 40.00% 35.00% 30.00% 25.00% 20.00% Series 1 15.00% Column1 10.00% Column2 5.00% 0.00% Innovators Early Adopters Early majority late majority Laggards
    23. 23. Category of Adoptors 1.Innovators 2.Early adopters 3.Early Majority 4.Late Majority 5.Laggards
    24. 24. What is a Brand  Brand is a comprehensive term and could be a name,sign,symbol,logo etc which is used to differentiate the product or services of one seller/sellers from those of competitors .
    25. 25. Industrial /organisational Buying Behaviour According to Fredrick E Webster and Yoram Wind have defined organisational buying as the decision making process by which formal organisations establish the need for purchased products and services and identity ,evaluate and choose among alternative brands & suppliers.
    26. 26. Characteristics of Industrial Markets  Fewer Buyers  Larger Buyers  Geographically concentrated Buyers  Derived Demand  Inelastic Demand  Fluctuating Demand  Professional Buying  Direct purchasing  Reciprocal Buying
    27. 27. Buying Decisions involved in industrial Buying Types of Buying Situations  Straight routine Rebuy- Electricity, water ,gas, cigrattes  Modified Rebuy- New car, electrical components, computer terminal, consultancy service  Completely new task with negotiation-complex buildings, damns, custom built office
    28. 28. Factors influencing industrial buying Behaviour Environmental Organistional Interpersonal Individual Participant Level of demand Objectives Authority Age Economic outlook Policies Status Income Value of money procedures Empathy Educational qualification Supply conditions Organisational structure persuasiveness Job position Technology improvement Organisational system followed Political Environment Competition level changes personality Attitude towars risk
    29. 29. Stages in industrial Buying process  Problem Recognition  General need description  Product specification  Supplier search  Proposal solicitation  Supplier selection  Order routine Specification  Performance to add to customer value
    30. 30. Opinion Leadership Opinion Leadership is a process by which one person informally influences the actions or attitudes of others, who may be opinion seekers .The influence is informal & verbal through communication between opinion leader & opinion seeker.
    31. 31. Characteristic opinion Leaders  Social status characteristics  Greater Exposure to mass media  Greater interest & knowledge  Personality traits  Attitudes & intentions  Loyal to group standards  Innovators  Demographic Characteristics
    32. 32. Opinion Leaders & firms promotional strategy Advertisement that stimulate opinion leadership  To arouse product related discussionsbetween friends if they find it good.  To develop highly entertaining and emotional campaigns that consumers engage in discussions about the product.  To secure high visibility of the item such as demonstration of the product.
    33. 33. Reference Group  Reference group can designate to any person or group that serves as a point of comparison for an individual informing either general or specific values ,attitudes or behaviour.  Reference group is a type of group that an individual uses as a point of reference in determining his own judgements,prefrences,beliefs , and behaviour. Advantages of reference group appeal  Better communication & increased brand awareness  Reduces perceived Risk.
    34. 34. Types of reference groups  Normative Reference Group: refrence group that directly influences behaviour Ex: childs reference group is his family.  Comparative reference group :Ex: individual may admire his neighbour  Indirect reference groups such as film star  Contactual group: person interacts & has regular contact .Ex: club  Aspirational Groups: at times ppl get influenced by groups to which they do not belong Ex:Teenage cricket player wanting to play for India.  Avoidance group: group in which the person holds no membership nor has face to face contact but he disapproves of the groups values ,attitudes ,behaviour etc.Ex:ISKON
    35. 35. Family Two or more persons related by blood ,marriage or adaption who reside together. Family role structure  Initiator-who recognises the need  Influencers – who persuades others in purchase  Information Gatherer –who gathers information about the product  Decider-who decides purchase  Buyer-who makes actual purchase
    36. 36.  Gate Keeper-is the person who control the flow of products into the family  User- who uses the product  Maintainer –who maintains durables  Disposer- Who disposes the product
    37. 37. Attitude  Attitude s are an expression of inner feelings about a person, product, service, brand or store that reflects whether a person is favorably or unfavorably predisposed to a product. Nature of attitudes  Attitudes refers to feelings or beliefs of individuals  Feelings & beliefs are directed towards other ppl  Attitude tend to result in behavior  All ppl irrespetive of their status or intelligence hold attitudes
    38. 38. Formation of Attitudes  Direct experience with the object: Ex:if everyone who has held a job has been promoted within 6months,current job holders are likely to believe that they will also be promoted within 6mts.  Classical conditioning & Attitudes: pavlov experiment  Operant conditioning: attitudes are reinforced  Family & peer group : a person learns attitudes through imitation of his parents.  Economic status & occupation
    39. 39. Changing attitudes Ways of changing attitudes
    40. 40. Personality & Self concept  Personality is a unique combination of factors in persons. These factors may be self confidence,dominance,autonomy,defence,sociability,defen siveness &adaptability. Personality has been viewed by theorists in a number of ways. Some have emphasized the dual influence of heredity and early childhood experiences on personality development; some others have emphasized that broader social, and environmental influences make up the personality.  Personality is the inner psychological characteristic that both determine & reflect how a person responds to his or her environment.
    41. 41. Nature of personality  Personality Is the essence of individual differences.  Personality is consistent & enduring  Personality can change.
    42. 42. Self concept/Image/Perception  Self is closely related to consumer behaviour.Self image is the image a person has about himself or herself as a certain kind of person with certain characteristics,traits,habits,possessions,relationships and behaviour.what a person thinks about himself is his self image because he behaves in the manner in which he perceives himself.if he thinks himself to be a king,he will behave like a king in purchasing.
    43. 43. Theories of Development of self concept  Self Appraisal:-Under this theory an individual appraises his behaviour as to what is social and what is unsocial and repeated confirmation develops his own image.  Reflected Appraisal:-This theory says that what appraisals a person receives from others ,he moulds his self concept.These others are significant others such as parents,friends etc.  Social Comparision:-This theory depends on how individuals see themselves in comparison to others in the society.  Biased Scanning:-This theory views self concept development in terms of identity inspiration and biased scanning of environment for information to confirm how well a person is meeting his own perception.
    44. 44. Self concept & consumer Behaviour Self image has a great influence on consumer behaviour.  He purchases products or buys certain brands-reflect his image.  Choose store which confirm their self image.
    45. 45. Different types of self  Actual self:- what he actually thinks of himself.  Ideal self :- what one would ideally like to be  Social self:- What he believes others actually perceive him to be.  Ideal social self :- perception of one’s image as he would like others to have of him.
    46. 46. Consumer behaviour Audit is a fundamental part of the marketing planning process.It is conducted not only at the beginning of the process ,but also at a series of points during the implementation of the plan.Consumer behaviour audit considers both internal & external influences on marketing planning,as well as review of the plan itself.
    47. 47. Consumer Behaviour Audit The Consumer Behavior Audit is divided into the following sections: MARKET SEGMENTATION  A. External Influences B. Internal Influences C. Situational Influences D. Decision-Process Influences PRODUCT POSITION  A. Internal Influences B. Decision-Process Influences PRICING  A. External Influences B. Internal Influences C. Situational Influences D. Decision-Process Factors
    48. 48. DISTRIBUTION STRATEGY A. External Influences B. Internal Influences C. Situational Influences D. Decision-Process Factors PROMOTIONAL STRATEGY A. External Factors B. Internal Factors C. Situational Influences D. Decision-Process Influences PRODUCT A. External Influences B. Internal Influences C. Situational Influences D. Decision-Process Influences
    49. 49. Consumer Research Process Major steps in Research process include  Determining the objectives of the Reasearch  Situational Analysis  Collecting & Evaluating Data  Designing a primary research study  Analysing the data  Preparing a report on the findings  Follow up action
    50. 50. Types of Research             Action Research Descriptive Research Exploratory studies Historical Research Comparative Research Theory construction Research Model Building Research Pure Research Applied Research Operations Research Library Research Individual & Group Research
    51. 51. Steps in Research  Formulating the Research problem  Extensive literature survey  Development of working Hypothesis  Preparing Research Design  Determining Sample Design Deliberate Sampling 2. Simple Random Sampling 3. Systematic Sampling 4. Stratified Sampling 1.
    52. 52. 5.Quota Sampling 6.cluster Sampling & Area Sampling 7.Multistage sampling 8.Sequential Sampling  Collecting Data 1. By observation 2. Through Personal Interviews 3. By Mailing Questionnaires 4. Through Telephone Interviews 5. Through Schedules
    53. 53.  Evaluation of Project  Hypothesis Testing  Generalisation & Interpretation  Preparation of the Report
    54. 54. Criteria of Good Research  The purpose of the research should be clearly defined.  The Research procedure used should be described in     sufficient detail to permit another researcher to repeat the research for further advancement. The procedure of Design should be clearly planned to yield results that are as objective as possible. Analysis of the data should be sufficiently adequate to reveal its significance and the method of Analysis used should be appropriate. The validity of the data should be checked carefully. Conclusions should be confirmed to those justified by the data of the research.
    55. 55. Research Design  An Architect prepares a blue print before he approves a     construction. An Army prepares a strategy before an attack An Artist makes a design before he executes his ideas So also a Researcher makes a plan of his study before he undertakes his Research Work. This will enable a researcher to save time & Resources. Research Design Indicates a plan of action to be carried out in connection with a proposed research work.
    56. 56.  Dependant Variable: if one variable depends upon or is a consequence of the other variable,it is termed as dependant variable,and the variable antecedent to the dependant variable is termed as Independent variable.  Ex if we say height is dependant on Age. Height is dependant variable & Age is independent variable.
    57. 57. Major Steps in Preparing Research Design             Review of earlier Literature Source of Information to be tapped Development of Bibliography Nature of the study Objective of the study Geographical areas to be covered Time dimension of the study Dimension of the study Basis for selecting the Data Techniques of Study Establish the reliability and validity of the test instrument Chapter Scheme
    58. 58. Factors Affecting Research Design  Availability of sufficient data  Proper exposure to the source of data ,especially primary data  Availability of Time  Availability of Money and Man power  The Ability ,skill ,knowledge and technical background of the researcher.
    59. 59. Types of Research Design We can classify the Research Design into three broad categories: Exploratory Research Design:-is useful when the Researcher lacks a clear idea of the problems he will meet during the study.Through exploration the researcher develops concepts more clearly ,establish priorities, and improve the final research design.In such type of research ,the researcher use the following four research techniques:1. Secondary data analysis 2. Experience survey 3. Focus groups 4. Two stage Designs
    60. 60.  Descriptive & Diagnostic Research Design:-Those studies which are concerned with study of present status or characteristics of a particular individual or group is called a descriptive studies.Those research studies which determine the frequency with which something occurs or its association with something is called as diagnostic research.Generally diagnostic research investigate whether two variables are co related or not.But descriptive research studies make predictions with narration of facts and charactristics related to individual ,group or situation.
    61. 61.  Hypothesis testing testing Research Design:- are commonly known as Experimental research is a method or procedure involving the control or manipulations of conditions for the purpose of studying the relative effectiveness of various treatments applied to members of a sample.Experiment is the process in which the experimenter manipulates one variable(Independent variable) to study the effect of the manipulation on another variable(dependant variable).
    62. 62. Sampling & Sample Design  A Sample is a smaller representation of a large whole. When some of the elements are selected with the intention of finding out something about the population from which they are taken,that group of elements is referred as sample and the process of selection is called sampling. “Sampling is the selection of part of an aggregate or totality on the basis of which a judgement or inference about the aggregate or totality is made”. Design – describes the method by which the sample is chosen.
    63. 63. Sampling Process Step Description 1.Define the Population The population is defined in terms of a)element b)units c)Extent d)Time 2.Specify sampling Frame The means of representing the elements of the population. EX.Telephone Book,map 3.Specify Sampling Unit The unit for sampling is selected .The Sampling unit may contain one or several population elements 4.Specify sampling method The method by which the sampling units are to be selected is described. 5.Determine Sampling size The number of elements of the population to be sampled is chosen 6.Specify Sampling plan The operational procedures for selection of the Sampling units are selected
    64. 64. Essentials of Good Sampling The essentials of a good sampling are:  The Sample should be true representative of the universe  There should be no bias in selecting a sample.  All the items should be independent of each other  Quality and time of the sample should be the same  The conditions should be the same for all items  Sampling needs to be adequate  It should be possible to measure or estimate the sampling error  The result of the sample study in general should be applicable to all items of the universe . A good sample should be consistent of homogeneous items.
    65. 65. Methods of Sampling Probability Sampling Methods(Random) Non Probability Sampling Methods (Non Random) a)Simple random Sampling (Unrestricted random sampling) •Accidental sampling •Quota Sampling •Purposive Sampling •Convenience Sampling b)Restricted Random sampling •Stratified Sampling •Systematic sampling •Cluster & area sampling •Multiphase/stage sampling •Sequential Sampling
    66. 66. Simple/unrestricted Random sampling:-is a sampling technique in which each & every item or each possible sample combination in the whole population has an equal and independent chance of being included in the sample. Mixed /stratified Random Sampling Under this process the entire population is divided into homogeneous groups or types or classes called strata and a sample is drawn from each stratum at random.These samples are then combined to form a single sample.Stratification of the population for a purpose of sampling contributes to efficiency of sampling if it establishes classes.This method is suitable for a large heterogeneous population.
    67. 67.  Systematic Sampling/Quasi Random Sampling:- Is one in which every Kth item(10th item)is selected in a list representing a population or a stratum.The no K is called the sampling interval.The items of population are arranged in systematic order on the basis of its important characteristics.  Multi stage sampling or cluster sampling:Is a sampling procedure which is carried out in several stages.The population is distributed into a no of first stage sampling units and a sample is taken of these first stage units by some some suitable method.Each of these units is subdivided into second stage units , & from these again a sample is taken by some suitable method.Large groupings within the population (at the first stage)are called clusters.The clusters are the sampling units known as primary units first stage-state level,second stage-District level,Third stage- village level,fourth level- household level.
    68. 68.  Sequential Sampling: ultimate size of sample under this technique is not fixed in advance but is determined according to mathematical decision rules on the basis of information yielded as survey progresses .This method is adopted in case of acceptance sampling plan in context of statistical quality control.when a particular lot is to be accepted or rejected on the basis of single sample.But when the number of samples is more than two but how many is neither certain nor decided in advance,this type of system is referred to as Sequential sampling.
    69. 69. Non Random/Non probability Sampling Here there is no assurance that every element has some chance of being included.  Accidental Sampling:-Here the researcher simply reaches out & takes cases that fall to hand continuing the process till such time as the sample reaches a designated size. Ex : The researcher may take first 50 persons he meets on the road who are wiling to be interviewed or to provide the kind of information that he is seeking .
    70. 70.  Convenience Sampling:- is also called the chunk.A chunk refers to that fraction of the population being interviewed or investigated which is selected neither by probability or by judgement but by convienience.A sample obtained from readily available lists such as telephone directory etc.  Judgement or purposive Sampling: - A judgement sample is one which is selected according to some one’s personal judgement .
    71. 71.  Quota Sampling Is one in which the interviewer is instructed to collect information from an assigned no or quota , of individuals in each of several groups the groups being specified as to age,sex,income or other characterisitcs much lik the strata in stratified sampling. Quota sampling is very popular in market surveys and public opinion polls because it is cheaper per elementary sample than random sampling.
    72. 72. Field observation in Research Observation may be defined as systematic viewing ,coupled with consideration of the seen phenomena. Components of Observation  Sensation – Is derived from sense organs.The accuracy of observation depends,to a great extent,on the power of the sensory organs like eyes ,nose ,ears etc.  Attention-is related to the ability to concentrate on the subject matter of study.  Perception-enables the mind to recognise the facts by identifying sensations and drawing upon experience & introspection.
    73. 73. Types of Observation There are mainly 2 types of observation  Controlled – Mechanical aid is used.  Uncontrolled-no mechanical aid is used,data is collected without standardising method.The investigator thinks that he knows more than what he actually observes.Thus dependable may not be collected through this type of observation.
    74. 74. Data collection & processing Data is the information obtained from the survey an experiment or an investigation. Types of Data 1.Primary Data 2.Secondary Data Primary Data:-data collected from primary source.primary data is the data collected for the first time by an investigator or agency , who makes use of the data for the first time. Ex:-Data collected on brand awareness,brand prfrence,loyalty etc.
    75. 75. How to select an appropriate data collection method The following aspects needs to be considered while selecting a method for data collection.  Objective of the study  Size of the sample  Nature of response  Characteristics of Respondents  Availability of manpower  Type of information required
    76. 76. Secondary Data:-are collected from secondary sources .These data are collected & stored after being collected and used for some purpose by some agency.These data may be in published form or unpublished form. Sources of Secondary Data A)Sources of published data  National income statistics  Statistical abstract of India  Statistical systems of India  Census Reports  India trade Journals  Reports of Economic department of RBI  Reports of world bank  Technical trade journals
    77. 77. b)Sources of unpublished data  Records of private firms  Materials kept with researchers  Documents relating to registration, license etc. 3.Interview:- one of the widely used method for data collection is interview.Interview is of two types: Personal Interview  Telephonic Interview
    78. 78. Types of Interview  Structured interview  Unstructured interview  Focused interview  Stress interview  Clinical interview  Non directive interview  Depth interview
    79. 79. 4)Observation: is one of the commonly used method of data collection.observation is the process in which one or more persons observe what is occuring in some real life situations and they classify & record happenings according to some planned scheme. Types of observation  Structured observation  Unstructured observation  Participant observation  Non paricipant observation  Direct observation  Indirect observation  Controlled observation  Uncontrolled observation
    80. 80. 5)Questionnaire:- : is one of the widely used method of data collection .Questinnaire is a list of planned written questions related to a particular topic with space provided for indicating the response to each is the most popular & easy means to collect data. Types of Questionnaire  Closed form questionnaire  Open form questionnaire  Structured questionnaire  Unstructured questionnaire
    81. 81. Important Aspects of a Questionnaire 1.Question sequence 2.Principles for constructing a questionnaire • The objective of the questionnaire must be clearly stated • Adequate alternatives should be given • Double negative statements should be avoided. • Questions framed should be appropriate for all respondents • The questions should be objective with no leading suggestions • question should not be too long
    82. 82. Research Report A research report is a document which narrates the problem investigated,the methods used , the methods used ,result of the investigation and the conclusions inferred from the results.The purposen of the research report is to communicate to the readers the methodology & findings of the study in such a manner as to enable them to understand the research process and to determine the validity of findings. Types of Research Report  Short Reports-When the problem is well defined ,ltd in scope and has a simple & straight forward methodology ,at that time short reports are appropriate.These reports are about five pages ex: Summary reports,Abstract.  Long Reports –are of two types technical & management reports. Technical report is written for an audience of researchers , and a management report is written for a non technical oriented manager or client.
    83. 83. Writing the Report Pre writing concerns  What is the purpose of the report?  Who will read the report?  What is the importance of the topic  How the report will be used? 1.Prepare the outline- Topic,sub topic 2.Prepare the Draft 3.Readability 4.Comprehensability 5.Final proof
    84. 84. Measurement & Scaling  By measurement we mean the process of assigning numbers to objects or observations. Measurement Scales  Nominal Scale  Ordinal Scale  Interval Scale  Ratio Scale
    85. 85. Multi Dimensional Scaling  Multi Dimensional Scaling is a term used to describe a group of analytical techniques used to study consumer attitudes.Particularly attitude relating to perceptions & prefrences . Ex:- what brand compete most directly with each other?  What would be the consumers ideal combination of product attributes  What sales & advertising messages are compatible with consumer brand perceptions
    86. 86. Uses of Multi Dimensional Scaling  Market Segmentation  Product life cycle  Vendor evaluations  Advertising & media selection