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  • 1. The CellChapter 15
  • 2. The Cell Theory The theory has three main parts summarized as:  All living things are made up of one or more cells  The cell is the functional unit of life  All living cells come from pre-existing cells
  • 3. The cell as a factory: The parts of a cell can be compared to the workers and jobs in a factory  Each department in a factory has specific jobs that need to be done or else the factory becomes less efficient and eventually shut down.  The same idea is true for the cell, if one of its components stops working efficiently then the cell or the organism could die.
  • 4. Cell Membrane: The “gate keeper” or “bouncer” of the cell Decides which materials enter, which ones stay and which ones leave a cell.  Keeps the good ones in and bad ones out. Every cell has a cellular membrane (including both animal and plant cells). It is a thin flexible covering surrounding all cells. Made up of primarily proteins and fats
  • 5. Nucleus The “Boss” With few exceptions all plant and animal cells possess a nucleus (plural form is nuclei). Dark mass usually seen in the middle of the cell contain the DNA or genes for the cell which are the instructions for all the activities of the cell
  • 6. Nuclear Envelope The membrane that encloses the contents of the nucleus. “the Boss’ office” It has pores in it for larger materials to pass in and out.
  • 7. Nucleolus A visible darker staining region inside the nucleus. nucleolus It is where RNA and ribosomes are made.
  • 8. Cytoplasm The rest of the cell material that is inside the cell membrane but outside the nucleus Organelles and vacuoles are considered part of the cytoplasm
  • 9. Cell Organelles Like your body which has organs to perform the necessary functions for life, similarly cells have organelles which perform the necessary function of particular cells. Many organelles are bound by their own membrane The proportion of the different organelles inside a particular cell depends on the function of the cell.  For example a cell that produces a lot of hormones will have a large amount of golgi apparatus which is the organelle responsible for packaging the products of a cell.
  • 10. Ribosomes The “workers” that put together the products of the cell. The location of protein synthesis Made from RNA from the nucleolus Some are free in the cytoplasm and others are embedded in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER).  The proteins produced by free ribosomes in cytoplasm are generally used within the cell
  • 11. Endoplasmic Reticulum The “assembly line” for 1) Rough endoplasmic reticulum the products of the cell It consists of membranous channels that wind through the cytoplasm There are two types of 2) Smooth endoplasmic reticulum endoplasmic reticulum:
  • 12. Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum: AKA “rough ER” The ER that has ribosomes embedded in it. Manufactures proteins for other cells and also phospholipids for the cell membrane Assists in the movement of molecules towards the cell membrane
  • 13. Smooth Endoplasmic Reticulum Aka : Smooth ER Lack ribosomes Manufactures steroids Example: testicle cells which produce testosterone have abundant amounts of smooth ER.
  • 14. Golgi ApparatusMay looks similar to smooth ER, but it is a set of about 7 or 8 flattened saccules between ER and the cell membrane “Packages, processes and labels” the products from the ER Makes concentrated packages of proteins Puts carbohydrate chains (labels) on the packages of proteins so that specific cells recognize them once they are released in the blood.
  • 15. Vesicle “storage containers” Double membrane bound sacs carrying different products and substances from one part of the cell to another. Also carry food, waste products, digestive enzymes.
  • 16. Lysosomes “Janitors or quality control” Vesicle-like structures that contain enzymes used for digestion of molecules in the cells.  Example: to digest unwanted cells (dying cells) and cell parts that are defective  Think of them as the quality control or health board, that can shut down the cell at any time.
  • 17. Mitochondrion Plural form “mitochondria” “The Generator” or “power house” of the cell Give the cell the energy it needs by a series of chemical reactions called cellular respiration Fluid filled, with a complex internal membrane  The inner fluid is called the matrix  The inner membrane which folded in the matrix is called the cristae.
  • 18. Vacuole “Storage Containers” Vacuoles serve a variety of functions, including storing nutrients, wastes and water. Irregular shape They are usually much larger in plant cells than in animal cells.  Example: in the plant cell they take up almost the entire cell.
  • 19. Centriol “Traffic Cop” Organizes organelles and chromosomes during cell reproduction
  • 20. Plant cells vs Animal cells There are some structures that plant cells possess that animal cells do not. Including:  Cell wall  Chloroplasts Also, plant cells have larger vacuoles (that sometimes appear to take up the entire cell). Plant cell do not have a centriol!
  • 21. Cell Wall The cell wall provides and maintains the shape of these cells and serves as a protective barrier. Has large pores that allow many molecules to enter.
  • 22. Chloroplasts Chloroplasts are specialized organelles found in all higher plant cells. These organelles contain the plant cells chlorophyll, hence provide the green color. The place where photosynthesis takes place. They have a double outer membrane. Within the stroma are other membrane structures  - including the thylakoids and grana where photosynthesis takes place.
  • 23. Vacuoles in Plant cells Help the cell wall keep its shape Stand up, close eyes Pretend you are a plant that has not been watered for a week…what would you look like Now your mother waters the plant…what does it look like now.
  • 24. Cell membrane Centriol Lysosome CytoplasmNucleus Rough ERNucleolus Smooth ERNuclearEnvelope RibosomesVacuole Golgi ApparatusMitochondrion
  • 25. Cytoplasm Cell Wall LysosomeCell membrane Vacuole Nucleus Rough ER Nucleolus Smooth ER Nuclear Envelope Chloroplast Ribosomes Golgi Apparatus Mitochondrion