View stunning SlideShares in full-screen with the new iOS app!Introducing SlideShare for AndroidExplore all your favorite topics in the SlideShare appGet the SlideShare app to Save for Later — even offline
View stunning SlideShares in full-screen with the new Android app!View stunning SlideShares in full-screen with the new iOS app!
IN THE NAME OF GOD Research methods Professor: Dr arabiun Researcher :Shirin Haghnejat
Handbook of research in entrepreneurship Pages (85-90)
The alternate model and some key policy questions would an alternate model of entrepreneurship help the higher education sector cope better with pressures from its various stakeholders? Would it sit better alongside the traditional Values of a university? What kind of pedagogical changes might be Needed to underpin an alternate model? What kind of organizational changes might be needed to create sustainable outcomes from such an initiative particularly in respect of the achievement of other major policy objectives concerning the role of He in society?
Coping with stakeholder pressures The HE sector across Europe faces a number of pressures from the stakeholder environments. The most important one is: the concerns for the capacity of economy to absorb the growing number of graduates into “graduate-type” jobs., Degree is no longer a passport for life and it does not represent a ticket.
Universities have been exposed to criticism that they disparage vocationalism separating skills from educations. They must pay more attention to links with the job market, the utility of the graduates and the preparation of graduates in this market.
The underlying pressure for change comes from the impact of globalization upon job markets . The pressure upon universities not only come from governments and business ,but increasingly from local communities .
For these policies and pressures to work, some changes are needed in a number of areas.
The most important area is the HE institution itself .becoming more of a “learning organization” than a “learned organization”. learning organization :open to learning at all levels and from all sources .
At the present, universities give a maximum response to the key shareholders that dictate conventional academic status and less weight is afforded to other stakeholders such as local community ,NGOs, regional development agencies and etc.
The alternate entrepreneurship model emphasizes on developing capacity to deal with uncertainty and complexity and its contextualization in terms of dealing with pressures of globalization. Its focus upon all stakeholders in society and the identification of sources of complexity and uncertainty will help to understand the importance of creating a symmetric entrepreneurial institutional environment particularly at the local level.
Entrepreneurship and traditional values As we all know, there are some disagreements between the business model of entrepreneurship and the traditional academic convention. the most important issue is that it leads to evaluation of the role of the academe in commercial terms and to place a premium upon relevance and utility in research rather than upon the traditional process of discovery for its own sake.
The fact that most entrepreneurship education has emerged from business schools, lend weight to the notion that it carries with it commercial values. there are some other fears Concerning Intellectual property and the undue influence that commercialization may have on the direction of research ,the use to which the results are put and the impact upon publication .
sustainable pedagogical changes needed to underpin the model most education institutions respond to financial incentives designed to build links with wider stakeholder communities but it doesn’t always leads to a sustainable pedagogical and organizational culture change.
Part of the problem is the value traditionally given to teaching ‘about’ entrepreneurship as opposed to ‘for’ entrepreneurship.
As we all know,the best theory is one that is tested and works in practice.
This entrepreneurial concept demands: more integration of knowledge more interdisciplinary teaching much greater opportunity for experiential learning greater space for the testing of explicit knowledge in practice greater equality of the emphasis upon how things are taught with what is taught innovation in assessment and accreditation procedures change in some of the basic philosophies of learning -particularly in the field of management
sustainable organizational change needed to underpin the model and its link with wider objectives a key issue is :strengthening the engagement of HE with the business and regional development and enhancing the capacity for commercial exploitation of intellectual property and technology transfer
Key areas of change: Change in reward and status system to encourage those who engage with the business and wider stakeholder community Greater equality of status and career path to those who focus on research and development as opposed to solely research and publication Flexible staffing and appointment arrangements More joint research and development arrangements with small firms as well as larger corporations Re-orientation of the contract with the student to embrace a more clearly defined element of personal and career development in particular commitment to preparation of student for lifelong learning
Summary and conclusion Entrepreneurship: Sets of behaviors, attributes and skills , which is contingent upon levels of uncertainty and complexity in the task environment facing individuals and organizations. We need to design organizations of all kinds to stimulate appropriate effective entrepreneurial behavior where needed
for the promotion of entrepreneurship education in the HE sector two major challenges are defined: first: agreeing on an entrepreneurship concept that will most satisfactorily underpin the government’s desire to enhance the role of the HE sector in economic and social environment. Second: clarifying how an appropriate entrepreneurship concept might smooth the process of achieving sustainable change in the HE sector and underpin the other efforts being made to enhance the capacity of universities to engage more actively with the wider stakeholder environment.