A Framework for Online Teaching and Learning:The S-CARE Pedagogical Model Abtar Kaur, Open University Malaysia, Malaysia Shriram Raghunathan, Abdur Rahman University, India
Introduction• Student satisfaction and retention is a key feature of any good educational programme. Deden (2005) reports a 7.7 % improvement in student retention after one year through a number of measures including the quality of instructor’s online interaction Cont…
IntroductionWhen measuring the success of an onlineprogramme a number of learningpermutations have to be considered,namely: the learning activities, tools,resources and Interactions/communication
What is a Pedagogical Scenario? A sequence of phases within whichparticipants have tasks to do and specificroles to play High focus on learning activities thatachieve the learning outcomes
What is a Pedagogical Scenario?When designing and executing apedagogical scenario the teacher has to – respect a harmonic equilibrium between the freedom which is necessary for intellectual development and motivationEngagement and open confrontation ofideas must be guided by structuredactivities and a certain amount ofmonitoring
What is the Problem? Great online teaching and learningstrategies not fully capitalized andexploited There is an imbalance in thedifference pedagogical scenarios usedby the facilitators
Other Research StudiesJara and Mohammed (2007) – categorized online learning in terms of content, learning activities, communication, resources, feedback and administration.Lee (2009) – CAP (Concept ,Application, Practice) framework for designing online education platforms based on experience and scaffoldingHathaway (2009) – formation of portraits from questionnaires.Dabbagh & Kitsantas (2009) – studied the best practices of experienced online instructors and found that integrative learning technologies were subconsciously used to simulate self- learning among learners.
The Purpose To present the various pedagogicalscenarios used by different online MIDTfacilitators To seek student feedback on whatthey prefer as an online student. To propose a model that is consideredoptimal for teaching and learning online
Research Questions– What are the different pedagogical scenarios employed by MIDT facilitators?– Within these pedagogical scenarios which learning permutations are preferred by students?– What are the main characteristics of an optimal learning scenario? Can these be translated into an online learning model
Conceptual Framework Identify the most LMS preferred learning NING permutations : tools, Activities Activities resources, activities, Tools Tools interactions Subject A Subject BBLOG Resources Resources Based on most Intera Interac preferred ction tion permutations, Different determine the optimal PBWORKS Learning Permutations pedagogical scenario Optimal Pedagogical Scenario
MethodologyResearch Design – Case Study • Survey • Observation • Analysis of DocumentsSample – 34 MIDT students from 14 different countries – 7 facilitators
ResultsRQ1: What are the different pedagogicalscenarios employed by MIDTfacilitators? Cont…
Course Code Key Pedagogical terms1. HMIR 5103 Planning, continuous group based interaction, feedback and adaptability, focus on quality interactions2. HMID5003 Strategic plan, Just in time interaction, feedback, decisive intervention, focus on consistency3. HMLT5203 Strategic planning, high level of interaction, emphasis on outcomes and targets, focus on consistency4. HMTT6003 One-on-one interaction, continuous and constant hands-on work, emphasis on periodic assessment5. HMIC5503 Adaptable plan, just-in-time interaction, strategic feedback, focus on consistency6. HMHP5903 Planning, group based interaction, feedback, consistency7. HMLC5303 Group-based interaction, emphasis on outcomes and targets
RQ2: Within these pedagogicalscenarios which learning permutationsare preferred by students?
Qualities sought by MIDT learners – People: feedback, dynamism, patience, subject knowledge, clear communication by facilitators, fellow students and supporting staff – Structure: clear delineation and comprehensiveness of activities – Environment: accessibility, ease of navigation, support – Resources : varied, well selected and suited to different learning styles
Factors in the success of onlinelearning environments – Usability – Stability – Instant access and – Instant notifications – The look and feel – Loss of data
Qualities students lookfor in online facilitators – Patience, open mindedness, positive attitude and tolerance – Knowledge in the subject area – Availability and communication – Feedback – Good preparation (keeping in mind distance education students) – Reliability (students must be able to rely on the facilitator) – Ability to differentiate and apply different teaching methods (keeping in mind that students differ)
Major Findings of RQ1 and RQ2PlanningInteractionFeedback and resourcesOverall focus
DiscussionThere is a remarkable symmetry and significant points of divergence inthe students’ and facilitators’ views.The students’ views on the facilitators’ approaches matched clearly withwhat the facilitators viewed as their model.The students and facilitators agreed on the factors important for an online learning environment, planning, feedback and resources.The differences were subtle. The students’ viewed the learning outcomes and course outline as the vision document whereas the facilitators’ viewed them as guidelines. The students viewed interactions in the prism of course structure as an activity, whereas the facilitators viewed the interaction as a communication paradigm. The role of feedback was also similarly nuanced. • The facilitators preferred a scaffolded approach whereas the students viewed feedback as a score card.
RQ3: What are the main characteristics of an optimal learning scenario? Can these be translated into an online learning model S- Strategic – Had a Strategic plan for the course which consisted of a clear plan what needs to be taught, how to do it and the knowledge of the environment. C- Consistent – Show Consistency in the approach. Consistency can help the learners understand better A- Adaptive Adapt to the demands of the following three elements – Students – Environment – Time R- Responsive – Responsively react to the situations E- effective
The Model Consistent Strategic Adaptive Effective Responsive
Conclusion The success of the S-CARE portends well for thefuture in that it provides a structure to teaching andlearning within the framework of chaos of the onlineenvironment. The combined experience of about 2 years ofwork shows both the potential and the way forwardfor the future and S-CARE is a step forward inhelping online teaching and learning achieve itspromise.