Teaching Listening And Speaking Integration of oral skills in teaching English
Understanding of Listening and Speaking Interrelation Activity1 .The partners sit back to back. T1 draws the tree and explains T2 how to make its copy. T2 follows his directions on drawing. The pictures are compared. (Listening development)
Understanding of Listening and Speaking Interrelation(contin.) Activity2 . The partners sit back to back. T1 draws the tree and explains T2 how to make its copy. T2 follows his directions on drawing and asks the questions for better understanding how to make the tree look more similar. The pictures are compared. ( Listening and speaking integration)
Listening and speaking overlapping Learning to speak a language is very largely a task of learning to hear it.
Listening vs. speaking We were given two ears but only one mouth. This is because… … God knew that listening was twice as hard as talking.
Hearing vs. Listening* Hearing: physiological, sensory process whereby auditory sensations are received by the ear and transmitted to the brain. Listening: psychological process of interpreting and understanding the content of the hearing experience. *M. Markel, Technical Communication Situations and Strategies, New York: St. Martin’s Press, 1998.
Types of listening Listening for gist-to get the general idea or meaning, ignoring the detail. Listening for detail-to get the specific facts.
Pre Students did not choose the text Students need to develop an interest to listen to the text They need to know why they are going to listen to it. “The teacher told me,” is not a good reason.
Typical Pre Tasks Word splash Predict from the headline Talk about the main topic Prediction Arrange pictures/texts
During Students need to know why they are listening. They need tasks that focus them and help them understand the text. They need to practice the skill of listening.
Typical Practice Activities Listen and Draw Answer gist questions Arrange according to text Find mistakes Answer detail questions
Post Students need a chance to compare their results of the During task. Students need to learn if they were able to do the task After the during tasks, student need a chance to talk about the text and discuss related topics. They might also focus on the language in the text.
Typical Post Activities Discussion questions Role-plays Projects Make a story Discuss a topic Noticing tasks
Tips for teaching listening to young learners Keep sentences short and grammatically simple Use exaggerated intonation to hold the child's attention Emphasize key words Limiting the topics talked about to what is familiar to the child Frequently repeating and paraphrasing
TEYL participants’ tips for teaching speaking We can improve speaking by using reproductive activities at an early age, such as reciting poems , chants , rhyming . (Tea Horvatic, Croatia) Using songs in the classroom enhances speaking for the diverse reasons: learners express their ideas freely and interact more with one another.(Shamali Faisal, Jordan) One way to improve speaking skills is by doing different kinds of activities such as conversations , pair work , group work and role plays . (Ajsel Huseini, Macedonia) The most practical activities that can be used to practice the oral skills are games , story telling , interviews .(Mona Alnamoora, West Bank) Even watching cartoons or movies can improve the students' speaking skills(Arevhat Simonyants, Uzbekistan)
Fluency vs. accuracy in speaking When fluency comes first accuracy will follow . Anyway nobody will notice your accuracy when you are not fluent. (Abra Alueku Sewonu , Togo, TEYL participant)
Methods for teaching oral skills Activity 3 .Give agree-disagree comments on the following TEYL participants’ ideas. By focusing more on reading and writing through GTM and less on listening and speaking, you become more of a language system teacher and less of language function/use inculcating/developing teacher.(Muhammad Saboor Hussain, Pakistan) GTM focuses on accuracy more than fluency, but I think that Direct method in away tries to promote fluency in language. It is not completely accuracy structured.( Ahmad Mallah, Syria) I can't totally reject the contribution of GTM to the successful TEFL.The developing teacher can't be dogmatically obsessed with the only one teaching method, even the newest one.(Tetyana Pavlenko, Ukraine)
Listening +Speaking Through listening the students can build an awareness of the interworkings of language systems at various levels and thus establish a base for more fluent productive skill- speaking.
Story Telling Activity4 Skills For the Dream by Arevhat Simonyants, Uzbekistan Once many frogs decided to go from their home place, which was a dirty pond to another beautiful lake. They all tried hard and hopped as fast as possible. Soon they all were very tired and they tried to tell one of the frogs to stop. These frogs did not believe in a beautiful lake anymore. So they left their dream! However this stubborn frog continued her way. As a result she came to her dream lake! Do you know why? She simply was mute and deaf!
Story Telling Part2 In spring this Mister Frog met a Princess frog. She was called Princess, because she was the most talkative frog in this lake, she could even talk to mute and deaf frogs, because she learned the sign language. When she met Mister Frog, she really liked him, because he could listen to her without interruption . Thus they got married and lived together happily in this beautiful lake. However, Mister Frog missed his family and friends from the dirty pond and Princess Frog suggested to return to his brothers and sisters and tell them the truth about that beautiful lake. So when they came back to his native places, Princess Frog was his ears and mouth . She told about Mister Frog's new home and after her description all the frogs from the dirty pond were inspired and started moving to their dream lake! They all came to this wonderful lake and lived there happily for a long, long time!
Exploring the fable Questions for discussion. How many parts can the story logically fall into? What are the identifications of the each part development? How are the marked words in the fable related? What skills were cultivated within the process of the story? How can listening and speaking skills be taught in the context of “deaf and mute”? Why did listening and speaking integration make the dream become true? Develop the plot of the fable with the further focus on reading and writing skills cultivation.
Teaching to reaching All the materials were compiled on the bases of fruitful cooperation of the international participants of TEYL 8030.Ideas from DB, Unit 6 were applied into the presentation. Slides 5-7 were borrowed from Muhammad Saboor Hussain’s PPP on his kind agreement. Good luck in teaching! Tetyana Pavlenko, Ukraine.