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INTRODUCTION & BACKGROUND INFORMATION PARAS: OVERVIEW MILK PROCUREMENT & PROCESSING◦ MILK: CHILLING, PACKING AND TRANSPORTATION◦ DETECTION OF ADULTERATION IN MILK◦ INSPECTION CONCLUSION
MILKDefinition: A whitish liquid containing proteins, fats, lactose, and variousvitamins and minerals that is produced by the mammary glands of allmature female mammals after they have given birth and serves asnourishment for their youngBACKGROUND INFORMATION India is world’s largest producer and consumer in the world 1951- 17 million tons 2009- 110 million tons 2013- 130 million tons Increasing 7% of market per year
Ved Ram & Sons Foods Limited, established in the year 1960, is aleading Supplier, Manufacturer, Exporter of Food Beverages Parasdairy is ranked 2,296,747 in the world (among the 30 milliondomains) PARAS’s history reflects back to 1960, when the procurement ofmilk started with 60 Liters of milk Entire network of Paras are hundreds of Village level collectioncenters covering 5000 villages across WesternU.P., Haryana, Rajasthan, Maharashtra and Gujarat from where themilk is collected everyday
Ensuring sanitation and hygiene right from village level Village level collection center is equipped for field testing, efficientchilling and speedy transport to processing and manufacturingfacilities Paras Milk is collected from milk sheds of western UP belt withstringent quality control during storage and transportation to chillingcenters, on way to hi-tech ISO 9001 and HACCP certified ParasMilk Plants at Gulaothi and SahibabadCERTIFICATIONS
To meet out the milk requirement for manufacturing different milkproducts, VRS Foods Limited procures good quality milk from 3sources: Through Franchise: In this procedure company providesInfrastructure for milk chilling, staff for grading & testing of milk andtankers for Through Supplier: In this system, persons who have their ownchilling facilities, procure milk through small vendors and afterproper chilling of milk, send the milk to paras dairies Through VLC System ( Direct from producers at village level )
Milk is collected from rural villages Following methods of preservation suitable for small-scale operationare:◦ Testing of milk (basic tests e.g. adulteration, viscosity)◦ Heating - (pasteurisation, sterilisation or concentration) to destroyenzymes and microorganisms.◦ Cooling - to extend the shelf life of fresh milk by a day or two.◦ Acidification - to inhibit spoilage or food poisoning bacteria fromgrowing and also change the physical characteristics of milk.◦ Filling of milk into tankers to facilitate transportation of milk tomain unit/industry (temp. should be maintained at 4 C)
Milk is collected from rural villages
Further testing of milk is conducted from sample extracted fromtankers
Testing of milk in Dock Lab.
METHODS FOR DETECTION OF ADULTERANTS OF MILKS.No. Type of adulterant Procedure Endpoint Conclusion1 SodaAdd 5 ml of alcohol to 5 ml of milk followed by 2-3 drops of Rosalicacid solution. See colourYellow/Orange/Rose Red/ PinkNegativePositive2 SaltAdd 1 ml of milk to 5 ml of 0.02N AgNO3 solution containing 0.5 mlof 5% potassium chromate indicator- See colourBrownYellowNegativePositive3 SugarAdd 2.0 ml of conc. HCl to 5 ml of milk and 0.1 gm of Resorcinolpowder and keep in boiling water for 5 min.-See colourLight PinkRedNegativePositive4 StarchBoil 5 ml of milk and cool it followed by addition of 2-3 drops ofiodine solution- See colourBrownBlueNegativePositive5 Glucose Dip one Diastrix strip in milk sample and compare with chartBlueGreenNegativePositive6 Urea Add 5 ml of Urea Reagent to 5 ml of milk- See colourLight YellowCanary YellowNegativePositive7 BoraxTo 10 ml of milk add 2-3 drops of Phenolphthalein indicator andtitrate it against 0.1 N NaoH solution till pink colour appears. Divide itin two parts. To one part add 1 ml of 50% glycerol solution- SeecolourPink ColorWhite colourNegativePositive8 OthersCentrifuge 50 ml of milk at 3000 rpm for 20 minutes. Preserve uppermost layer for refined, middle layerfor maltodextrin and residue for SMP9 Refined Oil Prepare ghee of the cream and check its BR at 40˚C40-43 <40 or>43NegativePositive10 SMPDissolve the residue in 2.5 ml of conc. HNO3 and dilute the water- SeecolourLight YellowOrangeNegativePositive11 MaltodextrinAdd 1 ml of lactic acid solution to 10 ml of milk and boil it. Filter thesolution and add 2-3 drops of iodine solution at the above- SeecolourYellow BrownNegativePositive12 Hydrogen PeroxideAdd 1 ml of milk to 5 ml of 12% potassium iodide solution- SeecolourWhite YellowNegativePositive13 SulphateCoagulate 20 ml of milk with 1 ml of citric acid. Filter it. To 2 ml offiltrate, add 0.1 ml of 10% Barium Chloride Solution- See colourColourless whiteturbidityNegativePositive
If the milk met the standard specifications of company for quality, milkis further processed (boiling, cooling) Coooling: Cooling of milk is done through water plants where thewater is cooled by ammonia gas. Heating: Milk should be heated to 63 C for 30 minutes to adequatelypasteurise it or, if in bottles, to 121 C for 15-20 minutes toadequately sterilise it. Higher temperatures and shorter times areused in larger commercial operations but this type of equipment isvery expensive and is not considered to be small-scale Acidification: The natural acidification of milk occurs by the presenceand growth of certain types of harmless bacteria called lactic acidbacteria. These bacteria convert milk sugar (lactose) into lacticacid, this increases the acidity of the milk and causes the formationof the characteristic gel of yoghurt (or curd) and inhibits bacterialgrowth. The shelf life is extended by several days and the changesin flavour and texture make this a popular product in most regions.
Seperation: Milk contains fat and a complex mixture ofwater, proteins and vitamins/minerals. By separating the fat from thewatery part it is possible to obtain cream. This product is extremelysusceptible to food poisoning and food spoilage. It is notrecommended for all except the most experienced small-scaledairies. By churning cream it is changed to butter which, if preparedand stored correctly, can have a shelf life of several weeks. Clarifiedbutter (ghee) has a shelf life of several months. Both are high valueproducts for which there is often a ready market
Packaging of milk:Packaging means placing a commodity into a protective wrapper orcontainer for transport or storage. Packaging of milk is regarded asthe last operation in the dairy milk processing. Processed milk ispacked in convenient packets for easy distribution. The consumerwill judge the product in the first instance on the basis of its package Quality of materialsThe packing material used for packing market milk should thereforehave the following qualities:(1) should be tamper proof (2) should not react with milk or container(3) Should be transparent (4) Should be attractive (5) Should be light inweight (6) Should be strong and durable. (7) Should not affect theflavour or colour, (8) Should be cheap. (9) Should not be affected by thetemperature variation (10) Should be able to clean easily and shouldnot be affected by heat or detergents. (11) Should be easily available
Types of packaging material:1. Returnable containers e.g. Glass or plastic milk bottles.2. Single service containers e.g. polythene sachets, Tetrapak purpaleReturnable containers: Glass milk bottles are conventional and still popular for packagingmilk as returnable containers. Since individual bottle goes to theconsumer and comes back to the dairy for reuse, it is consideredreturnable container.Single service containersPolyethylene sachet:The prepac machine is automatic. It forms a thermo sealable flat film ofpolythlene and makes transverse seals, injects a fixed quantity of milkinto the pouch, horizontally seals and cuts it into a predetermainedlength and separates the filled bags
Tetra packaging of milk Aseptic tetrapak is a system for packaging milk in disposablecontainers of tetrahedron shape. The tetrahedron shape of thepackage has one of the least surface to volume ratios and thereforethe system deploys some what lower amount-of packagingmaterials. The aseptic tetra pat system provides aseptic conditions.This results in a long shelf life at ambient temperature
◦ Milk◦ UHT Milk◦ Flavored milk◦ Dahi cup◦ Dahi pouch◦ Paneer◦ Ghee◦ Chach
The initial steps have been checking the type of milk, batchNo., temperature, organoleptic, acidity, neutralizer, fatcontent, CLR, SNF content, phosphate test, MBRT & weight of themilkTimeTypeofMilkBatchNo.Temp.DegreecelciusOrganolepticAcidityNeutralizerFat% CLR SNF%Phos.TestMBRTWeightSign.7:30 FCM QM 12 5 OK 0.126 OK 6.3031.59.27 OK 5/2TM QM 02 5 OK 0.126 OK 3.1532.08.77 OK 5/48:00 FCM QM 15 5 OK 0.126 OK 6.3031.59.27 OK 5/0TM QM 09 5 OK 0.126 OK 3.1532.08.77 OK 5/28:30 FCM QM 12 5 OK 0.126 OK 6.3031.59.27 OK 5/4TM QM 07 5 OK 0.126 OK 3.1532.08.77 OK 5/09:00 FCM QM 20 4.5 OK 0.126 OK 6.3031.59.27 OK 5/4TM QM 16 4.5 OK 0.126 OK 3.1532.08.77 OK 5/2
Transportation of Milk Mode of transport◦ Head Load◦ Shoulder sling◦ Bullock cart or tonga◦ Bicycles◦ Cycle Rickhaw or auto-rickhaw◦ Boat◦ Motor truck Recent Development◦ Railway wagon◦ Tankers (Rail and road)◦ Insulated stainless steel tanks are mounted either on the road or railtruck. They are definitely meant for bulk handling and for long distancetransportation.
This project provides an insight to the current practice of milkprocessing & procurement in India. It also depicts the currentpractice of different processes of milk procurement. In this whole process, the initial steps have been checking the typeof milk, batch No., temperature, organoleptic, acidity, neutralizer, fatcontent, CLR, SNF content, phosphate test, MBRT & weight of themilk followed by the conducting tests for the detection ofadulterantsin milk. After this, the milk is ready for further processeslike boiling, cooling, chilling. Cream extracted after first boiling ofmilk is sent for preparation of ghee in another unit & in another unitthe milk is separated to different parts according to their fat contenti.e. full cream milk, toned milk, double toned, skimmed milk, flavoredmilk. Milk is processed for curd (dahi), butter milk &paneer. Afterprocessing further tests are performed after packaging & then themilk is ready for transportation & released to different units.