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Handbook of research in ent 85 90


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    Research methods
    Professor: Dr arabiun
    Researcher :Shirin Haghnejat
  • 2. Handbook of research in entrepreneurship
    Pages (85-90)
  • 3. The alternate model and some key policy questions
    would an alternate model of entrepreneurship help the higher education sector cope better with pressures from its various stakeholders?
    Would it sit better alongside the traditional
    Values of a university?
    What kind of pedagogical changes might be
    Needed to underpin an alternate model?
    What kind of organizational changes might be needed to create sustainable outcomes from such an initiative particularly in respect of the achievement of other major policy objectives concerning the role of He in society?
  • 4. Coping with stakeholder pressures
    The HE sector across Europe faces a number of pressures from the stakeholder environments.
    The most important one is: the concerns for the capacity of economy to absorb the growing number of graduates into “graduate-type” jobs.,
    Degree is no longer a passport for life and it does not represent a ticket.
  • 5. Universities have been exposed to criticism that they disparage vocationalism separating skills from educations.
    They must pay more attention to links with the job market, the utility of the graduates and the preparation of graduates in this market.
  • 6. The underlying pressure for change comes from the impact of globalization upon job markets .
    The pressure upon universities not only come from governments and business ,but increasingly from local communities .
  • 7. For these policies and pressures to work, some changes are needed in a number of areas.
    The most important area is the HE institution itself .becoming more of a “learning organization” than a “learned organization”.
    learning organization :open to learning at all levels and from all sources .
  • 8. At the present, universities give a maximum response to the key shareholders that dictate conventional academic status and less weight is afforded to other stakeholders such as local community ,NGOs, regional development agencies and etc.
  • 9. The alternate entrepreneurship model emphasizes on developing capacity to deal with uncertainty and complexity and its contextualization in terms of dealing with pressures of globalization.
    Its focus upon all stakeholders in society and the identification of sources of complexity and uncertainty will help to understand the importance of creating a symmetric entrepreneurial institutional environment particularly at the local level.
  • 10. Entrepreneurship and traditional values
    As we all know, there are some disagreements between the business model of entrepreneurship and the traditional academic convention.
    the most important issue is that it leads to evaluation of the role of the academe in commercial terms and to place a premium upon relevance and utility in research rather than upon the traditional process of discovery for its own sake.
  • 11. The fact that most entrepreneurship education has emerged from business schools, lend weight to the notion that it carries with it commercial values.
    there are some other fears Concerning Intellectual property and the undue influence that commercialization may have on the direction of research ,the use to which the results are put and the impact upon publication .
  • 12. sustainable pedagogical changes needed to underpin the model
    most education institutions respond to financial incentives designed to build links with wider stakeholder communities but
    it doesn’t always leads to a sustainable pedagogical and organizational culture change.
    Part of the problem is the value traditionally given to teaching ‘about’ entrepreneurship as opposed to ‘for’ entrepreneurship.
  • 13. As we all know,the best theory is one that is tested and works in practice.
  • 14. This entrepreneurial concept demands:
    more integration of knowledge
    more interdisciplinary teaching
    much greater opportunity for experiential learning
    greater space for the testing of explicit knowledge in practice
    greater equality of the emphasis upon how things are taught with what is taught
    innovation in assessment and accreditation procedures
    change in some of the basic philosophies of learning -particularly in the field of management
  • 15. sustainable organizational change needed to underpin the model and its link with wider objectives
    a key issue is :strengthening the engagement of HE with the business and regional development and enhancing the capacity for commercial exploitation of intellectual property and technology transfer
  • 16. Key areas of change:
    Change in reward and status system to encourage those who engage with the business and wider stakeholder community
    Greater equality of status and career path to those who focus on research and development as opposed to solely research and publication
    Flexible staffing and appointment arrangements
    More joint research and development arrangements with small firms as well as larger corporations
    Re-orientation of the contract with the student to embrace a more clearly defined element of personal and
    career development in particular commitment to preparation of student for lifelong learning
  • 17. Summary and conclusion
    Sets of behaviors, attributes and skills , which is contingent upon levels of uncertainty and complexity in the task environment facing individuals and organizations.
    We need to design organizations of all kinds to stimulate appropriate effective entrepreneurial behavior where needed
  • 18. for the promotion of entrepreneurship education in the HE sector two major challenges are defined:
    first: agreeing on an entrepreneurship concept that will most satisfactorily underpin the government’s desire to enhance the role of the HE sector in economic and social environment.
    Second: clarifying how an appropriate entrepreneurship concept might smooth the process of achieving sustainable change in the HE sector and underpin the other efforts being made to enhance the capacity of universities to engage more actively with the wider stakeholder environment.
  • 19. The end